THE ANGLO-SAXON POEMS OF BEOWULF

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THE ANGLO-SAXON POEMS 

OF 

BEOWULF, 

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN^S TALE, 

AND 

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON POEINIS 

OF 

BEOWUXF, 

THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE, 

AND 

THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 

WITH 

A LITERAL TRANSLATION, NOTES, GLOSSARY, ETC. 
BY 

BENJAMIN THORPE, 

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT MUNICH, AND OF 
THE SOCIETY OF NETHERLANDISH LITERATURE AT LEYDEN. 



OXFORD: 

PRINTED BY JAMES WRIGHT, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

SOLD BY JOHN HENRY PARKER, 

BROAD STREET, OXFORD ; 

AND 377, STRAND, LONDON. 

M.DCCC.LV. 









^ 



TO THE HONOURED MEMORY 

OF HIM 

TO WHOM THORKELIN INSCRIBED 

THE FIRST EDITION OP BEOWULF. 

THE FRIEND OF RASK, 

THE MUNIFICENT FOSTERER OP THE ANCIENT 

LORE OF HIS NATIVE NORTH, 

JOHN BULOW, 

OP SANDERUMGAARD IN THE ISLE OK FYEN, 

THIS PRESENT EDITION OF THE SAME POEM 
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED BY 

THE EDITOR. 



a3 



PREFACE. 



Twenty-four years have passed since, while residing in 
Denmark, I first entertained the design of one day produ- 
cing an edition of Beowulf; and it was in prosecution of 
that design that, immediately on my arrival in England in 
1830, I carefully collated the text of Thorkelin's edition 
with the Cottonian manuscript. Fortunately, no doubt, for 
the work, a series of cares, together with other literary 
engagements, intervened and arrested my progress. I 
had, in fact, abandoned every thought of ever resuming 
the task : it was therefore with no slight pleasure that I 
hailed the appearance of Mr. Kemble's first edition of the 
text of Beowulf in 1 833 ^. Still a translation was wanting, 
and this was a few years later supplied by the same emi- 
nent Anglo-Saxon scholar, accompanied by a new and 
revised edition of the text, a copious and valuable glossary, 
and notes t>. 

" The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, the Traveller's Song, and 
the Battle of Finnesburh ; edited together with a Glossary of the more 
difficult words and an Historical Preface, by John M. Kemble, Esq. 
M. A. of Trin. Coll. Camb. London, Pickering, 1833. 

'' I. The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf, etc. Second edition, 1835. 
2. A Translation of the Anglo-Saxon Poem of Beowulf, with a 
copious Glossary, Preface, and Philological Notes, by John M. Kem- 
ble, Esq. Pickering, 1837. 



viii PREFACE. 

Copies of Mr. Kemble's editions having for some time 
past been of rare occurrence, I resolved on resuming my 
suspended labour, and, as far as I was able, supplying a 
want felt by many an Anglo-Saxon student both at home 
and abroad. A plan was then to be adopted. 

My first impulse was to print the text of the poem as it 
appears in the manuscript, with a literal translation in 
parallel columns, placing all conjectural emendations at the 
foot of each page ; but, on comparing the text with the 
version in this juxta-position, so numerous and so enor- 
mous and puerile did the blunders of the coppst appear, 
and, consequently, so great the discrepance between the 
text and the translation, that I found myself compelled to 
admit into the text the greater number of the conjectural 
emendations, consigning to the foot of the page the corre- 
sponding readings of the manuscript. In every case which 
I thought might by others be considered questionable, I 
have followed the more usual course, of retaining in the 
text the reading of the manuscript, and placing the pro- 
posed correction at foot. 

With respect to this the oldest heroic poem in any 
Germanic tongue, my opinion is, that it is not an original 
production of the Anglo-Saxon muse, but a metrical para- 
phrase of an heroic Saga composed in the south-west of 
Sweden c, in the old common language of the North, and 
probably brought to this country during the sway of the 

* For when the poet (11. 35-38) says that the renown of Beowulf 
the Scylding was widely known in the Scanian lands (Scede-landvun 
in), he evidently means that it had reached him at his own home in 
Skane (Scania), the limits of which were then more extended than 
those of the modem province so called. Let ns cherish the hope that 
the original Saga may one day be discovered in some Swedish library. 



PREF/V.CE. xiii 

dently of the version or views of every preceding editor. 
In fact, what others had done had pretty well passed from 
ray memory ; and it was not until my task was completed 
that I compared my own views with those of Grundtvig, 
Kemble, Leo, and Ettmiiller. From these scholars I differ 
on many points, though least, perhaps, from the last men- 
tioned, whose notes on "The Scop or Gleeman's Tale^'" I 
regard as the best commentary on that ancient and curious 
nomenclature of persons and places, many of which occur 
also in the poem of Beowulf. " The Scop or Gleeman's 
Tale" has been repeatedly printed : in manuscript it is to 
be found only in the Codex Exoniensis. It will be seen in 
the present work that ample use has been made of Ettmiil- 
ler's notes, as well as of Lappenberg's, on the same poem^. 

The fragment on the Fight at Finnesburg was first 
printed by Hickes, from the cover of a manuscript of 
Homilies in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, but 
where it is not now to be found, having probably perished 
under the hands of an ignorant workman in rebinding the 
volume. The text, as given by Hickes in his Thesaurus, 
abounds in errors, but whether of ancient or modern date 
it is impossible to decide. It appears to have formed part 
of a poem on the events celebrated in the gleeman's recital 
in Beowulf (11. 2130 — 2322). 

The earliest notice we possess of the poem of Beowulf is 
given by Wanley, who in his Catalogue (p. 218) designates 

^ Sc6pes vldsidh (a title certainly founded on misconception). 
Sangers Weitfahrt. Angelsachsisch und Deutsch, von Ludwig Ett- 
miiller. Ziirich 1839. 

' Aus den Berliner Jahrb. fiir wissensch. Kritik. August 1838. 
The Scop or Gleeman's Tale I am inclined to regard as an Anglo- 
Saxon version of an Anglian original. 

b 



-xiv PREFACE. 

it " Tractatus nobilissimus poetice scriptus." He errone- 
ously describes it as celebrating the exploits of Beowulf 
against the petty kings of Sweden â„¢. From Wanley's time 
(1705) it lay neglected till the late Mr. Sharon Turner 
gave some extracts from it, in his History of the Anglo- 
Saxons, accompanied by his translation ; but it was not till 
the year 181 5, or a hundred and ten years after the notice 
given by Wanley, that an edition of the entire poem, by 
the learned Icelander, G, J. Thorkelin, appeared at Copen- 
hagen, exhibiting a text formed according to his ideas of 
Anglo-Saxon, and accompanied by his Latin translation, 
both the one and the other standing equally in need of an 
Oedipus. But ThorkeHn did his best, and his labour has 
not been in vain : let us, therefore, take the good intention 
for the deed, and look on him as a well-wisher to, and, as 
far as in him lay, a zealous promoter of, the ancient litera- 
ture of the North. 

Thorkelin made two translations of Beowulf : the first, 
with all his literary labours of more than thirty years, was 
destroyed in the bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807. 
Some years after, at the instance and aided by the munifi- 
cence of the Danish privy councillor, John Biilow, he under- 
took and completed a second "i. 

"In hoc libro, qui poeseos Anglo-Saxonicae egregium est exem- 
plum, descripta videntur bella, quae Beowulfus quidam Danus, ex resia 
Scyldingorum stirpe ortus, gessit contra Sueciae regulos. 

° •' Periit isto excidio Scyldingidos mea versio cum toto apparatu 
sue ; et periisset getemum una animus eam iterandi, nisi Heros illu- 
strissiraus Johaxxes Bclowius, dynasta Sanderumgaardi, exhorta- 
tus fuisset me, consiliis et sere suo adjutum, opus iterum inchoare. n^ 
publicam videret lucem." 

It was at the cost of the same nobleman and noble individual that 
Grundtvig pubUshed his translation. The Danish edition of Rask's 



PREFACE. XV 

Of Mr. Kemble's editions notice has been already taken. 

In the year 1826 appeared the "Illustrations of Anglo- 
Saxon Poetry," containing copious extracts from Beowulf, 
with a spirited paraphrase in English blank verse, and a 
literal Latin translation, by the late Rev. J. J. Cony bear e. 
which, although very far from faultless, is infinitely supe- 
rior to either of the before-mentioned attempts. 

Beowulf has been twice translated into Danish : 

I. By Dr. Grundtvig. This is a metrical paraphrase, 
which, although evincing in its author a knowledge both 
of the language and subject far from trivial, is, on account 
of its occasional tone and the structure of the verse, but ill 
calculated to impart to the reader a just idea of the ori- 
ginal. Taken however as a whole, I know of no better 
paraphrastic version of Beowulf than that of Grundtvigo. 

Anglo-Saxon Grammar is also dedicated to John Biilow. This volume 
I dedicate to his memory. 

" Bjowulfs Drape. Et Gothisk Helte-Digt fra forrige Aar-Tusiiide, 
af Angel-Saxisk paa Danske Riim, ved N. F. S. Grundtvig Praest. 
Kjob. 1820. For the extraordinary freedom of his version Dr. G. 
shields himself under the example of Cicero, whose words he trans- 
lates : "I have translated Demosthenes not as a grammarian but as 
an orator," etc. From the following extracts, however, the reader 
will probably be inclined to suspect that Hudibras rather than any 
classic composition was uppermost in the Dr.'s mind when writing. 
He makes Hunferth say to Beowulf : 

*' Paa Landet var I friske, 

Men Vand kan slukke lid, 

I svommed som to Fiske, 

Ja snart som dode Sild." 

On land ye were frisky. 
But water can quench fire. 
Ye swam like two fishes. 
But anon like dead herrings. 

b2 



xvi PREFACE. 

2. By Frederik Schaldemose. This work I have not 
.^een, and know of its existence only from the preface tc 
Mr. Wackerbarth's edition P. 

Besides Mr. Kemble's literal prose translation, there i> 
one in English verse by Mr. Wackerbarth, which I regard 
as a lively and, with a few exceptions, faithful repre- 
sentative of the original, evincing in numerous passages 
considerable poetic talent on the part of its author. The 
mere English reader, who wishes to become acquainted 
with Beowulf, cannot use a better medium than Mr. Wack- 
erbarth's translation q. From much contained in the Intro- 
duction I totally dissent. 

A German translation still remains to be noticed, that of 
Ettmiiller. With this version I am but slightly acquainted, 
having referred to it on one or two occcisions only, when I 
found it to coincide with Mr. Kemble's. Mr. Ettmiiller's 
fancy of adopting the alhteration of the original I consider 
far from happy. The work is preceded by an introduction, 
containing much just criticisms 

I will add one more specimen of the Hudibrastic : 
" Grendel blev om Naesen bleeg, 
Bange som en Hare," o. s. v. 

Grendel about tfie nose grew pale. 
Frighten' d as a hare, etc. 

p Beowulf og Sc6pes Wtd-siiS, to Angel-Saxiske Digte, med Over- 
ssettelse og oplysende Anmserkninger, udgivne af Frederik Schalde- 
mose. 8vo. KjiJb. 1847. 

1 Beowulf, an Epic Poem, translated from the Anglo-Saxon into 
English verse by A. Diedrich Wackerbarth A. B. Professor of Anglo- 
Saxon at the CoUege of our Ladye of Oscott, etc. etc. London, 
Pickering, 1849. 

•■ Beowulf. Heldengedicht des achten Jahrhunderts. zum ersten 
Male aus dem Angelsachsischen in das Neuhochdeutsche stabreimend 



PREFACE. xvii 

Dr. Leo's work, " Ueber Beowulf," contains a good ana- 
lysis of the poem and much that is interesting ; though, at 
the same time, much with which I do not agree s. 

It seems worthy of remark that the Swedes, whose title 
appears well founded to regard as national a poem most 
probably deriving its origin from their country, and cele- 
brating the heroic deeds of a Sweo-Gothic prince, have no 
translation of Beowulf into their native tongue. 

In this edition of Beowulf I have done my utmost to 
clear away the numerous errors with which the manuscript 
abounds, and to render my version as literal as was con- 
sistent with perspicuity, and almost in every case line for 
line with the original. Could I have revisited the North, 
have had access to works on the topography of West 
Gothland and Jutland ^ and made inquiries after local tra- 
ditions among the peasantry of those parts, I flatter myself 
that the result would have been corroborative of the views 
here set forth. 

Preceding editors have regarded the poem of Beowulf as. 
a myth, and its heroes as beings of a divine order i. To 

iibersetzt und mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen versehen von Lud- 
wig Ettmiiller. Mit einem Kiirtchen. Zurich 1840. 

s Be6wulf, dasz iilteste deutsche, in angelsachsischer mundart er- 
haltene heldengedicht, nach seinem inhalte, und nach seinen histo- 
rischen und mythologischen beziehungen betrachtet. Ein beitrag 2ur 
geschichte alter deutscher geistes zustiinde, von H. Leo. Halle 1839. 

t Such as " Odmanns Bohuslan" and " Tidegrens Vestergotlands 
Hist, och Besfcrifvelse," etc. 

« Were there no other record of the existence of our own Richard I. 
than the Romaunt bearing his name, and composed within a century 
of his death, he would unquestionably have been numbered by the 
Mythists among their shadowy heroes; for among the superhuman 
feats performed by that pious crusader, we read, in the above-men- 
tioned authority, that having torn out the heart of a lion, he merely 

b3 



aviii PREFACE. 

my dull perception these appear as real kings and chieftains 
of the North, some of them, as Hygelac and Offa, entering 
within the pale of authentic history, while the names of 
others may have perished, either because the records in 
which they once were chronicled are no longer extant, or 
the individuals themselves were not of sufficient importance 
to occupy a place in them. If this ^-iew be an erroneous 
one, I am an object rather of condolence than of any less 
kind sentiment, Pallas Athene being alone to blame, she 
never having vouchsafed to favour me as she did of old the 
son of Tydeus, when, dispelling the mist before his eyes, 
she thus addressed him : 

'A)^vp S* av Toi at: 6(f)6cikfi<op eXov, fj npiv fTrfjev, 
0(f>p' ev yivaxTKTjs rffXiP deov rjbe Kai avbpa. 

pressed out the blood, dipt it in salt, and ate it without bread ; that 
being sick, and longing after pork (which in a land of Moslems and 
Jews was not to be had), 

' ' They took a Sarezjme yonge and fat, 

****** 

And soden fiil hastely, 

With powdyr and with spysory. 

And with saffron off good colovir." 

Of this Apician dish "the kyng eet the flesh and gnew the bones." 
Richard afterwards feasts his infidel prisoners on a Saracen's head 
each, every head having the name of its late owner attached to it on a 
slip of parchment. Surely aU this is as mythic as it is possible to be, 
and yet Richard is a real, historic, earth-bom, personage. 

The mythic mode of interpretation has been well and humorously 
parodied by the American theologian, Theodore Parker, (Critical and 
Miscellaneous Writings,) in the instance of Strauss's celebrated work. 
He shows " how the whole history of the United States might, by 
future myth detectors, be pronounced a tissue of mythical stories, 
borrowed in part from the Old Testament, in part from the Apoca- 
lypse, and in part from fancy." See the extract in Colburn's New 
Monthly Mag. for May 1854.. p. 109. 



PREFACE. xix 

During the progress of my task I have but too often had 
cause to feel that an interpreter of Beowulf lives in a glass 
house, and, consistently with that feeling, have abstained 
from casting any harsh censures on what I regard as errors 
in the productions of my predecessors in the same field. 
To those, therefore, whose superior attainments in Anglo- 
Saxon and old Northern lore entitle them to pronounce a 
judgment on my work, I may fairly be allowed to address 
the petition : 

That mercy I to others show. 

That mercy show to me. 

B. T. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In the prefatory portion, preceding the first canto of 
Beowulf, we are presented with the genealogy of the 
Danish king Hrothgar, beginning with Scef (Sceaf), and 
terminating with a prince named, like the hero of the 
poem, Beowulf. Now as this Beowulf the Scylding is, 
no doubt, to be considered identical with the Beaw who 
figures in the genealogies as an ancestor of Woden, there 
is a vast chasm to be filled up between him and Healfdene, 
the father of Hrothgar, the reigning prince at the time of 
the poera ; although, judging from the text, it would seem 
that the line from Scef to Hrothgar was unbroken through- 
out. But it may be right to observe, that the words 
(1. 112)" o?|)3et him eft onwoc heah Healfdene" do not ne- 
cessarily imply any such uninterrupted line, but simply that, 
in course of time, not immediately, there sprang from him 
(Scef) " the lofty Healfdene." To have given all the inter- 
mediate links of the pedigree would have been tedious and, 
therefore, unpoetical, and the poem of Beowulf is neither. 
This preface closes vs-ith the death of Scyld, and an account 
of his being laid in a ship, with his arms and treasures, 
and committed to the winds and waves, in manner like to 
that in which he had, in his infancy, been sent to the 
Danish shore. 



ixii INTRODUCTION. 

Canto I. Healfdene had four sons, viz. Heorogar, H roth- 
gar, Halga, and Ela. Hrothgar succeeds his brother Heo- 
rogar a. This prince causes a splendid royal residence to 
be constructed, to which he gives the name of Heorot or 
Heort. This is soon made a scene of slaughter, in conse- 
quence of the nightly attacks of a fiendish being called 
Grendel, II. who carries off at one time no less than thirty 
thanes, for the purpose of devouring them in his retreat. 
These dreadful visitations are continued during a period of 
twelve years. III. Intelligence of this calamity having 
reached Beowulf, a nephew of Hygelac, king of the oppo- 
site territory of West Gothland, he resolves to rid the 

a Healfdene and his successors I take to have been petty kings 
reigning in the north of Jutland, where traces of their residence 
(Heort) still exist in some local names, as Hirtshals, Hiorring, etc. 
That their kingdom was on the main land is e\ident from 1. 894, 
where Hrothgar's people are called Hrethmen, in other words, Jut- 
landers. By preceding editors Hrothgar has been considered as the 
same individual with Roe, the reputed founder of Roeskilde, which 
they suppose to be the Heorot of the poem. The following extract 
from Petersen's Danmark i Hedenold, i. p. 190, will enable the reader 
to judge as to the identity of the two : " Roe (or Hr6ar) was gentle 
and meek, and devoted to peaceful occupations. To him is ascribed 
the founding of Roskilde (Hroiskellda, L e. Roe's spring). King Roe 
is said to have made an expedition to England, where he married Ogn, 
a daughter of a king of Northumberland. He afterwards returned to 

Denmark, and transferred that kingdom to his brother Helgi 

Ogn gave birth to a son named Agnar." The only points of resem- 
blance between the two that I am aware of are, that the father of 
each was named Halfdan (Healfdene), and the brother, Helgi (Halga), 
both names of frequent occurrence among the princes of those times. 
It must also be remarked that Jutland continued under its own kings, 
till they were subdued and their territories (s J slur) united to the rest 
of Denmark, by Gorm the Old. (ob. A. D. 935.) Of these petty 
states the most northern was Vendsyssel, which, I imagine, was Hroth- 
gar's kingdom. 



INTRODUCTION. xxii 

Danish land of the monster, and, in pursuance of this 
design, sails from home with a company of fifteen war- 
riors b. On reaching Hrothgar's realm, he is challenged 
bv the officer stationed at the extreme point of the land c» 
to give notice of the approach of enemies. IV. V. VI. 
After a parley, Beowulf and his companions are conducted 
to King Hrothgar, to whom he relates the object of his 
voyage, and meets with a welcome reception. VII. Hroth- 
gar recapitulates all that he has suffered from Grendel, and 
all sit down to feast and drink. VIII. During their pota- 
tion, Beowulf is taunted by a quarrelsome, envious courtier, 
named Hunferth, on the subject of a swimming match 
between the Gothic warrior and Breca, prince of the 
Brondings ^ ; but is effectually answered by Beowulf, who 
relates the perils he underwent at the bottom of the sea, in 
his encounters with the nickers. IX. Beowulf continues 
his narrative. Wealhtheow, Hrothgar's queen, is then in- 
troduced presenting the mead-cup to the guests, who at 
length with her consort retires to rest, leaving Beowulf and 
his companions in the hall. X. While the other warriors 
are sleeping, Beowulf awaits the coming of Grendel. XI. 
Immediatelv on entering the hall, Grendel seizes a sleeping 
warrior, whom he devours. A conflict then ensues between 

b Probably from the mouth of the Gotha Elv, (the junction point 
of the three Scandinavian kingdoms,) near the spot where Gothenburg 
now stands. Here begins the great chain of the Kullen, which divides 
Sweden from Norway. At 1. 427 we read that Beowulf and his asso- 
ciates stationed their vessel under the mountain. 

â– = Where the little town of Skagen now stands, on the extreme 
point of Jutland, or a point between the Baltic and the Catt«gat, 
where the well-known dangerous sand-bank extends itself, called 
Skagens Rif or Skagerak. This sand is mentioned at 11. 590-597. 

d See Index of Folks and Countries. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

him and Beowulf, XII. whose companions come to his aid, 
but find that the monster's carcase is proof against their 
weapons ; but Beowulf, grasping him, tears his arm from 
his shoulder, and the monster, thus mutilated, escapes to 
his fen-habitation. XIII. All the people are eager to be- 
hold the hand and arm of Grendel ; the praises of Beowulf 
are sung, while a king's thane tells of the exploits of Sige- 
raund Wselsing and his son Fitela^; horse-racing succeeds. 
XIV. Hrothgar visits Heorot and sees Grendel's hand, and 
is loud in Beowulf's praise. XV. Heorot is restored to 
its former splendour ; a great feast is held, at which Beo- 
wulf and his companions are munificently rewarded for 
their services. XVI. A gleeman sings the story of the 
Frisian king. Fin Folcwaldingf, of Hnsef and Hengest, and 
Hildeburh and her sons. XVII. The lay being finished, 
Wealhtheow presents the cup to her consort, and com- 
mends her sons, Hrethric and Hrothmund, to the protec- 
tion of Hrothwulf o. XVIII. Beowulf is presented with a 
rich dress and a collar of gold, which the poet compares 
with the celebrated collar of the Brosings, that was carried 
off by Hama, and afterwards came into the possession of 
the Gothic king Hermanric ^. This collar became after- 

e The story, as here related, differs in many respects from the 
German and Northern versions. For a specification of the principal 
discrepances. Will, Grimm's Heldensage (pp. 14-17.) may be advan- 
tageously consulted. 

f His territory was most probably North Friesland, or that part of 
the west coast-land of the modern duchy of Slesvig, which lies between 
Husum on the south and Tiindem on the north. 

? See Index of Persons. 

h Saxo (edit. Miiller, p. 412) commemorates Hermanric's treasures : 
" In hujus domus magnificentiam omnem opum suarum apparatuni 
congessit." Among them we are, of course, to suppose was the far- 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

wards the property of Hygelac, at whose death in Friesland 
it fell into the hands of the Franks'. The warriors then 

famed Brisinga men. Reinaert de Vos also alludes to the treasures 
of Hermanric. See vr. 2245, 2265, 2610. edit. Willems. 

i The death of Hygelac is recorded by Gregory of Tours, who lived 
in the year 595. He says (III. 3.) : . . . . " His gestis Dani cum rege 
sue, nomine Chochilaicho, evectu navali per mare Gallias appetunt. 
Egressi ad terras, pagum unum de regno Theuderici devastant atque 
captivant ; oneratisque navibus tam de capti\i3 quam de rehquis spo- 
liis reverti ad patriam cupiunt. Sed rex eorum in littus residebat, 
donee naves altum mare comprehenderent, ipse deinceps secuturus. 
Quod cum Theuderico nunciatum fuisset, quod soil, regio ejus fuerit 
ab extnmeis devastata, Theudebertum, fiUum suum, in iUas partes 
cum magno exercitu ac magno armorum apparatu direxit. Qui inter- 
fecto rege, hostes navali proelio superatos opprimit, omnemque rapi- 
nam terrse restituit." In accordance with the foregoing, Dr. Leo cites 
from the Gesta Regum Francorum, c. xix. the following passage : 
" In Ulo tempore Dani cum rege suo, nomine ChochUago, cum navale 
hoste per altum mare Gallias appetunt^ Theuderico pagum Attoarios 
et alios devastantes atque captivantes plenas naves de captivis haben- 
tes, alto mare intrantes, rex eorum ad htus maris resedit. Quod 
cum Theuderico nunciatum fuisset, Theudebertum, fiUum suum, cum 
magno exercitu in Ulis partibus dirigens, qui consequens eos pugnavit 
cum eis csede maxima, atque ipsis prostratis regem eorum interfecit, 
prsedam tulit et xa terram suam restituit." On the above Ettmiiller 
remarks : " This account agrees most accurately with the poem of 
Beowulf, which tells of Hygelac's fall in a hostile expedition against 
the Haetwaras and Frisians on the sea-coast. Chochilaic is the 
Prankish form [for Hygelac, as Chilperic for Hulfreich, etc.]. That 
the chroniclers make him a Dane matters naught ; the Northern pirates 
being sometimes called Danes, sometimes Marcomanni, sometimes 
Nordmanni, just as it might occur to the writer. The Heimskringla, 
therefore, relates only what is true of Hugleik, when it makes him a 
Swede, Goths (Gautar, A. S. Geatas) and Swedes being at the time of 
its composition united as one nation, and makes him fall in FyrisviJl- 
lum, by which is no doubt meant Friesland, the Fres-wael of 1. 2144. 
The rest of the story differs toto cos'o from that here given. That the 
Latin chroniclers called all the Xorthem pirates by the general name 
of Dani, is well known, and, in the present instance, is most easily 

C 



INTRODUCTION. 



betake themselves to rest. While they are sleeping, Gren- 
del's raother, bent on vengeance for her son, enters the 
hall ; but the warriors being roused, she hastens away, 
taking with her in her flight an old friend and counsellor 
of Hrothgar, named .-Eschere. Beowulf, who had slept in 
another place, is thereupon summoned to attend Hrothgar, 
XX. who relates to him the calamity that had befallen 
them, and gives a highly poetic description of the place 
around Grendel's abode, promising at the same time great 
rewards to Beowulf, if he will achieve the adventure of 
seeking and, of course, destroying Grendel and his mother in 
their habitation. XXI. Beowulf undertakes the adventiire, 
and, accompanied by Hrothgar and their followers, sets out 
on an exploring expedition. The description of the tracts 
they traverse is very picturesque. On their way they find 
yEschere's head lying on the bank of the lake. A vivid 
picture of the terrible lake and its monstrous inhabitants is 
then given. Beowulf prepares for his descent, armed with 
a celebrated sword named Hrunting, lent to him by Hun- 
ferth. XXII. XXIII. Having recommended his followers 
to the protection of Hrothgar, he plunges into the water, 
which was so deep that a day had passed ere he reached 
the bottom. Here he encounters Grendel's mother. The 
particulars of their conflict need not be repeated, being so 
fully given in the poem itself. XXIV. Beowulf relates his 

accounted for, when we call to mind that the provinces adjoining to 
W. Gothland, viz. Halland and Skane, were in those days Danish, 
and so continued till the year 1658, when they were ceded to Sweden : 
the monkish writers, too, of western Europe were not very knowing 
in Scandinavian matters. The credit of identifying Hygelac with 
Choclulaigus belongs to Outzen, in his paper " Ueber das Angel- 
siichsische Beowulfs Gedicht," in the Kieler Blatter. (i8i6?) 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

adventure to Hrothgar, and presents to him the hilt of the 
sword with which he had slain the mother of Grendel, the 
blade of which had been melted by her hot, venomous 
blood. Hrunting had failed him in the contest. XXV. This 
canto is chiefly occupied by Hrothgar's exhortations to 
Beowulf. XXVI. Hrothgar and Beowulf take leave of each 
other, and Beowulf with his presents embarks. XXVII. He 
sets sail and arrives at the residence of Hygelac on the sea- 
coast. Here follows a short and obscure notice of Hygd*^, 
the daughter of Haereth, and queen of Hygelac, who, after 
her consort's death, became the wife of Offa, son of Gar- 
mund, king of Angeln. XXVIII. Eeo%\Talf finds a welcome 
reception from Hvgelac, to whom he relates his exploits at 
Heorot, and tells how Wealhtheow, Hrothgar's queen, dis- 
tributed bracelets to the warriors present, while Freaware, 
her daughter, who was betrothed to the son of Froda^, 

l£ The story of Hygd, the qneen of Uffi (Offa) of Angeln (Beow. 
3857, sqq.), has by the author of the Lives of the two Offas (both of 
•whom he supposes to have reigned in England) been, with some 
variations, transferred to Cjmethryth, the queen of Offa of Mercia, 
whom he represents as a Frank, who, for some atrocious crime, being 
sent out to sea in an open boat, and being found by the then youthful 
Offa, induced him to conduct her to his home, and make her his wife. 
See Lives of Offa I. and II. ad calc. Matt. Paris, edit. Watts, also 
Lappenberg's England, i. p. 237. The signature of Cynethryth appears 
to many of Offa's charters. See Kemble's Cod. Diplom. i. ; also a coin 
of her's in Ingram's Saxon Chronicle, from Ruding. 

1 Ingeld, the son of Froda (Fro'Si) appears here as the betrothed of 
Hrothgar's daughter, and leader of the Heathobards, though it would 
aeem from what follows (11. 4056, sqq.) that his visit was originally a 
hostile one, as chief of a fleet of vikings or pirates (see Sc6p or Gleeman's 
Tale, 11. 91-100). Ingeld, son of FroSi IV., is, no doubt, the indi- 
vidual in question, though, according to the chroniclers, he is king of 
Denmark, and in no incident of his life bears the faintest resemblance 
C 2 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

presented the ale-cup. Here follows an aUusion to a war 1 
with, and the subjugation of, the Heathobards, and the fall 
of their prince, Withergyld, together with some obscure 
matter uttered by Beowulf relating to the same subject and 
to Ingeld ; after which he resumes his narrative about his 
conflict with Grendel, and ^Eschere, and Grendel's mother, 

XXXI. and the further rewards bestowed on him by 
Hrothgar, a portion of which he presents to Hygelac and 
Hygd, and receives in return from Hygelac a precious 
sword, that had belonged to Hrethel. An allusion follows 
to subsequent events, viz. the fall of Hygelac and Heardred 
(who is called the nephew of Hereric), and to the accession 
of Beowulf to the throne. Then follows an account of a 
dragon that infested the neighbourhood of Beowulf's resi- 
dence, brooding over a treasure hidden in a mound, that 
had been there deposited by some prince in by-gone daysâ„¢. 

XXXII. This entire canto is devoted to the treasure, its 
owners, and the dragon, and is very obscure. XXXIII. The 
dragon begins to vomit forth glowing embers, and destroys 
Beowulf's residence, who thereupon resolves to go out 
against him and destroy him. Further allusion is here 
made to the death of Hygelac in Friesland, whence Beowulf, 
who had accompanied him, escaped by swimming. On his 
return home, Hygd offers him the throne, to the prejudice 
of her son Heardred, who, on account of his tender age, 
appeared unequal to the task of withstanding the foes of his 
country. But Beowulf nobly rejects the proffered boon, 

to the Ingeld here commemorated. For these remote times, I feel 
more inclined to trust the poet than Saxo Grammaticus. 

â„¢ Here the state of the ^IS. is such as to render an intelligible 
account of the treasure and its ancient owners impossible. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

and is satisfied with being the friend and guardian of 
Heardred. This prince, it appears, was slain in a battle with 
some pirates, who had previously overcome the son of 
Ohthere, the son of Ongentheow, king of the Swedes''. 
After the death of Heardred, Beowulf ascends the vacant 
throne. XXXIV. Here allusion is made to Beowulf's 
friendship for Eadgils^, the son of Ohthere, whom it seems 
he aided with men and money for the recovery of his king- 
dom. Beowulf now goes with his followers to reconnoitre 
the dragon's haunt. Here the aged king sits and relates 
the sad story of the accidental death of Herebeald, the 
eldest of Hrethel's sons, by the hand of his brother Hceth- 
cyn, XXXV. and continues his narrative with the account 
of a war bet^veen the Swedes and Goths, after the death of 
Hrethel, the Swedes having, it seems, laid siege to Hreos- 
na-beorh, the residence apparently of the Gothic kings. In 
this war Haethcyn was slain, and Ongentheow also fell by 
the hand of Eofer. Beowulf then recounts his battles with 
the Hugas, and the death by his hand of their leader, 
named Daeghrefn. After a short farewell greeting, he 
prepares for a conflict with the dragon. The combat is 
then described, in which Beowulf is reduced to great 
straits, XXXVI. when a young warrior, a kinsman of 
Beowulf, named Wiglaf, resolves to aid him. An account 
of Wiglaf's sword aflFords the poet an opportunity of a 

n O. N. Angantyr, a king of Sweden, of the race of the Seilfinys. 
In Grimnismal, 54, Odin, among other names, calls himself Scilfingr, 
and in the HyndlulioS ii,ii. they are enumerated with the Skioldungs 
among the royal races. Neither of Ongentheow nor his sons is there 
anything in the chronicles resembling what is here related- 

o The Adils of Snorri, and Athislus of Saxo. Here, too, the poet 
and the chroniclers are irreconcilably at variance. 

C3 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

digression (not very intelligible) concerning Weohstan, the 
father of Wiglaf, and his battles with Eanmund, a son of 
Ohthere. Wiglaf then summons to follow him, to his 
prince's succour, those warriors who had accompanied 
them. The fight continues^ Beowulf's sword, NsegUng, 
snaps asunder, and the dragon clutches the aged warrior 
in his talons. XXXVII. Wiglaf having wounded the 
monster, Beowulf draws his knife (seax), which he wore 
on his coat of mail, and cuts the dragon through the 
middle. Beowulf is then sensible that his death is at 
hand, caused by the venom. Sitting on a stone, he com- 
mands Wiglaf to go and bring the treasure from the cave, 
that, having looked on it, he may die the more tranquilly. 
XXXVIII. Wiglaf visits the mound, the treasure he there 
sees is described. On his return he finds his master at 
the point of death, who, while giving directions for his 
funeral and mound on Hrones-nses, expires. XXXIX. The 
men, who had retired to the wood (1. 5185), now come 
forth, and are bitterly reproached by Wiglaf. XL. Wiglaf 
sends a messenger to the warriors who were awaiting the 
event on the promontory (1. 5051), who announces to them 
the death of the king, and its probable consequences, 
namely a war with the Franks and Frisians. He repeats 
the account of the war with the Swedes and the fall of 
Hsethcyn (U. 4935 sqq.), part of which is very obscure. 
XLI. Ongentheow's last battle with Hygelac and fall are 
described. The messenger concludes by exhorting them 
to prepare a funeral pile. XLII. XLIII. The remainder is 
devoted to the funeral of Beowulf, 



Genealogy of the Scyldings 

Scef 

I 

Scyld 
Beowulf (Beaw) 

Tcetwa 

I 
Geut 

I 
Godwulf 

I 
Finn 

I 
Frilhuumlf 

I , 
Frealuf 

I 
Frilhuwald 

I 
Woden 



Healfdene 
I 

Heorogar Hrothgar = Wealhtheow Halga (Helgi) Ela. 

I I ^ 



Heoroweard | | i --'-«- vv^-»:*>^Ul 

Freaware= I ngeld, Freda's son. Hrethric Hrothmimd. 



From Teetwa to Woden inclusive, the list is from the Saxon 
Chronicle, a. 855. 



>Y**^ tW>^1 



Genealogy of the Gothic Royal Race. 

Hrethel Swerting 

Herebeald Haethcyn Hygelac = Hygd a dauichter = Ecgtheow 

I ^ I 

I I BeowTilf 

a daughter = Eofer Heardred 



Genealogy of the Scilfings. 

Ongentheow = (See 11. 5852-5857.) 



Onela Ohthere = not named. 



Eanmund Eadgils 



Genealogy of the Kings of Angeln and Mercia of the 
line of Offa ». 



WODEX 

I 

WihtlsEg 

Wermiind (Garmund) 

I 
Offa I. (Uffi) = Hygd, relic of Hygelac 
I or Hugleik. 



Dan Jlykillati, Angeltheow (Angengeat. Flor. Wigom.) 

K. of Denm. | 

Eomer 

I 
Icel 

I 
Cnebba 

I 
Cjmewald 

Creoda (in England)., ob. A. D. 59^= 

Wybba 

Eawa, ob. A. D. 642. 

I 
Osmod 

I 
Eanwulf 

Thingferth 

Offa II. = Cynethryth, ob. A. D. 796. 

a See Lappenberg, " England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings," 
i. pp. 227, 291. 



ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED 

OCCURRING m THE NOTES AND GLOSSARY. 

Aasen=Aasen, Ordbog over det Norske Folkesprog. Christiania 1850. 
A. and E.= Andreas und Elene, herausgegeben von Jacob Grimm. 
.^Elfric Horn. = The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church, printed for 

the ^Ifric Society. 
Caedm. =Caedmon's Paraphrase of Parts of the Holy Scripture. 

London 1832. 
Cod. Exon.= Codex Exoniensis. London 1842. 
Comp. = Composition. 
D. G. = Deutsche Grammatik von Jacob Grimm. 

D. M. = Deutsche Mythologie von Jacob Grimm. 2nd edit. 

E. H. S. = English Historical Society. 
Ethelw. = Ethelwerdi Chronicon. 

raye = Norske Folkesagn. Christiania 1844. 

F. F. = Fight at Finnesburg. 

Grafif = Graff, Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz. 

H. =Hickesu Thesaurus Lingg. Septent. 

Hallager = Norsk Ordsamling. Kjob. 1802. 

K. = Kemble'"s Beowulf, 2nd edit. 

Mhg.= Middle High German. 

North. My thoL= Northern Mythology and Superstitions, by Thorpe. 

O. Fris.=01dFrisic. 

Ohg. = 01d High German. 

O. Nor. = Old Norse or Icelandic. 

O. Sax. = Old Saxon, as in the Heliand by Schmeller. Munich, 1830. 

Rask = Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar. 

S. T. =Sc6p or Gleeman's Tale. 

Vercelli Poetry, edit. Kemble, for the .iElfiric Society. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Line 663. insert hyphen between sse and manna 
989. dele hyphen 
1200. for nyS read nyd 
1 203. /or for rather read at 
241 1, /or nyshtan read nyhstan 
5318. dele hyphen. 



i 



BEOWULF. 



BEOWULF. 



HwjET we Gar-Dena, 
in gear-dagum, 
))e6d- cyninga, 
jjrym gefrunon : 
hii ^a sejjelingas 
ellen fremedou. 
Oft Scyld Scefing 
sceajjena Jireatum, 
monegum mseg))um, 
meodo-setla ofteah : 
egsode eorl[as] 
sy^?an serest wear^ 
feasceaft funden : 
he ))3es frofre gebad, 
weox under wolcnum, 
weorJ>myntum Jiaji, 
o^}>8et him seghwylc 
)>ara ymb-sittendra 
ofer hron-rade 
hyran scolde, 
gomban gyldan : 
))aet wses god cyning. 
Dfem eafera wjes 



Ay, we the Gar-Danes', 

in days of yore, 

the great kings', 

renown have heard of; 

how those princes 

valour display'd. 

Oft Scyld Scef's son 

from bands of robbers, 

from many tribes, 
I o their mead-benches drag'd away 

inspired earls with fear, 

after he first was 

found destitute : 

he thence look'd for comfort, 

flourished under tJie clouds, 

in dignities throve, 

until him everv one 

of those sitting around 

over the whale-road 
2o must obey, 

tribute pay : 

that was a good king ! 

To him a son was 
Suppl. [as] K. 

B 



BEOWULF. 



aefter cenned, 
geong in geardunij 
|)one God sende 
folce to frofre : 
fyren-Jjearfe ongeat 
)>e hie cer drugon 
aldor-[le]ase, 
lange hwile. 
Him J7aes Lif-frea, 
Wuldres Waldend, 
worold-are forgeaf. 
BeowuK W3es breme, 
blaed wide sprang 
Scyldes eaferan 
Scede-landum in : 
swa sceal [gu^-fru]ma 
gode gewyrcean, 
fromum feoh-giftum, 
on feeder- [bea]rme, 
])set hine on ylde 
eft gewunigen 
wil-gesi]jas ; 
j)onne wig cume, 
leode gel^esten : 
lof-deedum sceal, 
in msegjja gehwfere, 
man ge))e6n. 
Him ¥ia Scyld gewat 



afterwards bom, 

a young one in his courts, 

whom God sent 

for comfort to the people : 

he the dire need felt 

that they ere had suffered 
30 while princeless, 

for a long while. 

To him therefore thehord of life, 

Prince of glory, 

gave worldly honour. 

Beowulf was renown'd, 

the glory widely sprang 

of Scyld's offspring 

in the Scanian lands : 

So shall a warlike chief 
40 work with good, 

with bounteous money-gifts, 

in his paternal home, 

that it in his age 

again inhabit 

his welcome comrades ; 

and when war comes, 

for the people act : 

by praiseworthy deeds shall, 

in every tribe, 
50 a man flourish. 

Scyld then departed 



29. MS. J>aet, 37. MS. eafera. 39. [gu'S-fru] K. 

42. [beajrme. This word is very doubtful. Mr. Kemble reads 
[feorjme, but to which I object, i. because it affords no very apparent 
sense, and 2. because of the double alliteration, which rarely occurs in 
the second line of an alliterative couplet. I regret to add that my 
own reading is far from satisfactory. 



BEOWULF. 



to gesceap-hwile, 
fela-hror feran 
on Frean wjere. 
Hi hyae ])u aetbceron 
to brimes faro))e, 
swaese gesi)>as, 
swa he selfa baed, 
f)enden wordum weold 
wine Scyldinga ; 
leof land-fruma 
longe ahte. 
paer aet hy^e stod 
hringed-stefna 
isig and ut-fus, 
sejjelinges faer. 
Aledon J)a 
leofne j^eodenj 
beaga bryttan, 
on bearm scipes, 
maeme be maeste : 
)>aer was ma^ma fela, 
of feor-wegum, 
fraetwa gelseded. 
Ne hyrde ic cymlicor 
ceol gegyrwan 
hilde waepnum, 
and hea^o-wEedum, 
billum and byrnum. 
Him on bearme laeg 
madma maenigo, 
]>& him mid scoldon 
on flodes aeht, 
feor gewitan. 



at his fated time, 

the much strenuous, to go 

into the Lord's keeping. 

They him then bore away 

to the sea-shore, 

his dear companions, 

as he had himself enjoin'd 

while with words had swav 
60 the- Scyldings' friend ; 

the beloved land's chief 

had long possessed it. 

There at the hithe stood ' 

the ring-prow'd ship 

icy and eager to depart, 

the prince's vehicle. 

They laid then 

the beloved chief 

the dispenser of rings, 
70 in the ship's bosom, 

the great one by the mast : 

there were treasures many 

from far ways, 

ornaments brought. 

I have not heard of a comelier 

keel adom'd 

â– with war-weapons 

and martial weeds, 

with glaves and bymies. 
80 On his bosom lay 

treasures many, 

which were with him to go 

into the flood's possession, 

far depart. 
52. MS. gescap. 

B 2 



BEOWULF. 



Nalses hi hine Isessan 

lacum teodan, 

J)e6d-gestreonuin, 

{)onne jja dydon, 

\>e hine aet frumsceafte 

forS onsendon 90 

jenne ofer y^e 

umbor wesende. 

pa-gyt hie him asetton 

segen [gyl]denne 

heah ofer heafod ; 

leton holm beran, 

geafon on garsecg. 

Him wses geomor sefa, 

mumende mod : 

men ne cunnon 100 

secgan to so^e, 

sele-rsedende, 

haele^ under heofenum, 

hwa J)Eem hlseste onfeng. 



They him not with less 

gifts provided, 

lordly treasures, 

than they did, 

who him at the beginning 

sent forth 

alone o'er the wave, 

being a child. 

They moreover set 

a golden ensign 

high o'er his head ; 

let the sea bear him, 

gave him to ocean. 

Their mind was sad, 

mourning their mood : 

men cannot 

say for sooth, 

counsellors in hall, 

heroes under heaven, 

who that lading: received. 



85. The poet, or his prototype, here assigns to Scyld the legend 
that properly belongs to Scef. The following passages from the 
chronicles are illustrative of the legend. Ethelw. III. 3 : " Ipse Scef 
cum uno dromone advectus est in insula oceani quae dicitur Scani, 
armis circundatus, eratque valde recens puer, et ab incolis iUius terrae 

ignotus; attamen ab eis suscipitur et post in regem eligunt." 

W. Malmesb. p. 173. edit. E. H. S. : " Iste (Sceaf), ut ferunt, in quan- 
dam insulam Germanise, Scandzam (de qua Jordanes, historiographus 
Gothorum, loquitur), appulsus, navi sine remige, puerulus, posito ad 
caput frumenti manipulo, dormiens, ideoque Sceaf nuncupatus, ab 
hominibus regionis ilhus pro miraculo exceptus, et sedulo nutritus, 
adulta setate regnavit in oppido quod tunc Slaswic, nunc vero Haithebi 
appellatur." Simeon of Durham gives similar testimony. 

88. MS. hon, no doubt for )>on. 

102. MS. rsedenne. K. no doubt correctly. See hereafter. 



BEOWULF. 



Da waes on burgum 

BeowuK Scyldinga 

leof leod-cyning 

longe jjrage 

folcum gefrtege : 

faeder ellor hwearf, no 

aldor of earde, 

oSjjaet him eft onwoc 

heah Healfdene ; 
heold ))enden lifde, 
gamol and giiti-reouw, 
glsede Scyldingas. 
Daem feower beam 
forS-gerimed 
in worold wocon, 
weoroda rseswan 120 

Heorogar and Hrojjgar 
and Halga til 

Hyrde ic J>set Elan cwen, 
Hea6o- Scylfinges 
heals-gebedda. 

* * * 

pi waes Hr68gare 
here- sped gyfen, 
wiges weorSmynd, 130 



Then was in the towns 
Beowulf, the Scyldings' 
beloved sovereign 
for a long time, 
fam'd among nations : 
{his father had passed away, 
the prince from his dwelling), 
until from him in turn sprang 

forth 
the lofty Healfdene ; 
he ruled while he liv'd, 
old and war-fierce, 
the glad Scyldings. 
From him four children 
numbered forth 
sprang in the world, 
heads of hosts, 
Heorogar and Hrothgar 
and Halga the good 

* * * 

I have heard that Ela's queen, 
the martial Scylfing's 
bed-partaker. 

^ ^ He 

Then was to Hrothgar 
martial prowess given, 
warlike glory, 



119. MS. wocun. 120. I\IS. rjeswa. 

124. Ela I take to be the name of a Scylfing married to a daughter 
of Healfdene, being the fourth of his children, three of whom are 
named. 

125. MS. Scylfingas. 



L 



B3 



BEOWULF. 



|jset him his wine-magas 

georne hj rdoiij 

ot5)j8et seo geogojj geweox, 

raago-driht micel. 

Him on mod be-arn 

})3et [he] heal-reced 

hatan wolde, 

medo-sern micel, 

men gewyrcean, 

)jone yldo-bearn 140 

sefre gefrunon ; 

and ))8er on-innan 

eall gedcelan. 

geongum and ealdum, 

swylc him God sealde, 

buton folc- scare 

and feorum gumena. 

Da ic wide gefrsegn 

weorc gebannan 

manigre msegj^e 150 

geond })isne middangeard, 

folc-stede frsetwian. 

Him on fyrste gelomp, 

gedre mid yldum, 

J)aet hit wearS eal gearo, 

heal-serna maest. 

Scop him Heort naman, 

se \>e his wordes geweald 

wide hsefde. 



so that him his dear kinsmen 

wilhngly obey'd, 

until the youth grew up, 

a great kindred train. 

It ran through his mind 

that [he] a hall-house 

would command, 

a great mead-house, 

men to make, 

which the sons of men 

should ever hear of; 

and there within 

all distribute 

to young and old, 

as to him God had given, 

except the people's share, 

and the lives of men. 

Then I heard that widely 

the work was proclaim'd 

to many a tribe 

through this mid-earth, 

that a public place was building. 

Him it in time befel, 

soon among men, 

that it was aU ready, 

of haU-houses greatest. 

Gave it the name of Heort, 

he who power of his word 

widely had. 



136. he not in MS. 

151. middangeard. So called from its position between Asgard, 
the abode of the gods, and Utgard, the abode of the giants. See 
Thoi-pe, Northern Mythology, vol. i. 

152. MS. frsetwan. 



BEOWULF. 



He beot ne aleah 160 

beagas dfelde, 
sine set symle. 
sele hlifade ; 
I heah and hom-geup ; 
heaSo-wylma bad 
lat5an liges. 

Ne waes hit lenge |ja-gen, 
jjaet se secgjiete 
aj>un4»swerian, 
aefter wael-niSe 1 70 

Wcpcnan scolde. 
pa se ellen-gsest 
earfo})lice 
jjrage gejjolode, 
se J)e in ])ystrum bad, 
])3et he dogora gehwam 
dream gehyrde 
hliidne in healle. 
paer wscs hearpan sweg, 
swutol sang scopes : 180 
saegde se \>e cupe 
frumsceaft fira 
feorran reccan, 
cwaef) Jjset se ^'Elmihtiga 
eor))an w[orhte], 
wlite beorhtne wang, 
swa waeter bebugeS ; 
gesette sige-hre|jig 
sunnan and monan, 
leoman to leohte, 190 

land-buendum, 
and gefraetwade 



He belied not his promise, 

bracelets distributed, 

treasure at the feast. 

The hall rose 

high and horn-curv'd ; 

heat intense awaited it 

of hostile flame. 

Nor was it yet long, 

when the warrior promis'd 

with oaths to swear, 

that after from deadly enmity 

he would cease. 

Then the potent guest 

with difficulty 

for a time endur'd, 

(he who in darkness dwelt,) 

that he each day 

heard merriment 

loud in the hall. 

There was sound of harp, 

loud the gleeman's song • 

he said, who coiold 

the origin of men 

from far back relate, 

told that the Almighty 

wrought the earth, 

the plain in beauty bright,' 

which water embraces ; 

set, in victory exulting, 

sun and moon, 

beams for light 

to the dwellers on land, 

and adorn'd 



j((^' ^^^ 



-a- 



l^rOrc-i 



1 60. MS. aleh. 



BEOWULF. 



foldan sceatas 

leomum and leafum : 

lif eac gesceop 

cynna gehwylcum, 

{)ara pe cwice hwyrfaS. 

Swa \>a driht-guman 

dreamura lifdon 

eadiglice ; _^oo 

otSjjset an ongan 

fyrene frem[m]an, - 

feond on helle. 

Wses se grimma geest 

Grendel haten, 

maere mearc-stapa, 

se J)e moras heold, 

fen and faesten ; 

fifel-cynnes eard 

wonsselig wer, 210 

weardode hwile, 

si))San him Scyppend 

forscrifen haefde. 

In Caines cynne 

j)one cwealm gewraec 

ece Drihten, 

))aes pe he Abel slog. 

Ne gefeah he JjEere fseh'Se, 

ac he liine feor forwraec, 

Metod for py mane 220 

man-cynne fram. 

panon untydras 

ealle onwocon, 

eotenas and ylfe, 

210. MS. wonsseli. 



earth's regions 

with boughs and leaves : 

life eke created 

for every kind 

of those that quick go to and fro. 

Thus the retainers 

lived in delights 

happily, 

till that one began 

crime to perpetrate, 

a fiend in hell. 

The grim guest was 

Grendel hight, . - 

the great traverser of the mark, 

that held t?ie moors, 

the fen and fastness ; 

the Fifel-race's dwelling 

the unbless'd man 

inhabited a while, 

after the Creator him 

had proscribed. 

On Cain's race 

that- death avenged 

the eternal Lord, 

for that he Abel slew. 

He joy'd not in that enmity, 

for he him far banish'd, 

the Creator for that crime 

from mankind. 

Thence monstrous births 

all sprang forth, 

eotens, and elves. 



220-227. This is no doubt of rabbinical origin. 



BEOWULF. 



and orcneas, 

swvlce gigantas, 

|)a wis Gode wunnon 

lange {rage : 

He him \>xs lean forgeald. 



and orkens, 
so likewise the giants, 
who against God war'd 
for a long space : 
He for that gave them their 
reward. 



Gewat J)a neosian, 
syj)(5an niht becom, 
hean huses, 
hii hit Hring-Dene, 
sefter be6r-))ege. 
gebun haefdon. 
Fand ]>d Jiaer-inne 
8ej>elinga gedriht 
swefaa sefter symble ; 
serge ne cu6on, 
wonsceaft wera,, 
wiht unhjelo. 
Grim and greedig 
gearo sona waes, 
reoc and rej)e, 
and on reste genam 
\>ntig }>egna : 
)>anon eft gewat, 
huj)e hremig, 
to ham faran, 
mid Jjaere wael-fylle, 
wica neosan. '^- ■ . «^f. 
Da wses on uhtan, 
mid ser-dsege, 
Grendles guScraeft 



II. 

230 He departed then to visit, 

after night had come, 

the lofty house, 

how it the Ring- Danes, 

after their beer potation, 

had occupied. 

He then found therein 

a company of nobles 

sleeping after their feast ; 

sorrow they knew not, 
240 misery of men, • 

aughf of unhappiness. 

Grim and greedy, 

he was soon ready, 

rugged and fierce, 

and in their rest took 

thirty thanes : 

thence again departed, 

in his prey exulting, 

to his home to go, 
250 with the slaughter'd corpses, 

his quarters to visit. 

Then in the morning was, 

at early day, 

Grendel's war-craft 



10 



BEOWULF. 



gumum undyme. 
pa waes sefter wiste 
wop up-ahafen, 
micel morgen-sweg. 
Maere jjeoden, 
sejjeling ser-god, 260 

unbliSe saet, 
f)olode 5ry5-swy6 ; 
^?egQ sorge dreah, 
sySj)an hie jjaes laSan 
last sceawedon 
wergan gastes: 
wses ))aet gewin to Strang, 
laS and longsum. 
Nses hit lengra fyrst, 
ac ymb ane niht 270 

eft gefremede 
mor6-beala mare, 
and no mearn fore 
fsehSe and fyrene ; 
wses t5 fsest on ))am. 
pa wses eaS-fynde 
]>e him elleshwser 
gerumlicor reste, 
* * 



* * 

bed sefter burum 
)ja him gebeacnod waes 
Gesaegde s651ice, 
sweotolan tacne. 



280 



to men manifest. 

Then was after the repast 

a whoop up-rais'd, 

a great morning sound. 

The great prince, 

the noble excellent, 

unbhthe sat, 

suffered the strong in hosts, 

the thane endur'd sorrow, 

when they the foe's 

traces beheld, 

the accursed sprite's : 

that strife was too strong, 

loathsome and tedious. 

It was no longer space, 

but after one night 

he again perpetrated 

greater mortal harms, 

and regretted not for • 

his enmity and crime ; 

he was too firm in them. 

Then was easily found 

who elsewhere 

more commodiously would rest, 

* * * 

* * * 

* * * 
beds along the bowers, 
when it was indicated to him. 
Said truly, 

by a manifest token. 



278. MS. rseste. 

282-289. Very unintelligible; some lines manifestly lost. 

284. MS. gessegd. 



BEOWULF. 



11 



heal-|jegnes hete, 

heold hyne sySjjan 

fyr and faestor, 

se Jjgem feonde aetwand. 

Swa rixode, 290 

and wis rihte wan, 

ana wiS eallum, 

ot5})aet idel st5d 

hiisa selest. 

Wses seo hwTl micel, 

twelf wintra tid 

torn geJ)olode 

wine Scyldinga, 

weana gehwylcne, 

sidra sorga ; 300 

forJ)am [sySSan] wearS 

ylda bearnum 

undyrne cu6, 

gyddum geomore, 

jjjette Grendel wan 

hwile wi6 Hr66gar, 

hete-ni5as waeg, 

fyrene and fcehSe, 

fela missera, 

singale ssece ; 310 

sibbe ne wolde 

wits manna hwone 

maegenes Denig^a, 

feorh-bealo feorran 

feo J)ingian ; 



the hall-thane's hate : 

held himself afterwards 

farther and faster, 

he who from the fiend escap'd. 

So Grendel rul'd, 

and against right war'd, 

alone against all, 

until empty stood 

of houses best. 

Great was the while, 

twelve winters' tide 

his rage endur'd ^vv.-^jl^"-' 

the Scyldings' friend, 

every woe, 

ample sorrows ; 

for it [after] became 

to the children of men 

openly knovra, 

sadly in songs, 

that Grendel war'd 

awhile 'gainst Hrothgar, 

waged hateful enmities, 

crime and hostility, 

for many years, 

incessant strife ; 

peace would not have 

with any man 

of the Danes' power, 

or mortal bale withdraw, 

with money compromise ; 



298. MS. Scyldenda. 299. MS. gehwelcne. 

301. sy'^an, not in MS., but necessary to the sense, the rhythm 
and the alliteration. 
315. MS. fea. 



12 



BEOWULF. 



ne )>ser nccnig wihta 

wenan ))orfte 

beorhtre bote 

to banan folmum. 

[Atol] seglgeca 320 

ehtende wseSj 

deorc deaj)-scua, 

duguj)e and geogojje, 

seomode and syrede. 

Sinnihte beold 

raistige m5ras. 

Men ne cunnon 

hwyder hel-runan 

hwyrftum scri))a8. 

Swa fela fyrena 330 

fe5nd man-cjTines, 

atol angengea, 

oft gefremede, 

heardra hynSa. 

Heorot eardode, 

sinc-fage said 

sweartum nihtum : 

no he J)one gif-stol 

gretan moste, 

ma))$um for Metode, 340 

ne his m}Tie Tvisse : 
J)8et wses wrset micel. 
Wine Scyldinga, 
modes brecSa 



nor there any wight 

might hope for 

a hghter penalty 

at the murderer's hands. 

The fell wretch 

was persecuting, 

the dark death-shade, 

noble and youthful, 

oppress'd and snar'd 7Ae7rt. 

In perpetual night he held 

the misty moors. ' 

Men know not 

whither hell-sorcerers 

at times wander. 

Thus many crimes 

the foe of mankind, ' 

the fell solitary, 

oft perpetrated, 

cruel injuries. 

Heorot he occupied, 

the seat richly variegated, 

in the dark nights : 

not the gift-seat he 

might touch, 

that treasure, for the Lord's 

protection, 
nor his design knew : 
that was a great marvel ! 
The Scylding's friend, 
in spirit broken. 



316. MS. witena. 319. MS. banum. 

320. Atol, wanting in MS., supplied from conjecture. 

324. MS. seomade. 336. MS. sel. 

342. MS. wrsec. The allusion is to the gift-seat or throne. 



BEOWULF. 



13 



monig-oft gesaet 

rice to nine, 

rsed eahtedon, 

hwset swiS-ferh8uin 

selest wsere, 

wi8 faer-gryrum, 550 

to gefremmanne. 

HwQura hie geheton, 

aet hearg-trafum, 

wig-weorjjunga ; 

wordum bsedon, 

))8et him gast-bona 

geoce gefremede 

wis j)eod-)jreaum. 

Swylc wses })eaw hyra, 

hsej)enra hvht ; 360 

helle gemundon 

in m5d-sefan, 

Metod hie ne cu})on, 

daeda Demend, 

ne wiston hie Drihten God, 

ne hie huru heofena Helm 

herian ne cu))on, 
Wuldres Waldend. 
Wa bit5 ))Eem \>e sceal, 
))urh sliSne ni8, 370 

sawle bescufan 
in fyres fgejjm ; 
fr5fre ne wene 
wihte geweortJan. 



many a time sat, 
the powerful one in deliberation, 
counsel they devis'd, 
what for the strong- soul'd 
it were best, 

against the perilous horrors, 
to accomplish. 
Sometimes they promis'd, 
at the temples, 
idolatrous honours ; 
in words prayed, 
that them the spirit- slayer 
would aid afford 
against the great aflBictions. 
Such was their custom, 
the heathens' hope ; 
hell they remember'd 
in their mind, 
the Creator they knew not, 
the Judge of deeds, 
they knew not the Lord God, 
nor, indeed, the heavens' Pro- 
tector 
knew thev how to praise, 
Glor)-'s Ruler. 

Woe shall be to him who shall, 
through cruel malice, 
thrust a soul 
into the fire's embrace ; 
of comfort let him not expect 
ausrht to betide him. 



353. MS. hrserg trafiim. 
356. gast-bona, the devil, the soul-slayer. 
373. MS. wenan. 374. MS. gewendan. 

C 



14 



BEOWULF. 



Wei bi5 )>2em ]>e mot, 
sefter deaS-dsege, 
Drihten secean, 
and to Faeder faeSmum 
freoSo wilnian. 



Well shall it be to him who may, 

after his death-day, 

seek the Lord, 

and in his Father's bosom 

desire peace. 



III. 



Swa tJa mael ceare 380 

maga Healfdenes 

singala seaS ; 

ne mihte snotor hseleS 

wean onwendan : 

waes J)set gewin t5 swyS, 

lat5 and longsum, 

])e on \>a leode becom, 

nyd-wracu nij>-grim, 

niht-bealwa maest. 

pa fram ham gefraegn 390 

Higelaces ]>egn, 

god mid Geatum, 

Grendles dseda : 

se wsBS mon-cynnes 

msegenes strengest 

on ])cem dsege 

|)ysses lifes, 

aejjele and eacen, 

het him y'6-hdan 

godne gegyrwan ; 400 

cw£e6 he gu6-cyning 

ofer swan-rade 

secean wolde, 

mseme )>e6den, 

390 



So then a time of care 

Healfdene's son 

constantly seeth'd ; 

the sagacious hero could not 

the calamity avert : 

the strife was too strong, 

loathsome and tedious, 

that had come on the people ; 

force-misery with malice grim, 

of night-evils greatest. 

When from home had heard 

Hygelac's thane, 

(n good man among the Goths,) 

of Grendel's deeds ; 

who of mankind was 

in power strongest 

in that day 

of this hfe, 

noble and vigorous, 

he bade for him a wave-traverser 

good be prepar'd ; 

said that he the war-king 

over the swan-road 

would seek, 

the renowned prince, 

MS. t>aet. 



BEOWULF. 



15 



a him waes manna jiearf. 
)one siSfaet him 
notere ceorlas 
ythwon logon, 
»eah he him leof weere : 
* * * 410 



iwetton hige-rofne, 
isel sceawedon ; 
laefde se goda 
Geata leoda 
cerapan gecorene, 
»ra \)e he cenoste 
findan mihte ; 
fiftena sum 
sund-wudu sohte : 
secg wisade 
lagu-craeftig mon 
land-gemyrcu. 
FjTSt forS-gewat, 
flota waes on j5um, 
bat under beorge ; 
beornas gearwe 
on stefn stigon ; 
stream as wundon 
sund wi6 sande ; 
secgas bseron, 
on bearra nacan, 
beorhte fraetwa. 



420 



430 



as he had need of men. 

That voyage to him 

prudent men 

somewhat blam'd, 

though he was dear to them ; 

* * * 

* * * 

* ♦ * 

they whetted the renowned chief, 

observed the omen ; 

the good chief had 

of the Goths' people 

chosen champions, 

of those whom he the bravest 

could find ; 

with some fifteen 

the floating wood he sought. 

A warrior pointed out, 

a water- crafty man, 

the land-boundaries. 

A time passed on, 

the floater was on the waves, 

the boat under the mountain ; 

the ready warriors 

on the prow stept ; 

the streams roll'd 

the sea against the sand ; 

the warriors bare, 

into the bark's bosom, 

bright arms. 



409. Many lines seem here to be wanting. 

413. Thorkelin hige-fome, the order of the first three letters in 
roftie being inverted in the printing. 

41 ;. MS. gecorene. 434. 3IS. frsetwe. 

C 3 



16 



BEOWULF. 



guS-searo geatolic : 
^guman lit-scufon, 
weras on wil-si6, 

wudu bundenne 
Gewat )ja ofer wgeg-holm, 
winde gefysed, 440 

flota famig-heals, 
fugle gelicost, 
o5))aet ymb an tid 
o}>res dogores 
wunden-stefna 
gewaden haefde, 
))aet )>a liSende 
land gesawon, 
brim-clifu blican, 
beorgas steape, 450 

L**ide sffi-nsessas, 
l])a wses sund-lida 
lea-lade set ende. 
rpanon up hrat5e 
Wedera leode 
on wang stigon ; 
sse-wudu SEeldon, 
syrcan hrysedon, 
gTi(5-gew8edo ; 
Gode Jjancedon, 460 

)>8es J)e him y})-lada 
ea3e wurdon. 
pa of wealle geseah 
weard Scyldinga, 



a sumptuous war-equipment : 

the men shov'd out, 

the people, on the welcome voa'- 

the bound wood. 

Departed then o'er the wavy sea, 

by the wind impell'd, 

the floater foamy-neck'd, 

to a bird most like, 

till that about an hour 

of the second day 

the twisted prow 

had sail'd, 

so that the voyagers 

saw land, 

the ocean-shores shine, 

mountains steep, 

spacious sea-nesses. 

Then was the sea-sailer 

at the end of its watery way. 

Thence up quickly 

the Weders' people '-• 

stept on the plain ; 

tfie sea-wood tied, 

their maiZ-shirts shook, 

their martial weeds ; 

they thanked God, 

for that to them the wave-paths 

had been easy. 

When from the wall saw 

the Scyldings' warder. 



44 1. ItlS. fami. 452. MS. liden. 

453. MS. eoletes. qu. fS-lade ? eoletes is no A. S. word. 

461. MS. lade. 



BEOWULF. 



17 



se J»e holm-clifu 
healdan scolde, 
beran ofer bolcan 
beorhte randas, 
fyrd-searo fuslicu, 
hine fyrwyt braec 470 

mod-gehygdum, 
hwaet )>a men wjeron. 
Gewat him \>a t5 waroSe, 
wicge ridan, 
\>egn HroSgares, 
)>rymmura cwehte 
maegen-wudu mundum, 
me}jel-wordura frsegn : 
Hwaet syndon ge 
searo-haebbendra, 480 

bymum werede, 
\>e )jus brontne ceol 
ofer lagu-strjete 
Isedan cwomon, 
ihider ofer holm as ? 

* * * 

Ic \>xs ende-sseta 
eg-wearde heold, 
|)8et on land Dena 
laSra njenig 490 

mid scip-herge 
sce5))an ne meahte. 
No her cuSlicor 
cuman ongunnon 



who l/ie sea-shores 
had to keep, 

borne o'er the ship's bulwark 
bright shields, 
a war-equipment ready, 
him curiosity brake 
in his mind's»thoughts, 
as to what those men were. 
Went then to the shore, 
on his horse riding, 
Hrothgar's thane, - 
violently quak'd 
the mighty wood in his hands, 
in formal words he ask'd : 
" What are ye 
of arm-bearing men, 
with bymies protected, 
who thus a surgy keel 
over the water-street- 
come leading, 
hither o'er the seas ? 
* * * 

I for this, placed at the extremity, 
sea-ward have held, ' •''^^ . 
that on the Danes' land 
no enemies 
with a ship-army 
might do injury. 
Not here more openly 
to come have attempted 



478. mel>el-wordum. L e. in set terms, siich as were used at the 
met>el, or public assembly, 

485. The alliterating line with this is wanting. 

487. MS. WK9. 488. MS. aeg. 489. MS. ^e. 

C3 



18 



BEOWULF. 



lind-haebbende, 
ne geleafnes-word 
gu(5-fremmendra 
gearwe ne wisson, 
maga gemetu. 
I Naefre ic maran geseah 500 
eorl ofer eorjjan 
}>onne is eower sum 
secg on searwum : 
nis ))aet seld guma 
waepnum geweorSad, 
nsefne him his wlite le5ge, 
aenhc ansyn. 
Nu ic eower sceal 
frum-cyn witan, 
aer ge fyr heonan, 510 
lease sceaweras, 
on land Dena 
farjjur feran. 
Nu ge feor-buend, 
mere-liSende, 
minne gehyratS 
anfealdne ge))oht : 
ofost is selest 
to gecy'Sanne 
ihwanon eower cyme sy 520 



shield-bearers, 

nor who the credence word 

of warriors 

ready knew not, 

the observances of kinsmen. 

Never have 1 seen a greater 

earl on earth 

than is one of you, 

a warrior in arms ; 

that is no man seldom 

honour'd in arms, 

unless his countenance belie him . 

Ms distinguished aspect. 

Now I must your 

origin know, 

ere ye farther hence, 

as false spies, 

into the Danes' land 

further proceed. 

Now ye far- dwellers, 

sea-farers, 

hear my 

simple thought : 

haste is best 

to make known 

whence your coming is." 



Him se yldesta 
andswarode, 



IV. 



Him the chiefest 
answered. 



499. MS. gemedu. 501. MS. eorla. 

511. MS. leas. 516. MS. mine. 

530. MS. hwanan eowre cyme syndon. 



506. MS. nsfre. 



BEOWULF. 



10 



werodes wisa 

word-hord onleac : 

We synt gum-cynnes 

Geata le5de, 

and Higelaces 

heorS-geneatas : 

ffxs min feeder 

folcum gecyjjed, 530 

8ej)ele ord-fruraa, 

Ecg))e6w haten : 

gebad wintra worn, 

ser he on weg hwurfe, 

gamol of geardum : 

hine gearwe geman 

witena wel-hwylc, 

wide geond eorjjan. 

We ))urh holdne hige 

hlaford Jjinne, 540 

sunu Healfdenes, 

secean cwomon, 

leod gebyrgean. 

Wes \>u us larena god. 

HabbaS we to JjEem mseran 

micel aerende, 

Deniga frean. 

Ne sceal {jser dyrne sum 

wesan Jjaes ic wene : 

J>u wast gif hit is 550 

swa we so])lice 

secgan hyrdon ; 

))aet mid Scyldingum 

sceaSa ic nat hwylc, 

deogol dsed-hata, 

543. gebeorgan? 



the band's director 
his word-hoard unlock'd : 
" We are of race 
of the Goths' nation, 
and Hygelac's 
hearth-enjoyers : 
my father was 
known to nations, 
a noble chieftain, 
Ecgtheow hight : 
he abode winters many, 
ere he on his way departed, 
old from his courts : 
him well remembers 
almost every sage, 
widely throughout the earth. 
We through kind feeling 
thy lord, 
Healfdene's son, 
have come to seek, 
thy prince to defend. 
Be thou our kind informant. 
We have to the illustrious 
lord of the Danes 
a great errand. 
There shaU naught secret 
be, from what I ween : 
thou knowest if it is 
as we soothly 
have heard say ; 
that with the Scyldings 
a wi'etch, I kuow not who, 
a secret deed-hater, 
544. MS. waes. 



20 



BEOWULF. 



deorcum nihtum 
eaweS J)urh egsan 
uncuSne niS, 
hynSu and hra-fyl. 
Ic J)aes HroSgar xaseg, 
))urh inimne sefan, 
rsed gelaeran, 
hu he frod and god 
feond oferswy^ejj, 
gyf him edwendan 
sefre scolde ; 
bealuwa bisigum 
bot eft-cuman, 
and |ja cear-wylmas 
colran wurSaJ) ; 
o8Se a sy})8an 
earfoS-jjrage 
]jrea-nyd J?6IaS, 
))enden })aer wunaS, 
on heah-stede 
husa selest. 
I Weard majjelode, 
|)ser on wicge sset, 
ombeht unforht : 
jEghwaejjres sceal 
scearp scyld-wiga 
gescad witan, 
worda and worca, 
se 8e wel Jjence}). 
Ic })set gehyre, 
))3et |>is is hold weorod 
frean Scyldinga : 
gewitaS forS-beran 

567. ftlS. 



in the dark nights, 
displays through terror 
unheard of maUce, 
injury and slaughter. 

560 I for this to Hrothgar may, 
through my capacious mind, 
counsel teach, 
how he, wise and good, 
the foe shall overcome, 
if to him return 
he ever should ; 
how for these works of bale 
reparation may follow, 
and those care-boilings 

570 become cooler; 

or he ever after will 
a time of tribulation, 
oppression suffer, 
while shall there continue 
in its high place 
of houses best." 
The warder spake, 
where on his horse he sat, 
a fearless officer : 

580 " Of both should 

a sharp shield-warrior 
the difference know, 
of words and works, 
who well thinks. 
I hear, 

that this is a friendly band 
to the Scyldings' lord : 
depart bearing forth 

bisigu, no doubt for bisigu. 



^Mg^ 



BEOWULF. 



21 



waepen annigewEedu, 

ic eow wis^e : 590 

swylce ic magu-Jjegnas 

mine hate, 

wifj feonda gehwone 

flotan eowerne, 

niw-tyrwydne, 

nacan on sande, 

arum healdan, 

o|>Saet eft byreS, 

ofer lagu-streamas, 

leofae raannan 600 

wudu wunden-heals 

to Wed^^iiearce, 

god-freoBendra 

}»aet jjoee hilde raes 
hal gedigeS. 
Gewiton him j>a feran, 
flota stille bad ; 
seomode on sole 
sid-fae6med scip, 610 

on ancre faest. 
Eofor-Hc scion 
on-ofer hleor bajron, 
gehroden golde ; 
fah and fyr-heard, 
ferh wearde heold^ 
Gu$-m6de grummon • 
guman onetton, 
8igon aetsomne, 
o|jjjaet hy ael-timbred, 620 
geatohc and gold-fah, 

613. MS. beran. 



weapons and weeds, 
I will direct you : 
in like manner I my 
fellow officers will bid, 
against every foe 
your ship, 
new-tarred, 
your bark on the sand, 
honourably to hold, 
until back shall bear, 
over the water-streams, 
the beloved man 
the wood twisted neck'd 
to the Weder-march, 
of the good-doers 
to such as it shall be given 
that the rush of war 
he escape from whole." 
They departed then to go, 
the vessel still abode, ; , 
lay heavy in the mud 
the wide-bosom'd ship, 
at anchor fast. 
A boar's likeness sheen 
over theii- cheeks they bore, 
adorn'd with gold ; 
variegated and fire-harden'd 
it held life in ward. 
the warlike of mood were fierce ; 
the men hasten'd, 
descended together, 
until they all-built, 
elegant and with gold variegated. 
617. MS. mod. 



22 



BEOWULF. 



ongytan mihton 
\>xt waes fore-maerost, 
fold-buendum, 
receda under roderum, 
on )>sem se rica bad : 
lix-te se leoma 
ofer landa fela. 
Him ]ja hilde deor 
hof modigra 
torht getsehte, 
}>aet hie him to mihton 
gegnum gangan. 
GuS-beorna sum 
wicg gewende, 
word sefter cwsej) : 
Msel is me to feran ; 
Faeder alwalda 
mid ar-stafum 
eowic gehealde, 
siSa gesunde : 
ic to sse wille, 
wi3 wra^ werod 
wearde healdan. 



might perceive 

what was the grandest, 

to earth's inhabitants, 

of houses under the firmament, 

in which the powerful king abode : 

its light shone 

o"er many lands. 

To them then the beast of war 

630 the proud ones' court 
clearly show'd, 
that they might 
towards it go. 
Of the warriors one 
turn'd his steed, 
then spake these words : 
" Time 'tis for me to go ; 
may the all-ruling Father 
with honour 

640 hold you, 

safe in your fortunes : 
I will to the sea return, 
'gainst a?7y hostile band 
to hold ward," 



-,-< 



V. 



I Straet wses stan-fah, 
stig wisode 
gumum setgaedere ; 
guts -by me scan, 
heard hond-locen ; 
hrin^-iren scTr 



650 



song m searwum, 

622. MS. ongyton. 



The street was stone-varied, 
it directed the path 
to the men together; 
the martial byrnie shone, 
hard, hand-lock'd ; 
the ring'd iron bright 
sang in their gear, 
630. MS. of. 









fc^tu '•-- 




f;^ ,, . BEOWULF. 2 


pi hie to sele fur6um. 


even as to the hall they, 


in hyra giyre-geatwum 


in their terrific arms, 


gangan cwomon. 


came walking. 


Setton sse-mejje 


The sea-wear)' set 


side scyldas, 


their ample shields. 


rondas regn-hearde, 


their disks intensely hard, 


wit5 )>aes recedes weal. 


against the mansion's wall. 


Bugon pa to bence. 


Stoop'd then to a bench. 


byman hringdon, 660 


their b)Tnies placed in a ring 


guS-searo gumena ; 


the war-gear of men ; 


garas stodon, 


the javehns stood, 


sse-manna searo, 


the seamen's arms. 


samod setgsedere, 


all together. 


aesc-holt ufen graeg : 


the ash-wood grey above : 


wjes se iren )jreat 


the iron band was 


waepnum ge\vur))ad. 


with weapons furnish'd. 


pa })3er wlonc hsele}* 


Then there a haughty chief 


oret-mecgas 


the sons of conflict 


sefter haelebum frsegn : 670 


concerning the heroes ask'd : 


Hwanon ferigeaS ge 


"Whence bear ye 


faette scyldas, 


your stout shields, 


graege syrcan. 


g^ey sarks. 


and grim-helraas, 


and ^â– isor-helms, 


here-sceafta heap ? 


a heap of war-shafts ? 


Ic eom HroSgares 


I am Hrothgar's 


ar and ombiht. 


messenger and servant. 


Ne seah ic elj^eodige 


Never saw I stranger 


\>\xs manige men 


men thus many 


modiglicran. 680 


prouder. 


"Wen' ic pxt ge for wlenco, 


I ween that ye for pride, 


nalles for â– wrsec-siSum, 


not for exile, 


ac for hige-))rymmum, 


but for soul-greatness. 


HroSgar sohton. 


have Hrothgar sought." 


681 


. MS. wen. 



24 



BEOWULF. 



Him ))a ellen-rof 
andswarode, 
wlanc Wedera leod 
â– word sefter sprsec, 
heard under helme : 
We synt Higelaces 690 
beod-geneatas : 
Beowulf is mm nama : 
wille ic asecgan 
suna Healfdenes, 
mserum jjeodne, 
min serende, 
aldre ))inum ; 
gif he us geunnan wile 
jjaet we hine swa godne 
g retan moton. 700 

IjWulfgar majjelode, 
Jjset waes W^endla leod ; 
waes his mod-sefa 
manegum gecy?5ed, 
wig and wisdom : 
Ic l^aes wine Deniga, 
frean Scyldinga, 
frinan wille, 
beaga bryttan, 
swa })u bena eart, 710 
})e5den mserne, 
vmb ])inne siS and J)e 

|>a andsware 
aedre gecySan, 
J)e me se goda 
agifan )jence8. 

694. 



Him then the valour-fam'd 

answer'd, 

the Weders' proud lord 

these words after spake, 

the bold under his helmet : 

" We are Hygelac's 

table enjoyers : 

Beowulf is my name : 

I will relate 

to Healfdene's son, 

the great lord, 

my errand, 

to thy prince ; 

if he to us will grant 

that we him so good 

may greet." 

Wulfgar spake, 

he was the Wendels' lord : 

his mind was 

known to many, 

his valour and wisdom : 

" I therefore the Danes' friend, 

the Scyldings' lord, 

will ask, 

the distributor of rings, 

as thou requestest, 

the great lord, 

concerning thy voyage, and to 

thee 
the answer 
quickly make known 
that me the good /?rinc* 
shall think// to give. 
MS. sunu. 



BEOWULF. 



Hwearf \>& hraedlice 

J)ser IlroSgar sset, 

eald and unhar, 

mid his eorla gedriht. 720 

Eode ellen-rof, 

J)cet he for eaxlum gestod 

Deniga frean : 

cu})e he duguSe ]>ea,w. 

Wulfgiir raa})elode 

to his wine-drihtne : 

Her syndon geferede, 

feorran cumene 

ofer geofenes begang, 

Geita leode ; 730 

|)one yldestan 

oret-mecgas, • 

Beowulf nemna6. 

Hy benan synt 

J)Bet hie j?e6den min, 

wi6 j>e m5ton 

wordum wrixlan : 

no J)u him wearne geteuh. 

pinra gegn-cwida 

glsedman HroSgar hy 740 

on wig-getawum 

wyrSe ))incea6, 

eorla gea^htlan : 

huru se aldor jjeah, 

se J)sem heaSo-rincum 

hitler wisade. 



He then turn'd ha.stily 

to where Hrothgar sat, 

old and hairless, 

with his assemblage of earls. 

The valour- fani'd chief went 

so that he before the shoulders 

stood 
of the Danes' lord : 
he knew the usage of a court. 
Wulfgar spake 
to his friendly lord : 
" Hither are borne, 
come from afar, 
over ocean's course, 
people of the Goths ; 
the chief 

these sons of conflict 
name Beowulf. 
They are petitioners 
that they, my lord , 
with thee may 
in words converse : 
do not decree them a denial. 
Of thy reciprocal words 
of the pleasure, Hrothgar they, 
in their war- equipments, 
appear worthy, 
of the estimation of earls : 
at least the chief certainly, 
who the warriors 
has led hither. 



739. MS. cwi^a. 



26 



BEOWULF. 



HroSgar majjelode, 
helm Scyldinga : 
Ic hine cu^e 
cniht wesende : 
waes his eald-fseder 
Ecg))e6w haten, 
Jjsem to ham forgeaf 
HreJ)el Geata 
angan dohtor : 
is his eafora nu, 
heard her cumen, 
sohte holdne wine, 
ponne ssegdon )jBet 
S8e.-lij>ende, 
))a ^e gif-sceattas 
Geatum feredon 
}>yder to jjance, 
|)aet he xxx-tiges 
manna msegen-crseft, 
on his mund-gripe 
heaj)0-r6f hsebbe. 
Hine halig God, 
for ar-stafum, 
us onsende, 
to West-Denum : 
jjses ic wen haebbe 



VI. 

Hrothgar spake, 
the Scyldings' helm : 
" I knew him, 

750 being a boy : 

his old father was 
Ecgtheow named, 
to whom at home gave 
Hrethel lord of the Goths 
his only daughter : 
is his offspring now, 
bold, hither come, 
sought a kind friend ? 
For that said 

760 the sea-voyagers, ^ 

who the gift-treasures 
for the Goths bore 
thither gratuitously, 
that he of thirty 
men the mighty power, 
in his hand-gripe, 
the war-fam'd, has. 
Him holy God, 
in his mercies, 

770 to us hath sent, , 

to the West Danes : 
therefore have I hope 



750. Strictly wesendne, accus. masc. but the omission of the n in 
this case is sanctioned by usage. 

752. MS. EcgJ^eo. 756. MS. eaforan. 

762. MS. Geata fyredon. The gifts (1. 761) were sent to appease a 
feud with the Wylfings. See 11. 922-949. The whole account of the 
quarrel is very obscure. 



BEOWULF. 



27 



wis Grendles gryre. 
Ic \>'<em godan sceal, 
for his mod-))raece, 
madmas beodan. 
Beo ))u on ofeste, 
hat in-gan, 
seon sibbe-gedriht 
samod setgsedere. 780 

Gesaga him eac wordum, 
))aet hie synt wil-cuman 
Deniga le5dum 
♦ * * 

word inne ahead : 

Eow het secgan 

sige-drihten min, 

aldor East-Dena, 

\>d£t he eower sejjelu can, 790 

and ge him syndon, 

efer SEe-wj^lmas 

heard-hicgende, 

hider wil-cuman. 

Nu ge moton gangan, 

in eowrum gujj-geatawum, 

under here-griman, 

HroSgar geseon. 

Ljeta^ hilde-bord 

her onbidan, 800 

wudu wael-sceaftas, 

worda ge))inges. 



against Grendel's horror. 

I to the good chief shall 

for his valorous daring, 

treasures offer. 

Be thou speedy, 

bid tliem come in, 

see their kindred band 

assembled together. 

Say to them eke in words, 

that they are welcome guests 

to the Danes' people. 

•F "I* f ^^ 



V<X.W "VNXi 



the words announced : 

" To you bids me say 

my victor-lord, 

prince of the East Danes, 

that your nobility he knows; 

and that ye are to him, 

over the sea-biUows 

boldly striving 

hither, welcome guests. 

Now ye may go, 

in your war-accoutrements, 

under ike martial helm, 

Hrothgar to see. 

Let your war -boards 

here await, 

your spears and deadly shafts, 

the council of words." 



783. Here the text is evidently defective; two lines at least are 
wanting. 

789. At 1. 771 they are called West Danes; elsewhere Soutli D. 
and North D. 

D 2 



28 



BEOWULF. 



Aras J)a, se rica, 
yrnb hine rinc manig, 
|)ry'Slic })egna heap ; 
sume })aer bidon, 
heajjo-reaf heoldon, 
swa him se hearda behead. 
Snvredon aetsomne, 
)j[8er]secg wisode, 8io 

under Heorotes hrof, 
heard under helme, 
J)set he on heo^e gestod. 
Beowulf ma^elode, 
on him b}Tne scan, 
searo-net seowed 
smij)es orjjancum : 
Wes })u Hr65gar hal. 
Ic eom Higelaces 
mjeg and mago-]jegn : 820 
hsebbe ic meerSa fela 
ongunnen on geogojje. 
Me wear6 Grendles jjing, 
on mmre e]jel-tyrf, 
undyme cuS : 
secgaS s^-lic5end 
Jjset jjes sele stande, 
receda selest, 
rinca gehwylcum 
idel and unnyt, 830 

si5(5an sefen-leoht ^ 
vmder heofenes hador 
beholen weor)je6. 



Arose then the mighty chief, 

around him many a warrior, 

a valiant band of thanes ; 

some there remain'd, 

held the war-weeds, 

as them the bold one bade. 

They hasten'd together, 

to where the warrior directed, 

under Heorot's roof, 

the bold one under helm, 

till that on the dais he stood. 

Beowulf spake, 

on him his bymie shone, 

his war-net sewed 

by the smith's devices : 

" Be thou, Hrothgar, hail I 

I am Hygelac's 

kinsman and fellow -warrior : 

I have great deeds many 

undertaken in my youth. 

To me became Grendel's affair, 

on my native turf, 

manifestly known : 

sea-farers say 

that this haU stands, 

this house most excellent, 

for every warrior 

.void and uselegg,^ 

after the evening light 

under heaven's serenity ' . 

is conceal'd. 



818. MS. waes. 

826. Those that conveyed the presents. See 1. 760. 

827. MS. haes. 828. MS. reced selesta. 



BEOWULF. 



29 



pa me })aet geljerdon 

leode mine, 
))a selestan 
snotere ceorlas, 
))e6den HroSgar, 
J)aet ic ]>e sohte ; 
for]>ari hie msegenes creeft 
mine cujjon. 841 

Selfe ofersawon, 
|>a ic of searwum cwom, 
fah from feondum, 
J)8er ic fife geband ; 
ySde eotena cyn, 
and on ySum slog 
niceras nihtes ; 
nearo-jjearfe dreah : 
wrsec Wedera nit5 ; 850 
wean ahsodon ; 
forgrand gramum ; 
and nil wiS Grendel sceal, 
wis J)am aglcccan, 
ana gehegan 
Sing wij) jjyrse. ^. - 
Ic })e nii-J)a, 
I brego beorht-Dena, 
biddan wiUe, 

eodor Scyldinga, 860 

anre bene : 

paet 5u me ne forwyrne, 
wigendra hleo, 
frea-wine folca, 
nil ic ))us feorran com, 
\>xt ic mote ana 



Then me counsel'd 

my people, 

the most excellent 

sagacious men^ 

prince Hrothgar^- 

that I thee should seek ; 

because they of my strength 

the power knew. 

Themselves beheld, 

when from their snares I came, 

blood-stain'd from the foes, 

where five I bound ; 

(the eoten race boil'd with rage) 

and on the billows slew 

nickers by night ; 

pinching want / suffer' d : 

/ aveng'd the Weders' quarrel ; 

(they sought their misery ;) 

fiercely crush' d them ; 

and /now against Grendel shall, 

against that miserable being, 

alone hold 

council with the giant. 

I thee now, 

lord of the bright Danes, 

will beseech, 

protector of the Scyldings, 

one prayer : 

that thou deny me not, 

patron of warriors, 

friend of people, 

now I am thus come from far, 

that I alone mav. 



864. MS. freo. 



30 



BEOWULF. 



[mid] minra eorla gedryht, with the company of my earls 



and }jes hearda heap, 
Heorot faelsian. 
HEebbe ic eac geahsod 870 
))set se seglseca, 
for his wonhydum, 
wa?pna ne recced ; 
ic Jjaet ))onne forhicge, 
swa me Higelac sie, 
mm mon-drihten, 
modes blrSe, 
jjset ic sweord here 
o})(5e sidne scyld, 
geolo-rand to gujje ; 880 
ac ic mid grape sceal 
fon wis feonde, 
and ymb feorh sacan, 
1 laS wis laSum : 
Saer gelyfan sceal 
Dryhtnes dome, 
se ]>e hine deaS nimeS. 
Wen' ic Jjaet he wille, 
gif he wealdan mot, 
in J>£era guS-sele, 890 

Geotena leode 
etan unforhte, 
swa he oft dyde 
msegen HreSmanna. 
No Jjii minne ))earft 
hafelan hydan, 



and this bold band, 

Heorot purify. 

I have also heard 

that the miserable being, 

in his heedlessness, 

of weapons recks not ; 

I then will disdain 

(so to me may Hygelac be, 

my liege lord, 

bhthe of mood) 

to bear a sword 

or ample shield, 

a yellow disk, to battle ; 

but with grasp I shall 

grapple with the enemy, 

and for life contend, 

foe against foe : 

there shall trust 

in the Lord's doom, 

he whom death shall take. 

I ween that he will, 

if he may prevail, 

in the martial hall, 

Me. Goths' people 

eat fearlessly, 

as he oft has done 

the Hrethmen's strength. 

Thou wilt not need my 

head to hide ; 



867. mid supplied as necessai-y to the construction. See 1/720. 

872. Rather wonhygdum. 

896. MS. hafalan. Thou wilt not need, etc., i. e. in the earth, or 
thou wilt have no occasion to bury me, as my body will be devoured 
by Grendel. 



BEOWULF. 



31 



ac he me habban wile 

dreore fahne, 

gif raec detiS niraeS ; 

byreS blodig wael, 900 

byrgean ])ence6 ; 

eteC angenga 

unmumlice ; 

mearcaS mor-hopu. 

N5 J)u ymb mines ne jjearft 

lices feorme 6 • 7 • 

leng sorgian. 

Onsend Higelace, 

gif mec hild nime, 

beadu-scriida betst, â–  910 

)>8et mine breost wereS, 

hraegla selest ; 

|jaet is Hrsedlan laf, 

Welandes geweorc : 

gceS a wyrd swa hio sceal. 



for he will have me 

stain'd with gore, 

if me death shall take ; 

will bear off my bloody corse, 

will resolve to feast on it ; 

the lonely tvretch will eat it 

without compunction ; 

he 7??y moor-mound will mark out. 

Thou needest not about the 

feeding on my carcase 

longer care. 

Send to Hygelac, 

if the conflict take me of, 

the best of battle-shrouds, 

that defends my breast, 

of vests most excellent ; 

it is Hrsedla's legacy, 

Weland's work : 

fate goes ever as it must.^' 



VII. 



HroSgar ma))elode, 
helm Scyldinga : 
Fore fyhtum ]>u, , . 
freond rain Beowulf, 
and for ar-stafum, 
usic sohtest. 
Gesloh \>m feeder 
faehtJe mseste : 



920 



Hrothgar spake, 

the Scyldings' helm : 

" For battles thou, 

my friend Beowulf, 

and for honour, 

us hast sought. 

Thy father quell'd in fight 

the OTcatest feud : 



898. MS. deore. 

904. The mound over the urn or vessel containing his bones. 

915. MS. seel. 918. fere. 

919. MS. wine, with no alliteration. 



32 



BEOWULF. 



weal's he HeaSolafe 

to hand-bonan 

mid Wylfingum, 

t>a hine gara cyn, 

foi* here-brogan, 

habban ne mihte. 

panon he gesohte 

Su6-Dena folc 

ofer yt5a gewealc, 

Ar«Scyldingum, 

J)a ic furjjum weold 

folce Deniga, 

and on geogoSe heold 

ginne ricu, 

hord-burh haele]>a. 

pa wses Heregar dead, 

min yldra mseg 

unlifigende, 

beam Healfdenes ; 

se wses betera J)onne ic : 

siSSan ])a fgehSe 

feo Jjingode ; 



he was of Heatholaf 

the slayer, 

with the Wyltings, 

when him the Waras' race, 

for martial dread, 

might not have. 
930 Thence he sought 

the South Danes' folk 

over the rolling of the waves, 

a messenger to the Scyl dings, 

when I first nil'd 

the Danes' people, 

and in youth held 

spacious realms, 

the treasure-city of men. 

Then was Heregar dead, 
940 my elder brother 

not living, 

the son of Healfdene ; 

he was better than I : 

afterwards that quarrel 

/ with money settled ; 



926, 927. Between these lines there is no alhteration. 1 will not 
ventui'e on an emendation in the dark, tliough I have little doubt that 
for gara we should read Wara. But who were the Waras ? Possibly 
the people of Warnsland, or Warendsharad, a district of Smaland. Or 
is Waracyn (like Hae'Scyn) a person's name ? The whole passage about 
Heatholaf is extremely obscure. â–  Ecgtheow appears to have fought on 
the side of the Wylfings. 

933. ;MS dinga, but Thorkelin has Scyldinga, and no doubt 

the word in his time was perfect ; though it seems certain that we 
should read Scyldingum : for how could Ecgtheow the Goth be an 
envoy o/the Scyldings.' See 1. 762 for a similar error. 

935. MS. Deninga. 

937. MS. gimme rice. See Ccedmon, 15. 8. 

94S. See 1. 315. 



BEOWULF. 



33 



sende ic Wylfingum, 

ofer wacteres hrycg 

ealde madmas : 

he me aSas swor. 

Sorh is me t5 secganne, 950 

on sefan minum, 

gumena sengum, 

hwaet me Grendel hafaS 

hynSo on Heorote, 

mid his hete-])ancum, 

facr-niSa gefremed. 

Is mm flet-werod, 

wig-heap, gewanod ; 

hie wyrd forsweop 

on Grendles giyre. 960 

God eaSe maeg 

))one dol-sceaSan 

daeda getwsefan. 

Ful oft gebeotedon, 

beore druncne, 

ofer ealo-wsege, 

oret-mecgas, 

jwt hie in beor-sele 

bidan woldon 

Grendles gu]>e 970 

mid gryrum ecga : 

])onne waes ]>e6s medo-heal, 

on morgen-tid, 

driht-sele dreor-fah; 

)>onne daeg Hxte, 
eal benc-])elu 
blode bestymed. 



I sent to the Wylfings, 

over the water's back, 

old treasures : 

he to me swore oaths. 

Sorrow is to me to say, 

in my mind, 

to any man, 

what for me Grendel has 

disgrace in Heorot, 

with his hostile de\ices, 

what sudden mischiefs perpe- 
trated. 

My court-retainers are, 

my martial band, diminished ; 

them fate has swept away 

in horror of Grendel. 

God easily may 

the doltish spoiler 

from his deeds sever. 

Full oft have promis'd, 

with beer drunken, 

over the ale-cup, 

sons of conflict, 

that they in the beer-hall 

would await 

Grendel's warfare 

with terrors of edges : 

then was this mead-hall, 

at morning-tide, 

this princely court, stain'd with 
gore ; 

when the day dawn'd, 

all the bench-floor 

with blood besteam'd. 



34 



BEOWULF. 



heall heoru-dreore : 
ahte ic holdra ]>y Ises, 

deorre duguSe, 
))e ))a deaS fornam. 
Site nu t5 symlej 
and onssel meodo, 
sige-hreSer secgum, 

swa J)in sefa hwette. 
pa waes Geat-msecgum 
geador-aetsomne 
on beor-sele 
bene gerymed : 
J>8er swi^ferh))e 
sittan e5don 
fry^um dealle : 
))egn nytte beheold, 
86 ]>e on handa bser 
hroden ealo-w£ege, 
scencte scir-wered ; 
scop hwiluin sang 
hador on Heorote : 
)>aer waes hseleSa dream, 
duguS unlytel, ic 

Dena and Wedera. 



the hall, with horrid gore : 
of {BxtMul followers I own'd the 
less, 

980 of dear nobles, 

whom then death destroyed. 
Sit now to the feast, 
and unbind with mead 
thj/ valiant breast with my war- 
riors, 
as thy mind may excite." 
Then was for the sons of the Goths 
altogether 
in the beer-hall 
a bench clear'd : 

990 there the strong of soul 
went to sit 

tumultuously rejoicing : 
the thane observ'd his duty, 
who in his hand bare 
the ornamented ale- cup, 
Aepour'dMe bright, sweetliquor; 
the gleeman sang at times 
serene in Heorot : 
there was joy of warriors, 
no few nobles, 
of Danes and Weders. 



HunferS ma))elode, 
Ecglafes beam, 
]je set fotum sset 
frean Scyldinga ; 



VIII. 



983. MS. meoto. 



Hunferth spake, 
Ecglafs son, 
who at the feet sat 
of the Scyldings' lord ; 
984. MS. hre^. 



BEOWULF. 



35 



onband beadu-rune. 
Wa?s him Beowulfes siS, 

raodges mere-faran, 

micel sef))unca; 

for))on ]>e he ne uj)e loio 

jjst fenig oJ)er man 

aefre nicercSa ma, 

middangeardes 

gehedde under heofenura 

j)onne he sylfa : 

Eart jju se Beowulf 

se J)e wis Brecan wunne 

on sidne Sce, 

}Tnb sund-flite, 

]>XT git for wlence 1020 

wada cunnedon. 

and for dol-gilpe 

on deop wteter 

aldrum ne}>don ? 

Ne inc senig mon, 

ne leof ne laS, 

belean mihte 

sorhfulne si8, 

))a git on sund reon, 

jjaer git eagor- stream, 1030 

earmum ))ehton, 

raseton mere-strEeta, 

mundum brugdon, 

glidon ofer garsecg ; 

geofon yjjum weol, 

wintres wylme : 

git on wseteres seht 

IOI3. MS. |>on ma. 



unbound a hostile speech. 
To him was the voyage of Beo- 
wulf, 
the bold sea-farer, 
a great displeasure ; 
because he grudged 
that any other man 
ever more glories 
of mid- earth 
held under heaven 
than himself : 
" Art thou the BeowiUf 
who with Breca strove 
on the wide sea, 
in a swimming strife, 
where ye from pride 
tempted the fords, 
and for fooUsh vaunt 
in the deep water 
ventured you)' hves ? ' 
Nor vou any man, 
nor friend nor foe, 
might blame 

for your sorrowful voyage, 
when on the sea ye row'd, 
when ye the ocean-stream, 
with your arms deck'd, 
measur'd the sea-ways, 
with ymir hands vibrated them. 
ghded o'er the main ; 
ocean boil'd with waves, 
with winter's fury : 
ye on the water's domain, 

1036. MS. wintrys wylm. 



ce 



BEOWULF. 



for seven nights toil'd. 

He thee in swimming overcame, 

Tie had more strength, 

when him at morning tide, 

on to Heatho-rsemes 

1 
(lie sea bore up ; 

whence he sought 
hh dear country, 
the beloved of his people, 
the Brondings' land, 
his fair, peaceful burgh, - 
where he a people own'd, 
a burgh and rings. 
All his promise to thee 
Beanstan's son * 

truly fulfil'd. 
Now I expect from thee 
worse things, 

though thou in martial on- 
slaughts 
hast every where excel'd, 
in grim war, 
if thou to Grendel durst 
a night-long space 
near abide." 
Beowulf spake, 
Ecgtheow's son : 
" Well ! thou a great deal, 
my friend Hunferth, 
drunken with beer, 
hast about Breca spoken, 

1045. This is the rune denoting the word eiSel : swees may be ren- 
dered own. 
1055. Hngea. 



seofon-niht swuncon. 

He J)e set sunde oferflat, 

haefde mare msegen, 1040 

})a bine on morgen-tid, 

on Heajjo-raemis 

holm up-setbser ; 

}>onon he gesohte 

swcesne .^• 

leof his leodum, 

lond Brondinga, 

freo6o-burh faegere, 

J)ser he folc ahte, 

burh and beagas. 1050 

Be5t eal wiS ])e 

sunu Beanstanes 

so^e gelceste. 

Donne wene ic to j)e 

wyrsan ]?inga, 

})eah )ju heajjo-rsesa 

gehwiKr dohte. 

grimre gu6e, 

gif )>u Grendles dearst 

niht-longne fyrst 1060 

nean bidan. 

Beowulf majjelode, 

beam Ecg))e6\ves : 

Hwaet ))u worn fela, 

wine min HunferS, 

beore druncen, 

ymb Brecan spreece, 



BEOWULF. 



V 



3segdest from his sHe ; 

soS ic talige, 

))8et ic mere-strengo 1070 

maran ahte, 

earfeSo on y})um, 

jjonne eenig ojjer man. 

Wit ))8et gecwcedon, 

cniht wesende, 

and gebeotedon, 

wseron begen l>a-git 

on geogo6-feore, 

\)Xt wit on garsecg ut 

aldrum neSdon, 1080 

and ))?et gejefodon swa. 

Haefdon swurd nacod, 

\>a wit on sund reon, 

heard on handa : 

wit unc wi6 hron-fixas 

werian ))6hton. 

N5 he wiht fram me 

fl6d-yj)um feor 

fleotan raeahte, 

hra))or on holme ; 1090 

no ic fram him wolde. 

pa wit setsomne 

on sse wseron 

fif nihta f jrrst, 

o))|)8et unc flod todraf ; 

wado weallende 
wedera cealdost, 
' nipende niht, 
and nor))an wind, 
heaSo-grim andhwearf : 



hast said of his course. 

The sooth I tell, 

that I strength at sea 

greater possess'd, 

enduraTice on the waves, 

than any other man. ' 

We agreed, 

being striplings, 

and promised, 

(toe were both yet 

in youthful life,) 

that we on the ocean out 

our lives would venture, 

and that tve thus accomplish'd. 

We had a naked sword, 

when on the deep we row'd, 

hard in hand : 

as we us against the whale-fishes 

meant to defend. 

He not aught from me ' 

far on the flood-waves â–  , 

could float, 

not in the sea more swiftly ; 

nor would I go from him. 

Then we together 

were in the sea 

a five-nights' space, 

till that the flood drove us 

asunder ; 
the boiling fords 
the coldest of tempests, 
cloudy night, 
and the north wind, 
deadly grim threw up 

E 



3S 



BEOWULF. 



hreo wjeron yjja, iioi 

waes mere-fixa 
mod onhrered : 
J>3er me wiS laSum 
lic-syrce mm, 
heard hond-locen, 
helpe gefremede ; 
beado-hrsegl broden 
ion breostum Iseg 
golde geg}Twed. iii< 

Me to grunde teah 
fah feond-scaSa, 
feste hsefde 
grim on grape ; 
hwae))re me gyfejje wear6, 
|>3et ic agleecan 
orde geraehte, 
hilde bille. 
HeaJ)o-r2es fornam 
mihtig mere-deor 
|)urh mine hand. 



rough were the billows, 

of the sea-fishes was 

the rage excited : 

there me against the foes 

my body-sark, 

hard, hand-lock'd, 

afi"orded help ; 

my braided war-rail 

on my breast lay 

with gold adom'd. 

Me to the ground drew 

a many-colour'd foe, 

fast had me 

a grim one in his grasp ; 

yet was it granted me, 

that I the miserable being 

reach'd with my point, 

with my war-falchion. 

A deadly blow destrov'd 



',1120 the mighty sea-beast 
> ^^^ through my hand. 



IX. 



Swa mec gelome 
Ia8-gete6nan 
Jjreatedon ))earle : 
ic him ])enode 
deoran sweorde, 
swa hit gedefe wajs. 
Nses hie Ssere fj'lle 
gefean hsefdon, 
man-fordsedlan, 
l^ast hie me ))egon, 



1130 



Thus me frequently 
my hated foes 
threaten'd violently : 
I serv'd them 
with my dear sword, 
as it was fitting. 
Not they of that glut 
had joy, 

the foul destroyers, 
in eating me, 



BEOWULF. 



39 



aymbel yn)bsseton 

sie-grunde neah : 

ac on mergeune, 

mecum wunde, 

be yS-lafe 

uppe-lipgon, 

sweojtum aswefede ; 

\>eei sy3j)an na 

ymb brontne ford 1 140 

brim-liSende 

lade ne letton. 

Leoht eastan com, 

beorht beacen Godes, 

brimu sweJ>rodon, 

jjaet ic sae-naessas 

geseon mihte, 

windige weallas. 

Wyrd oft nereS 

unfsegne eorl, 11 50 

|)onne his ellen deah. 

Hwsejjere me gesaelde 

jjset ic mid sweorde ofsloh 

niceras nigene. 

No ic on niht gefrsegn, 

under heofenes hwealf, 

heardran feohtan, 

ne on eg-streamum 

earmran mannan ; 

hwsejjere ic fara feng, 1 1 60 

feore gedigde, 

sijjes werig. 

pa mec sse ojjbser, 

flod aefter faro6e, 

1 145. MS. swaJ>redon. 



in sitting round the feast 
near to the sea-ground : 
but in the morning, 
with falchions wounded, 
along the waves' leaving, 

Up?%lay, :^.Ci^,rU 

put to sleep iirshoals ; 
so that not afterwards 
about the surgy ford 
to ocean sailers 
have they the way hinder'd. 
Light came from the east,.. -' 
God's bright beacon, 
the seas grew calm, 
so that the sea-nesses I 
might see, 
windy walls. 
Fate often saves 
an undoom'd man, 
when his valour avails. 
Yet 'twas my lot 
that with my sword I slew 
nickers nine. r 

I have not heard of by night, 
under heaven's vault, 
a harder fight, 

nor in the ocean-streams ^ 
a man more miserable ; 
yet from the grasp of dangers 1 
with life escap'd, 
of my journey weary. , 
Then the sea bore me away, 
the flood along the shore, 
1 159. MS. mannon. 
E 2 



40 



BEOWULF. 



on Finna land, 

wadu weallende. 

No ic wiht fram jje 

swylcra searu-niSa 

secgan hjrde, 

billa brogan. 1 1 

Breca naefre git, 

set heajjo-lace, 

ne gehwsejjer incer 

swa deorlice 

dsede gefremede 

fagum sweordum. 

No ic jjaes gylpe, 

))eah Su J)inum broSrura 

to banan wurde, 

heafod-nasegum ; 

)>3es )>u in helle sceedt 

werhSo dreogan, 

))eah ]nn wit duge. 

Secge ic ]je to soSe, 

sunu Ecglafes, 

^dst nsefre Grendel swa fela 

giyra gefremede, 

atol aeglzeca, 

ealdre j^inum, 

hynSo on Heorote, 1190 

gif j)in hige weere, 

sefa swa searo-grim, 

swa ]>n self talast. 

Ac he hafaS onfunden, 

)jaet he j)a fcehSe ne ))earf, 

atole ecg-]jrsece 



on the Fins' land, 
the boiling fords. 
I never aught of thee 
of such hostile snares 
have heard sav, 
such falchions' terrors. 
Breca never yet, 
at the game of war, 
nor either of you, 
so dearly 
deed perform'd 
with hostile swords. 
(Of this I boast not), 
although thou of thy brothers 
wast the murderer, 
1 1 80 thy chief kinsmen ; 

for which in hell thou shalt 

damnation suffer, 

although thy wit be good. 

I say to thee in sooth, 

son of Ecglaf, 

that never Grendel so many 

horrors had perpetrated, 

the fell wretch, 

against thy prince, 

harm in Heorot, 

if thy spirit were, 

thy mind so war-fierce, • 

as thou thyself supposest. 

But he has found, 

that he the hostility needs not, 

the fell sword- strength 



1 1 65. See Index of Folks and Countries. 

1 1 66. MS. wudu weallendu. i^TS- 



MS. dsd. 



BEOWULF. 



41 



eower leode, 
svviSe onsittan, 
sige-Scyldinga ; 
nymeS nj'd-bade, 
nsenegum araS 
leode Deniga ; 
ac he lust-wigeS, 
swefeS ond scendeS, 
ssecce ne wene)) 
to Gar-Denum ; 
ac him Geata sceal 
eafo(5 and ellen, 
ungeara mi 
gu)>e gebeodan. 
GceS eft se ]>e mot 
to medo modig, 
sitJSan morgen-leoht, 
ofer ylda beam, 
ojjres dogores, 
sunne swegel-weard 
su))an scineS. 
pa wses on salum 
sinces brytta, 
gamol-feax and gu5-r6f, 
geoce gelj-fde 1221 

brego beorht-Dena : 
gehyrde on Beowulfe 
folces hyrde 
fsestrsedne gej)6ht. 
} paer waes hselej^a hleahtor, 
^ hlyn swjmsode. 



of your people, 

greatly care for, 

of the victor-Scyldings ; 
200 he takes a forced pledge, 

on none has mercy, 

of the Danes' people ; 
_^ but he wars ^ pleasure; 

slays and shends you, 

nor strife expects 

from the Gar- Danes ; 

but a Goth shall him 

toil and valour, 

now unexpectedly, 
2io*Hattle, offer. ^ 

Shall go afterwards he who may, 

elate to the mead, 

after the morning light, 

over the children of men, 

of the second day, 

the sun, heaven's guardian, 

from the south shines." 

Then was rejoiced 

the distributor of treasure, 

hoary-lock'd and war-fam'd, 

trusted in succour 

the bright Danes' lord : 

in Beowulf heard 

the people's shepherd 

steadfast resolve. 

There was laughter of men, 

the din resounded. 






b 



v: 



1204. MS. sende^. 

1 2 16. MS. wered. In Judith, 144. 4, the Almighty is designated 
swegles weard. 

E3 



42 



BEOWULF. 



word wseron wvnsume ; 

code Wealh)?e5w for6, 

cwen HroSgares ; 1 230 

c}T\na gemyndig, 

grette gold-hroden 

guraan on healle, 

and \>a freolic wif 

ful gesealde 

serest East-Dena 

ejjel-wearde ; 

baed hine bK6ne [be5n] 

set ))£ere be6r-J)ege, 

leodum leofne. 

He on lust[e] gejiah 

symbel and sele-ful, 

sige-r5f kyning. 

Ymb-eode j>a 

ides Helminga 

dugu))e and geogo)>e 

dael seghwylcne, 

sinc-fato sealde, 

oJj))aet SEel alamp, 

))set bio Beowulfe, 1250 

beag-hroden cwen, 

mode gejjungen, 

medo-ful aetbser : 

grette Geata leod, 

Gode jjancode 

wisfsest wordum, 

J>ae5 ))e bire se willa gelamp, 

J)aet heo on senigne 

eorl gelyfde, 



words were winsome ; 
Wealbtbeow went forth, 

Hrotbgar's queen ; 
mindful of their races, 

the gold-adom'd one greeted 

the men in ball, 

and then the joyous woman 

gave the cup 

first to the East-Danes' 

countn,'s guardian ; 

bade bim [be] blithe 

at tbe beer-drinking, 
1240 the dear to bis people. 

He joyfully partook of 

the feast and ball-cup, 

the king renown'd for victory. 

Went round tben 

the Helmings' dame 

of old and young 

every part, 

treasure vessels gave, 

untU occasion offer'd, 
1250 tbat sbe to Beowulf, 

the ring-adorned queen, 

of mind exalted, 

the mead-cup bore : 

greeted the Goths' lord, 

tbank'd God 

sagacious in words, 

that the will bad befall'n her, 

that she in any 

warrior should trust, 



fyrena fr5fre. 1260 for comfort against crimes. 

1238. beon is added from conjecture. 1241. MS. geheah. 



BEOWULF. 



43 



He Jjset ful ge))ah 

wael-reow wiga, 

set Wealhjjeowe, 

and ))a gyddode, 

gu})e gefysed : 
,^ Beowulf raa])elode, 

beam Ecg)>e6wes : 

Ic |)set hogode, 
L^, J»a ic on holm gestah, 
'- sse-bat gesset, 1270 

mid minra secga gedriht, 

))8et ic anunga 

eowra leoda 

willan geworhte, 

o))6e on wsel crunge, 

feond-grapum fsest. 

Ic gefremman sceal 

eorlic ellen, 

oJjSe ende-dseg, 

on jjisse meodu-healle, 1 280 

minne gebidan. 

para wife J)a word 

wel licodon, 

gilp-cwide Geates ; 

eode gold-hroden, 

freolicu folc-cwen, 
yfto hire frean sittan. 

pa wses eft swa tcr, 

inne on healle, 

)jry8-word sprecen, 1290 

8e6d on sjelum, 

sige-folca sweg, 

oJ)))aet semninga 

1261. MS. ge]>eah. 



He of the cup partook, 

the fierce warrior, 

from Wealhtheow, 

and then said, 

for battle eager : 

Beowulf spake, 

Ecgtheow's son : 

" I resolv'd, 

when on the main I went, 

the sea-boat occupied, 

with my warrior band, 

that I alone 

your people's 

wUl would work, 

or bow in death, 

fast in hostile grasps. 

I shall perform 

deeds of noble valour, 

or my last day, 

in this mead-hall, 

await." 

The woman those words 

weU lik'd, 

the Goths' proud speech ; 

adorn' d with gold went 

the joyful people's queen, 

by her lord to sit. 

Then was again as ere, 

within the haU, 

the bold word spoken, 

the people joyous, 

the ^•ictor nations' cry, 

untU suddenly ,'•;«• y'*' -j 

1263. MS. Wealhjjeon. 






44 



BEOWULF. 






sunu Healfdenes 
secean wolde 
aefen-reste : 
wiste j)aem ahlEecan 
-"' to J>8em heah-sele 
hilde ge|)inged, 
si65an hie sunnan leoht 
geseon [ne] meahton, 1301 
oJ)6e nipende 
niht ofer ealle, 
scadu-helm gesceapa, 

scriSan cwome, 
wan under wolcnum. 
f Werod eall aras ; 
grette ]>a. 
gum a o})erne, 
Hr66gar Beowulf, 13 10 
and him hael ahead, 
win-sernes geweald, 

and Jjset word acwseS : 

Nsefre ic senegum men 

cer alyfde, 

siJjSan ic hond and rond 

hehhan mihte, 

Sry]j-8ern Dena, 

buton J>e nu-])a. 

Hafa nu and geheald 1320 

husa selest ; 

gerayne mEerJjo, 



Healfdene's son 

would seek 

his evening rest : 

he knew for the miserable 

in the high hall 

conflict was destin'd, 

after the sun's light- they 

might [not] see, 

or murky 

night over all 

(the shadow-covering of crea- 
tures) 

came advancing, 

dusky under the clouds. 

The company aU arose ; 

greeted then 

one man another, 

Hrothgar Beowulf, 

and bade him hail, 

gave him command of the wine- 
hall, 

and the word said : 

" Never have I to any man 

before entrusted, 

since I hand and shield 

could raise, 

the Danes' festive hall, 

save now to thee. 

Have now and hold 

the best of houses ; 

be of glory mindful, 



1296. MS. rseste. 1301. ne inserted from conjecture. 

1304. BIS. scadu helma gesceapu. 

1305. MS. cwoman. 



BEOWULF. 



45 



raacgen-eUen cy5, 
waca wis wrajjum : 
ne biS \>e wilna gad, 

gif \>u jjitt ellen-weorc 
aldre gedigest. 



show ihy mighty valour, 
keep watch against the foes ; 
no lack of things desirable shall 

be for thee, 
if thou that work of valour 
with life escapest from. 



pa him Hro8gar gewat 
mid his hcclejja gedryht, 
eodur Scyldinga, 1330 

I ut of heaUe : 
wolde wig-fruma 
WealhJ)e6w secan, 
cwen to gebeddan. 
Haefde kyninga wuldor 
Grendle to-geanes, 
swa guman gefrugnon, 
sele-weard aseted : 
sunder-nytte beheold 
ymb aldor Dena, 1340 

eoten weard ahead. 
Huru Geata leod 
georne truwode 
modgan maegnes, 
Metodes hyldo. 
Da he him ofdyde 
isern-byman, 



Hrothgar then departed 

with his band of warriors, 

the Scyldings' protector. 

out of the hall : 

the martial leader would 

Wealhtheow seek, 

the queen, as bed-companion. 

The glory of kings had 

against Grendel, 

as men have heard tell, 

a hall-ward set : 

he held a separate office 

about the prince of the Danes, 

the ward announced the eoten. 

But the Goths' chief 

well trusted in 

his haughty might, 

his Creator's favour. 

Then he doff'd from him 

his iron bvrnie, 



1325. i. e. of things to be desired, desiderabilia. 
1333. MS. Wealh^eo. 1335. MS. kyning. 

'337- ^IS- gefrungon. 

1 341. MS. eoton. It was his office to announce the monster'; 
approach. 



46 



BEOWULF. 



helm of hafelan, 

sealde his hyrsted sweord, 

irena cyst, 1350 

ombiht-jjegne, 

and gehealdan het 

hilde geatwe. 

Gespraec jja se goda 

gylp-worda sum, 

Beowulf Geata, 

ser he on bed stige : 

No ic me an here-waestmum 

hnagran talige, 

gu5-gevreorca, 1360 

J)onne Grendel hine ; 

for))an ic hine sweorde 

swebban nelle, 

aldre bene5tan, 

J)eah ic ea6e msege. 

Nat he J>£ere gu6e, 

Jjaet he me ongean slea, 

rand geheawe, 

Jjeah 8e he rof sie 

niJ)-geweorca : 1370 

ac A%-it on niht sculon, 

saecce ofersittan, 

gif he gesecean dear 

wig ofer wgepeu ; 

and siJjSan witig God, 

on swa-hw8e]jere bond, 

halig Diyhten, 

mcerSo deme, 

1358. MS. wsesmun. 
1366. MS. J)ara goda. 
1373. MS. het. 



the helmet from his head, 

gave his ornate sword, 

choicest of irons, 

to an attendant, 

and bade him hold 

the gear of war. 

Spake the good chief xhen 

some words of pride, 

Beowulf the Goth, 

ere on his bed he stept : 

"1 myself «?o not'va. martial vigour 

feebler account, v-^ •-■-'• 

of warlike works, 

than Grendel does himself; 

therefore I him with sword 

will not lull to rest, 

of life deprive, 

although I easUy may. 

He knows not of that warfare, 

that he strike against me, 

hew my shield, 

fam'd though he be 

for hostile works : 

but we two shall to-night 

apply ourselves to strife, - 

if he dare seek 

war -w-ithout weapon ; 

and afterwards the wise God, 

on whichsoever hand, 

the holy Lord, 

shall glory doom, 

1365. MS. eal. 
1372. MS. secge. 



BEOWULF. 



47 



swa him gemet ))ince. 
Hylde hine ))a hea)>o-de6r, 

hleor bolster onfeng, 1381 

eorles andwlitan ; 
i^ and hine ymb monig 
^nellic s?e-rinc 

sele-reste gebeah. 

Nsenig heora )>6hte 

jjaet he J»anon scolde 

eft eard-lufan 

aefre gesecean, 

folc o)>8e freo-burh, 1390 

)>8er he afeded wses ; 

ac hie hsefdon gefruuen 
jjset hie 

aer to fela micles, 

in J>sem win-sele, 

wael-deaS fomam, 

Deniga leode. 

Ac him Dryhten forgeaf 

wig-speda gewiofu ; 

Wedera leodum, 

frofor and fultum, 1400 

]>aet hie feond heora, 

5urh anes crseft, 

ealle ofercomon, 

selfes mihtum. 

S6S is gecv]>ed, 

\nei mihtig God 

manna cynnes weold. 

Wide-ferhS com, 

on wanre niht, 

1^8. MS. earS. 



as to him meet shall seem. 
Inclin'd him then the martial 

beast, 
the bolster received his cheek, 
the warrior's face ; 
and around him many a 
keen seaman 
bow'd to his hall-couch. 
Not one of them thought 
that he should thence 
his lov'd home again 
ever seek, 

his people or free city, 
where he was nurtur'd ; 
for they had heard tell that of 

them 
before by much too many, 
in that wine-hall, 
a bloody death had taken, 
of the Danes' people. 
But to them the Lord gave 
the webs of battle-speed ; 
to the Weders' people, 
comfort and succour, 
so that they their foe, 
by might of one, 
all overcame, 
by his single powers. 
Trtdy is it shown, 
that mighty God 
rules the race of men. 
From afar came, 
in the murky night, 
1392. hyra? 



4S 



BEOWULF. 



scriSan sceadu-genga; 1410 

sce5tend swcefon, 

\>a. {)aet horn-reced 

healdan scoldon, 

eaile buton anum. 

paet wses yldam cuS, 

]?3et hie ne moste, 

J)a Metod nolde, 

se syn-scajja 

under sceadu bregdan ; 

ac he wgeccende 1420 

wrajjum on andan, 

bad bolgen-mod 

beadwe gej)inges. . 



the shadow-walker stalking ; 

the warriors slept, 

who that pinnacled mansion 

should defend, 

an save one. 

It to men was known, 

that them might not 

(since the Lord will'd it not) 

the sinful spoiler 

under the shade drag off. 

But he watching 

in hate the foe, 

in angry mood awaited 

the battle-meeting. 



pa com of more, 

under mist-hleojjum, 

Grendel gongan ; 

Godes yiTe bser : 

mynte se man-sca6a 

manna cynnes 

sumne bes}T-wan 1430 

in sele |)am hean. 

W6d under wolcnum, 

to Jjses Jje he win-reced, 

gold-sele gumena, 

gearwost wisse, 

fsettum fahne. 

Ne wses J)8et forma si^ 

Jjset he Hr5]jgares 

1414. anum, L e. Beowulf. 
1423. MS. beadwa. 



XI. 

Then came from the moor, 

under the misty hills, 

Grendel stalking ; 

he God's anger bare : 

expected the wicked spoiler 

of the race of men 

one to ensnare 

in the lofty hall. 

He strode under the clouds, 

until he the wine-house, 

the golden hall of men, 

most readily perceiv'd, 

richly variegated. 

Nor was that time the first 

that he Hrothgar's 

1420. he, i. e. Beowulf. 



BEOWULF. 



49 



ham gesohte. 

Naefre he on aldor-dagum, 

XT ne si))Â¥an, 1441 

heardran hsele, 
- beal-J)egnas fand. 

Com J)a to recede 

rinc simian, 

dreamum bedseled ; 

duru sona on-arn 

fyr-bendum faest, 

sy{>^an he hire folmum 
[hran] ; 

onbrsed ]>& bealo-hydig, 1450 

|)a he abolgen wses, 

recedes mu]?an : 

ra})e sefter }>on 
Ton fagne flor 

feond treddode ; 

eode yrre-mod ; 

him of eagum stod, 

lige gelicost, 

leoht unfaeger. 

Geseah he in recede 1460 

rinca manige 

swefan sibbe-gedriht 

samod- setgseder e , 

mago-rinca heap ; 

|)a his mod ahlog : 

mynte jjaet he gedcelde, 

8er|)on dseg cwome. 



home had sought. 

Never in his life-days he, 

ere nor since, 

a bolder n«», 

or hall- thanes found. 

Came then to the mansion 

the man journeying, 

of joys depriv'd ; 

forthwith on the door henwiTa, 

fast with ^re-hard bands, 

then he with his hands it 

[touch'd] ; 
undrew then the baleful minded 
(as he was angry) 
the mansion's mouth : 
soon after that 
on the variegated floor 
the fiend trod ; 
went wroth of mood ; 
from his eyes stood, 
to flame most like, 
a horrid light. 
He in the mansion saw 
warriors many 
sleeping, a kindred band, 
all together, 

a company of fellow-warriors ; 
then his mood laugh'd : 
he expected that he would 

separate, 
ere the day came. 



1449. ^^J^ is supplied to complete the sense, 
aethran ; but the set is needless. 
1458. MS. ligge. 

F 



Rask conjecturfd 



50 



BEOWULF. 



atol aglseca, 
anra gehwylces 
lif wi^ lice ; 
j)a him alumpen wses 
wist-fylle wen : 
ne waes wyrd J)a-gen, 
})aet he ma moste 
manna cynnes 
^icgean ofer ))a niht. 
pryS-swy^ beheold 
meeg Higelaces 
hu se man-sca^a, 
under faer-gripum, 
gefaran wolde. 
Ne Jsaet se aglseca 
yldan ))6hte ; 
ac he gefeng hra^e, 
forman siSe, 
slsependne rinc, 
slat unweamum, 
bat ban-locan, 
blod edrum dranc, 
syn-sneedum swealh ; 
sona hsefde 
unlifigendes 
eal gefeormod, 
Ifet and folma : 
forS near setstop, 
nam pa, mid handa 
hige-])ihtigne 
rinc on reste. 
Rsehte ongean 
feond mid folme ; 



the fell wretch, 

of every one 
1470 life from body ; 

then had arisen in him 

hope of a dainty glut : 

yet 'twas not his fate, 

that he might more 

of the race of men ^, 

eat after that night. 

Beheld the strenuous 

kinsman of Hygelac 

how the wicked spoiler, ^fef^ 
1480 during his sudden grasps, 

would proceed. 

Nor did that the miserable wight Z^- 

mean to delay ; h^jcuJUJL 

for he quickly seiz'd, 

at the first time, 

a sleeping warrior, 

tore him unaw&res, 

bit his bone-casings, 

the blood drank from his veins, 
1 490 in endless morsels swallow 'd him; 

soon had he 

of the lifeless 

all devour'd, 

feet and hands : 

nearer forth he stept, 

took then with his hand 

the doughty-minded 

warrior on his couch. 

He reach'd towards 
1500 the foe with his hand ; 
1498. MS. rseste. 



BEOWULF. 



51 



he onfeng hra))e 

inwit-)jancum, 

and yvrS earm gesaet. 

Sona }>set onfunde 

fyrena hyrde, 

jwet he ne mette 

middangeardes, 

eor})an sceatta, 

on elran men, 

mund-gripe maran, 15 lo 

he on m5de wear^ 

forht on ferh^e ; 

no Jjy sr fram meahte ; 

hyge wses him hinfiis, 
wolde on heolster fleon, 
secan deofla gedraeg ; 
ne wses his drohto^ Jjaer 
swylce he on ealder-dagum 
aer gemette. 

Gemunde J)a se g5da 1520 
maeg Higelaces 
jefen-spraece ; 
uplang astod, 
and him faeste wi^-feng ; 
fingras burston, 
eoten waes utweard ; 
eorl furjjur stop ; 
mynte se mjera 
hwae})er he meahte swa 
widre gewindan, 1530 

and on-weg Jjanon 
fle5n on fen-hopu ; 
ifoi. he, i. e. BeowiUf. 



he instantly perceiv'd 

the guileful thoughts, 

and on his arm rested. 

Soon as discover'd 

the criminal, 

that he had not found 

of mid-earth, 

of the world's regions, 

in a stranger man, 

a stronger hand-gripe, 

he in mind became 

fearful in soul ; 

not for that the sooner could 

he escape ; 
his mind was bent on flight, 
he would into his cavern flee, 
the pack of devils seek ; 
his condition there was not 
such as he in his life-days 
before had found. 
Remember'd then the good 
kinsman of Hygelac 
his evening speech ; 
upright he stood, 
and at him firmly grasp'd ; 
his fingers yielded, 
the eoten was outward ; 
the earl stept further ; 
the renown'd champion thought, 
whether he might not so 
more widely wheel about, 
and away thence 
flee to his fen-mound ; 
1529. MS. hwaer. he, L e. GrendeL 
F 2 



52 



BEOWULF. 



wiste his fingra geweald, 
on grames graputn, 
))aet he waes ge5cor. 
Si$))aet se hearm-sca^a 
t5 Hsorute ateah, 
dryht-sele djmede, 
Denum eallam wearS, 
ceaster-buendum, 1540 
cenra gehwylcum, 
eorlum ealu-ecerwen. 
Yrre wgeron begen, 
re^e ren- wear das, 
reced hlynsode ; 
J>a wses wundor micel, 
Jjset se win-sele 
wi^-haefde heai)o-de5rum, 
))8et he on hrusan ne feol, 
faeger fold-bold ; 1550 

ac he J)Ees fseste waes, 
innan and utan, 
iren-bendum, 
searo-))oncum besmi))od. 
paer fram sylle abeag 
medu-benc monig, 
mine gefrcege, 
golde geregnad, 
])aer J>a graman wunnon : 
J)aes ne wendon ser 1560 
witan Scyldinga, 
J>3et hit a mid gemete 
manna senig, 
hetlic and ban -fag, 
tobrecan meahte, 
Ustum tolucan. 



he knew his fingers' power, 

in his grasps of the fierce one, 

that he the stronger was. 

After the pernicious spoiler 

to Heorot came, 

the princely hall thunder'd, 

was for all the Danes, 

the city- dwellers, 

every vahant one, 

the earls, the ale spilt. 

Angry were both, 

fierce, the powerful warders, 

the mansion resounded;. 

then great wonder was it, 

that the wine-hall 

withstood the warlike beasts, 

so that it fell not on the ground, 

the fair earthly dwelUng ; 

but it was thus fast, 

within and without, 

with iron bands, 

cunningly forged. 

There from its sill inclin'd 

many a mead-bench, 

as I have heard tell, 

with gold adorn'd, 

where the fierce ones fought : 

therefore before ween'd not 

the Scyldings' sages, 

that it ever in any wise 

any man, 

malicious and murder-stain'd, 

could in pieces break, 

or craftily lay open, 



BEOWULF. 



53 



nym|)e liges fseSm 
swulge on swalo^e. 
Sweg up -as tag, 
niwe geneahhe ; 1570 

NorS-Denum stod 
atelic egesa, 
anra gehwylcum, 
)>ara Jje of wealle 
wop gehyrdon, 
gryre-leo6 galan 
Codes andsacan, 
sigeleasne sang, 
sar wanigean, 
helle-hseftan : 1580 

heold hine [to] fseste, 
se jje manna waes 
maegene strangest, 
on ))cem daege 
))ysses Efes. 



naught save the flame's embrace 

should with its heat devour it. 

A noise arose, 

newly, abundantly ; 

over the North Danes stood 

dire terror, 

on every one 

of those who from the wall 

heard the whoop, 

the horrid lay sung 

of God's denier, 

the triumphless song, 

his pain bewailing, 

of the thrall of hell : 

held him [too] fast, 

he who of men was 

strongest of might, , 

in that day 

of this life. 



Nolde eorla hleo 
senige jjinga, 
jjone cwealm-cuman 
cwicne forlaetan, 
ne his lif-dagas 
leoda senigum 
nytte tealde. 
paer genehost braegd 
eorl Beowulfes 
ealde lafe ; 
wolde frea-drihtnes 
1568. MS. swa^ule. 



XII. 

Would not the refuge of earls 
for any thing 
the deadly guest 
leave living, 
1590 nor his life-days 
to any people 
accounted useful. 
Then forthwith drew 
a warrior of Beowulf's 
an ancient rehc ; 
he would his lord's 

1580, MS. hsefton. 1596. MS, freah. 
P3 



54 



BEOWULF. 



feorh ealgian, 
mseres ))e6dnes, 
|)8er hie meahton swa. 
Hie Jjset ne wiston, i6cx5 
})a hie gewin drugon, 
heard-hicgende 
hilde mecgas, 
and on heal fa gehwone 
heawan Jj5hton, 
sawle secan, 
])one sjTi- seaman 
Eenig ofer eorJ)an 
irenna cyst, 

gu^-billa nan i6io 

gretan nolde : 
ac he sige-waepnum 
forsworen hsefde, 
ecga gehwylcre. 
Scolde his aldor-gedal, 
on â– Seem dsege 
jjysses lifes, 
earmlic wurSan, 
and se ellor-gast 
on feonda geweald 1620 
feor siSian. 
iDa ))8et onfunde, 
se J)e fela ccror, 
modes inyrSe, 
manna cynne, 
fyrena gefreraede, 
he [waes] fag witJ God, -> 
J)3et him se lichoma 

16 It. he, i.e. Beowulf. 
1626. 



hfe defend, 

the great prince's, 

if they might so do. 

They knew it not, 

when they endnr'd ike strife, - 

the bold-eager 

sons of battle^ 

and on every side 

thought to hew, 

his soul to seek, 

that the wicked scather~— t-<-*Vr 

on earth not any 

choicest of irons, 

no battle-falchion, 

would touch : 

but he martial weapons 

had forsworn, 

every edge whatever. 

His life-divorce was, 

on that day 

of this life, 

to be miserable, 

and the departing ghost 

into the power of fiends 

far to travel. 

Then that found, 

he who before many, 

in mirth of mood, 

against the race of men, 

crimes had perpetrated, 

(he was the foe of God,) 

that him his body 

161 5. his, i. e. Grendel's- 
MS. fyrene. 



1 



BEOWULF, 



55 



1630 



Isestan nolde ; 
ac bine se raodega 
mseg Higelaces 
haefde be bonda ; 
wses gebwse))er oSrura 
lifigende la^ ; 
lic-sar gebad 
atol aeglseca ; 
bim on eaxle wearS 
syn-dolb sweotol, 
seonowa onsprungon, 
burston ban-locan ; 
Beowulfe wearS 
gu^-bre^ gyfe)'e ; 
scolde Grendel jjonan 
feorb-seoc fleon 
under fen-bleo^u, 
Eecean wynleas wic : 
wiste J)e geornor 
Jjaet bis aldres waes 
ende gegongen, 
dogora daeg-rim. 
Denum eallum wearS, 
aefter \>&va vrsel-reese, 
willa gelumpen. 
Haefde ]>a, geffelsod, 
se \>e XT feorran com, 



snotor and swyS-ferb^, 
aele Hro^gares, 
A genered wi^ nvSe. 
Nibt-weorce gefeh, 
ellen-mjer])um ; 1 660 



would not avail ; 
for bim tbe proud 
kinsman of Hygelac 
bad in band ; 
was eacb to otber 
bateful living ; 
body pain endur'd 
the fell wretcb ; 
on bis sboulder was 
a deadly wound manifest, 
the sinews sprang asunder, 
1640 the bone-casings burst ; 
to Beowulf was 
warUke fierceness given ; 
Grendel must tbence 
deatb-sick flee 
under his fen-sbelters, 
seek a joyless dwelling : 
he tbe better knew 
tbat was bis Ufe's 
end pass'd, 
his days' number. 
For all the Danes was, 
after tbat mortal conflict, 
their wiU accomplisb'd. 
Had tben purified 
be wbo bad before come from 

afar, 
wise and strong of soul, 
Hrotbgar's ball, 
sav'd it from malice. 
In his nigbt-work he rejoiced, 
his valour-glories ; 



1650 



1639. MS. seonowe. 



56 



BEOWULF. 



hsefde East-Denum 

Geat-mecga leod 

gilp gelsested, 

swylce on cy]j6e 

ealle gebette 

inwid-sorge, 

]>e hie ser drugon, 

and for J)rea-nydum 

jjolian scoldon, 

torn unlytel. 1670 

paet waes tacen sweotol, 

syj)^an hilde deor 

bond alegde, 

earm and eaxle : 

|)8er wses eal-geador 

Grendles grape 

under geapne hrof. 



had to the East-Danes 

the Go^' chieftain 

his boast fulfilled, 

as also in the country 

he had heal'd 

the preying sorrow, 

that they before had suflPer'd, 

and for hard necessity 

had to endure, 

affliction not a little. 

It was a token manifest, 

when the beast of war 

laid down the hand, 

the arm and shoulder : 

there was altogether 

Grendel's grasp 

under the vaulted roof. 



pa wses on morgen, 
mine gefraege, 
ymb ]>a. gif-healle 
gu^-rinc monig : 
ferdon folc-togan, 
feorran and nean, 
geond wid-wegas, 
wunder sceawian, 



XIII. 

Then was in the morning, 
as I have heard tell, 
1680 around the gift-hall 
many a warrior : 
the nation's chieftains came, 
from far and near, 
o'er distant ways, 
the wonder to behold, 



1676. After this line there seems to be a want of connection with 
what follows, though there is no lacuna in the BIS. Perhaps for grape 
we should read grap, or gripe, meaning Grendel's entire limb, or hh 
means of grasping. 

1677. For hrof Thorkelin has hraegl, which must be an error, ist, 
because it is void of sense, and 2dly, because it is a neuter. There 
seems no doubt of the accuracy of hrof, which is also adopted by K. 



BEOWULF. 



57 



la})€s lastas : 
no his lif-gedal 
sarlic })uhte 
secga jenigum, 
f)ara ]>e tirleases 
trode sceawode ; 
hu he werig-mod 
on-weg jjanon, 
nv5a ofercumen, 
on nicera mere, 
fgege and geflymed, 
feorh-lastas bser. 
Daer waes on blode 
brim weallende, 
atol y^a geswing 
eal gemenged ; 
hat on heolfre 
heoro-dre5re weol, 
dea^-fcege deog, 
si^an dreama-leas, 
in fen-freo^o 
feorh-alegde, 
haejjene sawle : 
))8er him hel onfeng. 
panon eft gewiton 
eald-gesi'Sas, 
swylce geong manig, 
of gomen-wajje, 
fram mere modge, 
mearmn ridan, 
beomas on blancum. 
paer wses Beowulfes 
mser^o msened ; 
monig oft gecwae^, 



the traces of the foe : 

his life-divorce did not 

seem painful 

to any warrior, 
1690 who the inglorious's 
, track beheld ; 

how he in spirit weary 

away thence, 

in hostilities overcome, 

to fAe nickers' mere, " 

death-doom'd and put to flight, 

death-traces bare. 

There was with blood 

the surge boiUng, 
1 700 the dire swing of waves 

all mingled ; 

hot with clotted blood 

it well'd, with fatal gore, 

the death-doom'd had dyed it, 

after he joyless, 

in his fen-asylura, 

laid down his life, 

his heathen soul : 

there him hell receiv'd. 
1 7 10 Thence again departed 

the old comrades, 

as also many a young one, 

from the joyous way, 

proud from the mere, 

to ride on horses, 

the warriors on steeds. 

There was Beowulf s 

glory celebrated ; 

many oft said, 



58 



BEOWULF. 



Jjaette su'S ne norS, 1720 

be ssem tweonum, 

ofer eormen-grund, 

o)jer nsenig, 

under swegles begong, 

selra nsere 

rond-hsebbendra, 

rices wyr^ra. 

Ne hie huru wine-drihten 

wiht ne logon 

glsedne HroSgar, 1730 

ac waes ))set god cyning. 

Hwilum heaj)0-r6fe 

hleapan leton, 

on geflit faran, 

fealwe mearas, 

Jjaer him fold-wegas 

fsegere ))uhton, 

cystum cujje. 

Hwilum cyninges }>egn, 

guma gilp-hlseden, 1740 

gidda gemyndig, 

se 5e eal-fela 

eald-gesegena 

worn gemunde, 

word ojjer fand 

s63e gebunden. 

Secg eft ongan 

si6 Beowtdfes 

sn3^trum st)Tian, 

and on sped wrecan, 1750 

spel gerade 

wordum wrixlan. 



that nor south nor north, 

between the seas 

over the spacious earth 

not any other, 

under heaven's course, 

better were 

of shield-bearers, 

worthier of power. 

Nor yet did they their belov'd 

lord 
in aught reprehend, 
^Ae joyful Hrothgar, 
for that was a good king. 
At times the fam'd in war 
let run, 
in contest go, 
their fallow steeds, 
where to them the earth-ways 
fair appear'd, 
the fam'd for virtues. 
At times a king's thane, 
a vaunt-laden man, 
mindful of songs, 
who full many 
old legends, 

a great number, remember'd, 
found another theme 
with truth combin'd. 
Then the man beg^ 
Beowulf's enterprise 
discreetly to celebrate, 
and diligently to relate, 
the tale with skill 
in words impbrt. 



BEOWULF. 



59 



Wei hwylc gecwaeS 

j?aet he fram Sigemunde 

secgan hyrde, 

ellen-dEedum, 

uncujjes fela, 

Wselsinges gewin, 

wide sit5as, 

jjara j?e gumena beam 1 760 

gearwe ne wiston, 

fsehSe and fyrena, 

buton Fitela mid hine. 

ponne he swylces hwset 

secgan wolde, 

earn his nefan, 

swa hie a wseron, 

aet niSa gehwam, 

nyd-gesteallan. 

Haefdon eal-fela 1770 

Eotena cynnes 

sweordum gesseged. 

Sigemunde gesprong, 

aefter dea6-daege, 

dom unlytel, 

syJjSan wiges heard 

wyrm acwealde, 

hordes hyrde. 

He under hame stan, 

aejjehnges beam, 1 780 

ana genet5de 

frecne dsede : 

ne waes him Fitela mid ; 



Well he each thing told 

that he of Sigemund 

had heard related, 

of valorous deeds, 

much unknown, 

the Waelsing's battles, 

wide journeyings, 

of which the children of men 

well knew not, 

his warfare and his crimes, 

save Fitela who was with him. 

Then he something such-like 

would tell, 

of the uncle and his nephew, 

how they ever were, 

at every strife, 

needful associates. 

They had full many 

of the Jutes' race 

with their swords laid low. 

To Sigemund sprang, 

after his death-day, 

no httle glory, 

after the bold in battle 

the worm had slain, 

the guardian of the hoard. 

He under a hoar stone, 

the prince's chUd, 

alone ventur'd on 

the daring deed : 

Fitela was not with him ; 



1 764. AIS. swulces : he refers to the narrator. 
1 766. be eame and his nefan ? Sigemund was Fitela's father as well 
as uncle. See Glossarv' of Persons. 



60 



BEOWULF. 



hw3e})re him gesselde, 

]>xt |)set swurd |)urh-w6d 

wraetlicne wyrm, 

J>3et hit on wealle setstod 

drihtlic iren : 

draca morSre swealt. 

Haefde aglseca 1790 

ehie gegongen, 

))8et he beah-hordes 

brucan moste 

selfes dome. 

Sse-bat gehlod, 

beer on bearm scipes 

beorhte fraetwa 

Waelses eafera. 

Wyrm hat gemealt. 

Se waes "wreccena 1800 

â– wide mserost 

ofer vrer-))e6de, 

wigendra hleo, 

ellen-dcedum : 

he }>9es ser on})ah : 

si68an Heremodes 

hild sweSrode, 

earfoS and ellen : 

he mid Eotenum wear¥, 

on feonda geweald 18 10 

for? forlacen, 

snude forsended ; 

hine sorh-wylmas 

leraedon to lange ; 



yet 'twas his fortune, 

that his sword pierced through 

the wondrous worm, 

so that in the wall stood fast 

the noble iron : 

the dragon by death perish'd. 

The miserable being had 

by daring gain'd, 

that he the ring-hoard 

might enjoy 

at his own pleasm^e. 

The sea-boat loaded, 

bore into the ship's bosom 

the bright ornaments 

Waelse's offspring. 

Heat the worm consum'd. 

He of wanderers was 

by far the greatest 

throughout the human race, 

the warriors' refuge, 

by valiant deeds : 

therefore at first he throve : 

but after Heremod's 

war had ceas'd, 

his toil and energy : 

he among the Jutes was, 

into the foes' power 

forthwith betray'd, 

quickly exU'd ; 

him sorrow's boilings 

had too long afflicted ; 



1 791. By the miirder of his father. 1795- IMS. gehleod. 

1800. He, i. e. Sigemund. 1809. He, L e. Sigemund. 

1814. MS. lemede. 



BEOWULF. 



Gl 



he his leodum wear^, 
eallum 8ef5elingum, 
to aldor-ceare. 
Swylce oft bemearn, 
serran mcelum, 
swi6-ferh5es sit5 1820 

snotor ceorl monig, 
se 6e him bealwa 
to bote gelj'^de ; 
j)set Jjaet tSeodnes beam 
ge}»e6n scolde, 
faedei' aejjelum onfon, 
folc gehealdau, ^^^ju. 

hord and hleo-burh, 
hselejja rice, 

•X* Scyldinga. 1830 

He Jjser eallum wearS, 
maeg Higelaces, 
manna cynne, 
freondum gefsegra ; 
^ hine fyren onwod. 
Hwilum flitende, 
fealwe strsete 
mearum mseton. 
pa wses morgen-leoht 
scofen and scynded, 1840 
eode scealc monig 
swiS-hicgende 
to sele \>Cixx\ hean. 



to his people he became, 

to all his nobles, 

a life-long care. 

In such guise dft bewail'd, 

in former times, 

the bold-heart's Jet d**^^h^^ 

many a sagacious man, 

who had to him of bales 

for reparation trusted ; 

and that the prince's child 

should thrive, 

succeed to his father's honours, 

defend his people, 

his treasure and refuge-citv, 

the realm of heroes, 

the countrj' of the Scyldings. 

There to all was he, 

Hygelac's kinsman, 

to the race of men, 

to his friends, more grateful ; 

him crime had enter' d. 

Sometimes contending, 

the fallow street . 

they with their horses measur"d. 

When the morning light was 

sent forth and hasten'd, 

went many a warrior 

of strong purpose 

to the high hall. 



1819. ' In former times/ i.e. in their days of calamity, when Hrotli 
gar and his people were suffering from the atrocities of Grendel. 

1830. The rune denoting eSel, as at 1. 1045. 

1 83 1. He, i. e. Beowulf. 

1835. hine, i. e. Sigemund. 

» 
G 



<>2 



BEOWULF. 



searo-wundor seon. 
Swylce self cyning 
of bryd-bure, 
beah-horda weard, 
treddode tirfsest, 
getrume micle, 
cystum gecy)>ed, 1850 

and bis cwen mid birn, 
medo-stig gemset 
m8eg})a hose. 



to see the curious wonder. 

So also the king himself 

from his nuptial bower, 

the guardian of ring- treasures, 

stept glorious, 

with a large company, 

for virtues fam'd, 

and his queen with him, 

the meadow-path measur'd 

with a company of maidens. 



Hr6t5gar majjelode : 
he to healle gong, 
stod on stapole, 
geseah steapne hrof 
golde fahne, 
and Grendles bond : 
Disse ansyne 
Alwealdan })anc 
lungre gelimpe. 
Fela ic la])es gebad, 
grynna set Grendle : 
a maeg God wyrcan 
wundor jefter wundre, 
wuldres Hyrde. 
Dfet wses ungeara, 
jjget ic Eenigra me 
weana ne wende, 
to widan feore, 
bote gebidan, 
J)onne blode fah 
1848. MS. trj'ddode. 



XIV. 

Hrotbgar spake : 

(be to the hall went, 

stood in the fore-court, 

saw the steep roof 

with gold variegated, 

and Grendel's band :) 
i860 •' For this sight 

to the Almighty thanks 

forthwith take place ! 

Much of malice I have endur'd, 

snares from Grendel : 

ever can God work 

wonder after wonder, 

glory's Guardian. 
• It was not long since, 

that I of any 
1870 woes ween'd not, 

for all time, 

compensation to await me, 

when with blood stain'd 
1855. MS. geong. 1866. MS. wunder. 



BEOWULF. 



63 



husa selest 
heoro-dreorig stod ; 
wea wid-scofen, 
witena gehwylcum, 
Sara jje ne wendon 
{)8et hie wide-ferhS 
leoda land-geweorc 
la])um beweredon, 
scuccum and scinnum. 
Nu scealc hafaS, 
purh Drihtnes miht, 
dsede gefremede, 
6e we ealle 
fer ne meahton 
snyttrum besyrwan. 
Hwaet ))3et secgan mseg 



the best of houses 
all gory stood; 
misery icas wide-spread 
o'er each of my counsellors, 
who weened not 
that they evermore 
1880 the people's land-work 
could from foes defend, 
devils and phantoms. 
Now this warrior has, 
through the Lord's might, 
a deed perform'd, 
which we all 
ere could not 
with cunning machinate. 
Yes ! that may say. 



efne swa hwylc msegj^a 1890 lo ! whatever matron. 



swa J)one magan cende 
aefter gum-c}Tinum, 
gyf heo gyt lyfaS, 
jjset hyre eald Metod 
este wsere 
bearn-gebyrdo. 
,Nu ic Beowulf, 
]>ec secg betsta, 
me for sunu wylle 
freogan on ferhjje : 
heald forS tela 
niwe sibbe : 
ne bi6 }je se nigra gad 
worolde wilna, 
Jje ic geweald hsebbe. 

1877. MS. gehwylcne. 
188^;. MS. daed. 



who this son brought forth, 
after human kind, 
if she yet hves, 
that to her the great Creator 
was gracious 
in her child-bearing. 
Now \, Beowulf, 
thee, best of warriors, 
, as fl son will 
1900 love in my heart : 

hold henceforth well 

our new kinship : 

there shall not be to thee any lack 

of worldly things desirable, 

that I have power over. 

K. proposes gehwylcum, no doubt, rightly. 
1903. MS. aenigre. See 1. 1325. 
G 2 



64 



BEOWULF. 



Ful oft ic for Icessan 

lean teohhode, 

hord-weorJ)unge, 

hnahran rince, 

s<emran set ssecce. 1910 

pu ])e self hafast 

dfedurn gefremed, 

|)cet jjin [dom] lyfaS 

awa t5 aldre. 

Alwalda }>ec 

gode forgylde, 

swa lie nu gyt dyde. 

Beowulf ma|>elode, 

beam Ecg])eowes : 

We ])8et ellen-weorc 1920 

estum miclum, 

feohtan fremedon, 

frecne geneSdon 

eafoS uncujjes : 

u]je ic swi]>or, 

))set )?u hine selfne 

geseon moste, 

feond on frsetewTim, 

fyl-werigne. 

Ic hine lirsedlice, 1930 

heardan clammum, 

on wsel-bedde, 

wrij^an Jjohte, 

}j8et he for mund- gripe 

minum scolde 

licgean lif-bysig, 

1 913. dom is not in the MS. 
1929. See 11. 1484-1494. 
1934. MS. hand-gripe. 



Full oft I for less 

have a reward decreed, 

a treasure-honour 

to a feebler warrior, 

worse in conflict. 

Thou for thyself hast 

so by deeds achiev'd, 

that thy glory lives 

through every age. 

May the Omnipotent thee 

with good reward, 

as he yet has done." 

Beowulf spake, 

Ecgtheow's son : 

" We that arduous work 

with great good will, 

thai fight have achiev'd, 

boldly ventur'd on 

the monster's warfare : 

rather would 1 have given, 

that thou himself 

mightest have seen, 

the foe in his trappings, 

slaughter- weary . 

I him quickly, 

with hard bonds, 

on hie death-bed, 

thought to bind, 

so that through my hand-gripe 

he shovdd 

lie for life struggling, 

, but rightly supplied by K. 
1930. MS. him. 



BEOWULF. 



65 



s butan his lic-swice. 
Ic hine ne mihte, 
)>a Metod nolde, 
ganges getWEeraan, 1940 
no ic him })3es georne at- 

fealh 
feorh-geniSlan ; 
wiEs to fore-mihtig 
feond on fejje ; 
hwsejjere he his folme forlet, 
to lif-wra])e, 
last weardian, 
earm and eaxle : 
no ]jaer senige swa-]>eah 
feasceaft guma 1950 

fr5fre gebohte ; 
no ]>y leng leofaS 
laS-geteona, 
synnum geswenced ; 
ac hyne sar hafaS 
in ni6- gripe 
nearwe befongen, 
balw on bendum : 
jjaer abidan sceal 
maga mane fah i960 

miclan domes, 
hu him scir Metod 
scrifan wille. 
pa wees swigra secg, 
sunu Ecglafes, 
on gylp-sprsece 
gu5-geweorca, 

1956. MS. mid gripe. 
1965. MS. Eclafes. See 



without his carcase's escape. 
I could not him 
(as the Creator will'd it not) 
from his course cut off ; ^ 
I did not him therefore easily 

assail, 
the deadly enemy ; 
was too greatly powerful 
the foe on foot ; 
yet he his hand has left, 
as a life- support, 
to guard his track, 
his arm and shoulder : 
yet not any there 
the wretched man 
comfort bought, 
nor will the longer live 
the hateful criminal, 
with sins oppress'd ; 
for pain has him 
in hostile gripe 
straitly clasp'd, 
harm, in its bonds : 
there shall await 
the wretch stain'd with crime 
the great doom, 
how to him the bright Creator 
will prescribe."-;^ 
Then was ^Ae warrior more silent, 
Ecglaf's son, 
in vaunting speech . 
of works of war, 

11. 1002, lOOj. 

G3 



66 



BEOWULF. 



£i68an sejjelingas, 
eorles craefte, 

ofer heann^ hrof 1970 

hand sceawedon, 
feondes fingras : 
, foran seghwylc wses, 
8t€<3e neegla [gehwylc], 
style gelicost, 
hcejjenes hand-sporu, 
hilde rinces 
eglan heoru. 

-'Eghwj'lc gecwaeS ]>xt him 
heardra nan 1980 

hrinan wolde ; 
iren eer-god, 
)jaet 8ses ahleecan 
blodge beadu-folme 
onberian wolde. 



after the nobles, 

through the hero's might, 

over the high roof 

had beheld the hand, 

the foe's fingers : 

each was before, 

iarfead. of nails, [each] 

to steel most hke, 

the heathen's hand-spurs, 

the warrior's, 

the terrific one's sword. 

Even,- one said that it, 

(of the bold ones) none 

would touch ; 

no iron of prime goodness, 

that the miserable being's 

bloody battle-hand 

would taste of. 



pa wses haten hra)je, 
Heort innanweard 
folmum gefrsetwod : 
fela jJBera waes, 
wera and wifa 



XV. 

Then was quickly order'd 
Heort inward 
to be with hands adorn'd : 
many were of those, 
1 990 men and women, 



1974. MS. steda. gehwylc I believe shotdd be expunged. 

1976. I suspect that hand-sporu is a blunder of the scribe for 
hand-sceo. See hereafter. 

1978. MS. eglun. My translation of the line is purely conjectural. 
The whole text, to the end of the canto, is hardly intelligible, and 
evidently corrupt. K- reads egl un-heoru, and translates, the rude 
terror. 

1985. MS. onberan. 1986. MS. hrej>e. 



BEOWULF. 



67 



\)e jjaet win-reced, 

gest-sele gyredon ; 

gold -fag scinon, 

web aefter wagum, 

wundor-siona fela 

secga gehwylcum, 

))ara Jje on swylc staraS. 

Waes ))cet beorhte bold 

tobrocen swi6e, 

eal inneweard 2000 

iren-bendum faest ; 

heorras tohlidene ; 

hrof ana genses, 

ealles ansund, 

\>sl se aglseca, 

fyren-dsedum fag, 

on fleam gewand, 

aldres orwena. 

No jjaet y8e by8 

to befleonne, 2010 

fremme se ]>e wille ; 

ac gesecan sceal 

sawl-berendra, 

nyde genydde, 

ni|)6a bearna^ 

grund-buendra, 

gearwe stowe, 

))aer his lichoma, 

leger-bedde faest, 

swefeS aefter symle. 2020 



who the wine-house, 

the guest- hall prepar'd ; 

gold-varied shone 

the webs along the walls, 

wondrous sights many 

to every human being, 

of those who gaze on such. 

That bright dwelling was 

much shatter'd, 

all within 

with bands of iron fast ; 

the hinges were rent asunder ; 

the roof alone was sav'd, 

wholly sound, 

when the miserable being, 

stain 'd with criminal deeds, 

tum'd to flight, 

hopeless of life. 

That is not easy 

to flee from, 

accomplish it who will ; 

but he shall seek 

for soul -bearers, 

by need compel'd, 

for the children of men, 

for earth's inhabitants 

the place prepar'd, 

where his body, 

fast in its bed of death, 

after the feast shall sleep. 



2005. MS. }>e. 

2009-2020. These lines are extremely obscure: l>aEt (1. 2009) no 
donbt means death, implied in aldres orwena. 
2012. MS. gesacan. 



(58 



BEOWULF. 



pa wses seel and m£el, 

))set to healle gang 

Healfdenes sunu ; 

wolde self cyning 

symbel jjicgan. 

Ne gefrsegn ic ]>a m8eg|>e 

maran werode 

ymb hyra sinc-gyfan 

sel gebseran. 

Bugon J)a to bence 2030 

blsed-agende, 

fylle gefcegon, 

faegene gepegon 

medo-ful manig 

magas J^ara 

swiS-hicgendra 

on sele )jam bean, 

HroSgar and Hro^ulf. 

Heorot innan waes 

freondum afylled ; 2040 

nalles facn-stafas 

peod-Scyldingas 

jjenden fremedon. 

Forgeaf J)a Beowulfe, 

beam Healfdenes, 

segen gyldenne, 

sigores t5 leane, 

hroden-hilte cumbor, 

helm and byrnan ; 

msere maSjjum sweord 2050 

manige gesawon 

beforan beom beran. 

2033. MS. faegere geJ>aegoii. 
2045. ^^^' brand. 



Then was the time and moment, 

that to the hall should go 

Healfdene's son ; 

the king himself would 

of the feast partake. 

Never have I heard of the tribe 

in a greater body 

about their treasure-giver 

better bearing themselves. 

Bow'd then to the bench 

the prosperous warriors, 

in the plenty they rejoiced, 

joyful partook of 

many a mead cup 

the kinsmen of those 

stout-daring warriors, 

in the high hall, 

Hrothgar and Hrothulf. 

Heorot within was 

fill'd with friends ; 

no treacheries 

the noble Scyldings 

the while perpetrated. 

Gave then to Beowulf, 

the son of Healfdene, 

a golden banner, 

in reward of victory, 

an ensign with hilt adorn'd, 

a helm and byrnie ; — 4— j^" 

a sword, a great treasure, 

many saw 

before the hero borne. 

2036. MS. hicgende. 



BEOWULF. 



ftii 



Beowulf gejjah 

ful on flette ; 

no he jjaere feoh-gyfte, 

fore sceotendum 

scamigan })orfte. 

Ne gefraegn ic freondlicor 

feower madmas 

golde gegyrede 2060 

gum-manna fela, 

in ealo-bence 

o8rum gesellan. 

Ymb \>ses helmes hrof, 

heafod-beorg, 

wirum bewunden, 

wsel on-utan heold, 

pcet him fealo laf 

frecne ne meahte, 

scur-heard sce|>)jan, 2070 

J)onne scyld-freca 

ongean gramum 

gangan scolde. 

Heht Sa eorla hleo 

eahta mearas, 

faeted-hleore, 

on flet te5n, 

in under eoderas ; 



Beowulf partook of 

the cup in the court ; 

not of that precious gift he, 

before the warriors, ^t/t:^^^^ 

needed feel shame. "ir-i- 

Never have I heard more friendly 

four precious things, 

with gold adorn'd, 

many men, 

on the ale-bench, 

to others give. 

Around the helmet's roof, 

the head-guard, 

with wires bound round, 

held sjayghter without, a, rv>'^ 

so that him /^^-faMow-sword 

might not dangerously, 

scour-harden'd, injure, 

when the bold shielded warrior 

against his foes 

should go. 

Bade then the shelter of warriors 

eight steeds, 

with cheek adorn'd, 

into the court be led, 

in under the enclosures ; 



2056. MS. for scotenum. 

2065. ^'^S. beorge. The heafod-beorg seems to be an additional 
guard on the crown of the hebnet, analogous with heals-beorh, hau- 
berk. Obg. halsperga. 

2067. MS. walan utan. 

2068. MS. fela laf, perfectly devoid of sense. The sword was, no 
doubt, of bronze or copper; fealo-brun, as in brun-ecg. See note 
hereafter. 

2069. MS. meahton. 



70 



BEOWULF. 



J)ara anum stod 

sadol searwum fah, 2080 

since gewurjjad : 

J)8et wses hilde setl 

heah-cyninges, 

Jjonne sweorda gelac 

sunu Healfdenes 

efnan wolde ; 

naefre on ore Iseg 

wid-cu)jes wig, 

]>onne walu feollon, 

and ]>a. Beowulfe 2090 

bega geh\v8e|>res 

eodor Ingwina 

onweald geteah, 

wicga and waepna : 

het hine wel brucan. 

Swa manlice 

msere ))e6den, 

hord-weard heelepa, 

heajio-rsesas geald, 

mearum and madmum. 2100 

Swa by naefre man lybS, 

se Jie secgan wile 

s6S sefter rihte. 



on one of tbem stood 

a saddle cunningly variegated, 

with treasure ornamented : 

that was the war-seat 

of the high king, 

when the game of swords 

the son of Healfdene 

would perform : 

(never in warfare flag'd 

the wide-fam'd's martial ardour, 

when the slaughter'd fell), 

and then to Beowulf 

of both one and other 

the Ingwinas' protector 

possession gave, 

of horses and weapons : 

bade him them well enjoy. 

Thus manfully 

the great prince, 

the treasure- ward of heroes, 

warlike onslaughts requited, 

with steeds and treasures. 

So them never man will blame, 

who will say 

the sooth riffhtlv. 



XVI. 



f Da gyt seghwylcum 
eorla drihten, 
\>ara |je mid Beowulfe 
brim-lade teah, 
on ])cere medu-bence 

2087. on orlege alaeg ? 



Then besides to each, 

the lord of warriors, 

of those who with Beowulf 

the sea-way came, 

on the mead-bench, 

2107. MS. leade. 



BEOWULF. 



ma})5um gesealde, 

yrfe lafe ; 21 lo 

and |)one senne heht 

golde forg\4dan, 

|)one 3e Grendel ser 

mane acwealde, 

swa he hyra ma wolde, 

nefne him witig God 

w\Td forstode, 

and jjses mannes mod. 

Metod eallum weold 

gumena cynnes, 2120 

swa he nu git deS ; 

for))an bi6 andgit 

seghweer selest, 

ferhSes fore))anc : 

fela sceal gebidan 

leofes and la)>es, 

se })e longe her 

on Syssum win-dagum 

worulde bniceS. 

pser waes sang and sweg 

samod-aetgBedere 2 131 

fore Healfdenes 

hilde-wisan, 

gomen-wudu greted, 

gid oft wrecen, 

J)onne heal-gamen 

Hr56gcT,res scop^ 

sefter medo-bence, 

m?enan scolde 

[be] Finnes eaferum, 2140 

))a hie se fser begeat ; 

2 J 18. Beowulf's. 21 



a present gave 

an hereditary relic ; 

and bade the one 

with gold be paid for, 

whom Grendel ere 

wickedly had slain, 

as he would more of them, 

had not him the wise God, 

fate, prevented, 

and the man's courage. 

The Creator rul'd all 

the race of men, 

as he now yet does ; 

therefore is understanding 

evers'where best, 

forethought of spirit : 

much shall abide 

of lov'd and loath'd, 

who long here 

in these days of strife 

in the world participates. 

There were song and sound 

at once together 

before Healfdene's 

martial leaders, 

the glee- wood was touch'd, 

the lay oft recited, 

when the jov of hall 

Hrothgar's gleeman, 

after the mead-bench, 

should recount 

[of] Fin's offspring. 

when them peril o'erwhelm'd : 

40. be supplied from conjecture. 



BEOWULF. 



haele]> Healfdenes 

Hnsef Scyldinga, 

in Fres-wsele 

feallan scolde. 

Ne huru Hildeburh 

herian jjorfte 

Eotena treowe : 

unsynnura wear6 

beloren leofutn 2150 

aet jjam lind-plegan, 

bearnum and broSrum ; 

hie on gebyrd hruron, 

gare wunde ; 

]>xt waes geomuru ides. 

Nalles holinga 

Hoces dohtor, 

metodsceaft bemearn, 

syj)3an morgen com, 

])a heo under swegle 2160 

geseon meahte 

mor))or-bealo maga, 

|)aer heo ?er mseste heold 

worolde wynne. 

Wig ealle fornam 

Finnes Jjegnas, 

nemne feaum anum, 

))aet he ne meahte 

on ])cem meSel-stede 

wits Hengeste 2170 

wiht gefeohtan, 

ne )>a wea-lafe 



when Healfdene's hero, 

the Scyldings' Hnsef, 

in Friesland 

was doom'd to fall. 

Not Hildeburh at least 

had need to praise 

the faith of the Jutes : 

sinless she was 

of her beloved ones depriv'd 

at the linden play, 

her children and brothers ; 

they in succession fell, 

by the dart wounded ; 

that was a mournful woman. 

Not without cause 

Hoce's daughter 

the Lord's decree bemourn'd, 

after morning came, 

when she under heaven 

might see 

the slaughter of her kinsmen, 

where she ere had most pos- 

sess'd 
of the world's joy. 
W^ar had destroy'd all 
Fin's thanes, 
save a few only, 
so that he might not 
on the battle-place 
against Hengest 
aught gain in fight, 
nor the sad remnant 



2142. MS. Healfdena. 2149. unsinnig? 2 151. MS. hild. 

2163. MS. he. 2168. MS. mehte. 2170. MS. wig. 



BEOWULF. 



73 



wige for|jringan by war protect 

}»e6dnes ))egne ; from the king's thane ; 

ac hig him geJ)ingo budon, but they offer'd him conditions. 



{)set hie him oSer flet 


th at they to him another dwelling 


eal gerymdon, 


would wholly yield, 


healle and heah-setl, 


a hall and throne, 


Jjset hie healfne geweald 


that they half power 


wis Eotena beam 2180 


with the sons of the Jutes 


agan moston, 


might possess. 


and aet feoh-gyftum, 


and at the money-gifts, 


Folcwaldan sunu. 


Folcwalda's son. 


dogra gehwylce, 


every day, 


Dene weorjjode, 


the Danes should honour, 


Hengestes heap 


Hengest's band 


hringum J)enede, 


with rings should serve, 


efne swa swi'Se 


even as much 


sinc-gestreonum 


with precious treasures 


faettan goldes, 2190 


of rich gold. 


swa he Fresena cyn 


as he the Frisian race 


on be5r-sele 


in the beer-hall 


byldan wolde. 


would decorate. 


Da hie getruwedon 


Then they confirm'd 


on twa healfa 


on the two sides 


faeste frio8u-wjere ; 


a fast peaceful compact ; 


Fin Hengeste, 


Fin to Hengest, 


elne unflitme, 


earnestly without dispute, 


aSum benemde, 


with oaths declar'd. 


j)set he ])a wea-lafe, 2200 


that he the sad remnant. 


weotena dome 


by his ' witan's' doom 


arum heolde, 


piously would maintain. 


jJset Saer genig mon. 


so that there not any man. 


wordum ne worcum. 


by words or works, 


2174. i. e. Hengest. 


2179. MS. healfre. 


2187. MS. wenede. 



74 



BEOWULF. 



waere ne brsece, 

ne jjurh inwit-searo 

sefre gemEendon, 

J)eah hie hira beag-gyfan 

banan folgedon, 

]je6denlease, 2210 

)ja him swa gej^earfod waes : 

gyf ])onne Frysna hwylc, 

frecnan spraece 

?5aes mor])or-hetes 

myndgiend wee re, 

J)onne hit sweordes ecg 

sweSrian scolde. 

A6 wses gesefned, 

and icge gold 

ahsefen of horde. 2220 

Here-Scyldinga 

betst beado-rinca 

wses on bsel gearu : 

aet ])«m ade wses 

ej)-gesyne 

swat-fah syrce, 

swyn eal-gylden, 

eofer iren-heard, 

aejjeling manig 

wundum awyrded, 2230 

sume on wael crungon. 

Het Sa Hildeburh, 

set Hnaefes ade, 

hire selfre suna, 

sweoloSe befsestan. 



should break the compact, 

nor through guileful craft 

should they ever lament, 

though they their ring-giver's 

slayer follow'd, 

now lordless, 

as it was thus needful to them : 

but if of the Frisians any, . 

by audacious speech, I 

this deadly feud 

should call to mind, 

then it the edge of sword 

should appease. 

The oath was taken, 

and moreover gold ' 

rais'd from the hoard. 

Of the maitial Scyldings 

the best of warriors 

on the pile was ready : 

at the heap was 

easy to be seen 

the blood- stain'd sark, 

the swine all golden, 

the boar iron-hard, 

many a noble 

with wounds injur' d, 

(some had in the slaughter fall'n) 

Bade then Hildeburh, 

at Hnasf's pile, 

her own sons 

be to the fire committed. 



2207. MS. gemaenden. 

2210. lordless: their lord, Hnaef, being slain. 

2213. MS. frecnen. 2217. MS. sy^an. 



2234. MS. sunu. 



BEOWULF. 



75 



ban-fatu baernan, 
and on bsl don 
earme on axe. 
Ides gnornode, 
geomrode giddum ; 2240 
guC-rinc astah, 
wand to wolcnum ; 
wsel-fyra maest 
hhiiode for hlsewe, 
hafelan multon, 
ben-geato burston, 
Sonne blod aetsprang, 
lat5-bite lices : 
lig ealle forswealg, 
gaesta gifrost, 2250 

t>ara J>e J)aer gu5 fomam : 

bega folces wses 
hira blaed scacen. 



their carcases be burnt, 
and on the pile be done 
the luckless ones to ashes. 
The lady moum'd, 
bewail'd in songs ; 
the warrior ascended, 
eddied to the clouds ; 
the greatest of death-fires 
roar'd before the mound, 
their heads were consum'd, 
their wound-gates burst, 
then the blood sprang out 
from the corpse's hostile bite : 
flame swaUow'd all 
(greediest of guests) 
those whom there war had de- 
stroy' d : 
of both nations was 
their prosperity departed. 



Gewiton him J)a wigend 
wica neosian, 
freondum befeallen, 
Frysland geseon, 



XVII. 

The warriors then departed 
the dwellings to visit, 
of their friends bereft, 
Friesland to see. 



2238. MS. eaxle. 

2241. i. e. Hnaef ascended (in flame and smoke), like the Ger. (in 
Feuer und Ranch) aufgehen. So also in Homily (.i^lfric's Homilies, 
V. ii. p. 68. l)8et ceaf he forbaemiS .... forJ»an 'Se t>ffira manfnlra smic 
astihS on ecnysse. 

2244. MS. hlawe. 2247. ^'^S- setspranc. 

2354. After the suspension of hostilities, it appears that Hengest's 
Jutes dispersed themselves over Friesland, for the purpose of seeing it, 
and, no doubt, of quartering themselves for the winter. 
H 2 



76 



BEOWULF. 



hamas and beah-burh. 
Hengest 6a.-gyt 
wael-fagne winter 2260 

wunode mid Finne 
unflitme ; 
eard gemunde, 
]jeah pe he meahte 
on mere drifan 
hringed-stefnan. 
Holm storme weol, 
ianaa won wis winde, 
winter f]>e beleac 
is-gebinde, 2270 

ojjSset o])er com 
gear in geardas ; 
swa nu gyt d66 
]>a Se syngales 
ssele bewitiaS, 
wuldor-torhtan weder. 
Da waes winter scacen, 
fseger foldan bearm, 
fundode wrecca, 
gist of geardum ; 2280 

he t5 gyrn-wraece 
swi'Sor ))6hte 
jjonne to s?e-lade, 
gif he torn- gemot 
jjurhteon mihte ; 
))8es he Eotena beam 



the homes and chief city. 

Hengest still 

the death-hued winter 

dwelt with Fin 

without dissension ; 

his home remember'd, 

though he might 

on the sea drive 

the ringed prow. 

The deep boil'd with storm, 

war'd 'gainst the wind, 

winter lock'd up the wave 

with icy bond, 

until there came a second 

year into the courts ; 

so now yet do 

those who constantly 

watch a happy moment, 

gloriously bright weather. 

Then was winter departed, 

earth's bosom fair, 

the stranger hasten'd, 

the guest from the dwellings : 

he on wily vengeance 

was more intent 

than on a sea- voyage, 

if he a hostile meeting 

could bring to pass ; 

because he the sons of the Jutes 



2261. MS. Finnel. 2262. MS. unhlitme. Seel. 2198. 

2273. MS. de'S. 2 2 75. MS. sele. 

2286. iMS. i>vet. Eotena beam, in allusion apparently to the Jutes 
that had fallen in the conflict with the Frisians. Or beam may here 



BEOWULF. 



// 



inn-gemunde : 

swa he ne forwymde 

worold-rjedenne, 

j)onne him Hunlafing, 2290 

hilde le5nian, 

billa selest, 

on bearm dyde ; 

})cEs waeron mid Eotenum 

ecge cucSe, 

swylce ferhS-frecan. 

Fin eft begeat 

sweord-bealo sliSen, 

aet his selfes ham. 

SijjSan grimne gripe 2300 

GuSlaf and Oslaf, 

aefter sae-si5e, 

sorge msendon : 

cctwiton weana dsel, 

ne meahte waefre-raod 

forhabban in hre))re. 
Da w£es heal hroden 
feonda feorum. 



inwardly remember'd : 
so he refus'd not 
worldly converse, 
when he Hunlafing, 
the flame of war, 
the best of falchions, 
in his bosom placed ; 
for with the Jutes there were 
men for the sword renown'd, 
also of spirit bold. 
Fin afterwards o'erwhelm'd 
hard misery from the sword, 
at his own home. 
When him fierce of gripe 
Guthlaf and Oslaf, 
after their sea voyage, 
had grievously upbraided, 
reproach'd for part of ^^eir woes, 
he might not his wavering cou- 
rage 
in his breast retain. 
Then was his hall beset 
with hostile men. 



be ia the singular number, and allude to Hneef, the Jutish leader, with 
Hengest, whose fall is related at U. 2143, sqq. 

2290. Hunlafing I take to be the name of Hengest's sword, as 
Hrunting, Nageling, etc. The meaning is not that he stabbed himself, 
but that he merely placed the weapon in or on his bosom, in allusion 
probably to the mode of wearing it in front, examples of which may 
be seen in old illuminations. (An exactly similar passage occurs 
hereafter, where there is no question of stabbine.) In other words, 
that he girded or prepared himself for a renewal of the contest. The 
whole passage, indeed the whole episode, is extremely obscure. 

2301. The Ordlaf of the " Fight at Finnesburg;" which seems the 
more correct orthography. 

H3 



78 



BEOWULF. 



2310 



swilce Fin sleegen, 
cyning on corJ)re, . 
and se5 cwen numen. 
Sceotend Scyldinga 
to scypum feredon 
eal in-gesteald 
eorS-cyninges, 
swylce hie aet Finnes-ham 
fin dan meahton,, 
sigla searo-gimma. 
Hie on s£e-lade 
drihtlice wif 2320 

to Denum feredon, 
laeddon to leodum. 
Le56 waes asungen, 
gleomannes gyd, 
gamen eft astah, 
beorhtode benc-sweg, 
- byxelas sealdon 
win of wunder-fatum. 
pa cwom Wealh})e6w forS, 
gan under gyldnum beage, 
Jjser J;a godan twegen 2331 
sseton suhter-gefsederan ; 
â– pa-gyt waes hiera sib aet- 

gsedere, 
s-ghwylc oSrum tiywe ; 



Fin also slain, 

the king amid his train, 

and the queen taken. 

The Scyldings' warriors 

to their ships convey'd 

all the house chattels 

of the land's king, 

such as they at Finnesham 

might find, 

of jewels and curious gems. ^^ 

They on the sea-way ^^ 

the princely woman 

to the Danes convey'd, 

to their people led. 

The lay was sung, 

the gleeman's song, 

pastime rose again, 

the bench-noise was loud, 

the cupbearers gave 

wine from curious vessels. 

Then came Wealhtheow forth, 

walking under a golden diadem, 

to where the two good 

cousins sat ; 

as yet was their peace together, 

each to other true ; 



2313. MS. scipon. 

2316. Finnes-ham is no doubt meant as the proper name of Fin's 
town, and identical with Finnes-burh, the name given it iji the frag- 
ment entitled " the Fight at Finnesburg." 

2329. MS. Wealh>eo. 

2332. Hrothgar and Hrothulf. For this long species of verse see 
Rask's Anglo-Saxon Grammar, p. 158. 



BEOWULF. 



•9 



swylce \)XT Hunfer)) J)yle 
set fotum sset frean Scyl- 

dinga ; v^ 
gehwylc hiora his ferhSe 

treowde, 
))aet he hsefde mod micel, 
))eah ]>e he his magum 

naere 
arfaest set ecga gelacum. 2340 
^^praec c5a ides Scyldinga : 
»0nf6h Jjissum fuUe, 
freo-drihten min, 
sinces brytta ; 
})u on stelum wes, 
gold-wine gumena : 
and to Geatum sprsec 
mildum wordum, 
swa sceal man don : 
beo wis Geatas glsed, 2350 
geofeua gemyndig, 
iieiin and feorran : 
jju nu hafast, 
me man ssegde, 
]>dst pu. for sunu wolde 
heie-rinc habban. 
Heorot is gefcelsod, 
beah-sele beorhta: 
bruc Jjenden J)u m5te 
manigra medo, 2360 

and )jinum magum leef 



there also Hunferth the orator 
sat at the feet of the Scyldings' 

lord; 
every one of them was confident 

in his mind, 
that he had great courage, 
although he to his kinsman had 

not been 
true in the plays of swords. 
Spake then the Scyldings' dame: 
" Accept this cup, 
my beloved lord, 
dispenser of treasure ; 
be thou happy, 
gold-friend of men : 
and to the Goths speak 
with kind words, 
as one should do : 
be cheerful towards tfte Goths, 
mindful of gifts, 
near and far : 
thou hast now [promis'd,] 
I have been told, 
that thou for a son wouldst 
the warrior have. 
Heorot is purified, 
the bright hall of rings : 
enjoy while thou mayest 
the mead of the many, 
and to thy sons leave 



2339. See 11. 1 1 78, sqq. 23; i. Correctly geofa (gifa). 

2353- After hafast a word is wanting, probably gehaten, promised. 
2356. 2vIS. here ric 
2360. i. e. the mead of which the others (the many) were partaking. 



80 



BEOWULF. 



folc and rice, 
})onne 6u forS scyle 
\metodsceaft seon. 
Ic minne can 
glaedne HroSulf, 
))Bet he ]>& geogo(5e wile 
arum healdan ; 
gyf pu 8er ))onne he, 
wine Scyldinga, 2370 

worold oflaetest : 
wene ic j)set he mid gode 
gyldan wille 
uncran eaferan ; 
gif he )jset eal gemon 
hwset wit t5 willan 
and to worSmyndum, 
umbor wesendum ser 
arna gefremedon. 
Hwearf jja bi bence, 2380 
Jjser hvre byre wseron, 
HreSric and Hrognjund, 
and haelejja beam, 
giogo6 aetgaedere ; 
J)aer se goda sset, 
Beowulf Geata, 
be jJEem gebroSrum twsem. 



folk and realm, 

when thou forth must go 

to see the Godhead. 

I know my 

festive Hrothulf, 

that he the youthful will 

piously maintain ; 

if thou earlier than he, 

friend of Scyldings, 
leavest the world : 

1 ween that he with good 
will repay 

our offspring ; 

if he that all remembers 

what we two for his pleasure 

and honours, 

erst when a child, 

of benefits perform'd." 

Turn'd then by the bench, 

where her sons were, 

Hrethric and Hrothraund, 

and the children of warriors, 

the youth together, 

where sat the good 

Beowulf the Goth, 

by the two brethren. 



Him wses ful boi^en, 
and freond-lajju 
wordum bewsegned, 
and wunden-gold 
estum geeawed. 



XVIII. 

To him the cup was borne, 
and friendly invitation 
2390 in words offer'd, 
and twisted gold 
kindly shown, 



BEOWULF. 



81 



earm-reaf twa, 
hrsegl and hringas, 
heals-beaga msest 
|»ara ]>e ic on foldan 
gefraegen hsebbe : 
nsenigne ic under swegle 
selran hyrde 

hord-madmum heelejja, 2400 
syjj^an Hama setwaeg 
to here-byrhtan byrig 
Brosinga mene, 
sigle and sinc-faet : 
searo-niSas fealh 
Eormenrices ; 
geceas ecne ried. 
pone bring hsefde 
Higelac Geata, 
nefa Swertinges, 2410 

nyhstan siSe, 
siSjjan be under segne 
sine ealgode, 
wael-reaf werede : 
bine wyrd fornata, 
sij)6an he for wlenco 
wean ahsode, 
faehSe t5 Frysum : 
he ]>& frsetwe waeg, 
eorcnan-stanas, 2420 



sleeves two, 

a mantle and rings, 

of collars the largest 

of those that I on earth 

have heard tell of : 

not anv under heaven I 

more excellent have heard of 

treasure-hoard of men, 

since Hama bore off 

to the noble bright city 

the Brosings' necklace, 

the jewel and its casket : 

he into the guileful enmity fell 

of Eormenric ; 

and chose th' eternal council. 

That ring bad 

Hygelac the Goth, 

Swerting's nephew, 

the last time, 

when he under his banner 

his treasure defended, 

guarded the spoil of the slain : 

him fate took off, 

after he for pride 

sought his own woe, 

a war with the Frisians : 

he the ornament convey'd. 

the precious stones. 



2393. MS. reade, which affords no sense. If it is meant for the 
adjective red, with what does it agree ? and with what does the neuter 
or fern, twa agree ? not with the masc. hringas. By earm-reaf we are 
probably to understand long pendant sleeves, no doubt of some costly 
Tiaterial. 
I 3405. feci? 2407. i. e. death. 2420. MS. eorclan-stanas. 



82 



BEOWULF. 



ofer ySa ful, 

rice ])e6den ; 

he under rande gecranc : 

gehwearf \>a, in Francna 

faeSm 
feorh cyninges, 
breost-gewEedu, 
and se beah somod : 
w\Tsan wig-frecan 
wsel reafedon, 
aefter guS-sceare ; 2430 
Geata leode 
hrea-wic heoldon. 
Heal swege onfeng : 
|Wealh)>e6w majjelode, 
he5 fore])cemwerede spraec: 
Bruc 3isses beages, 
Beowulf leofa, 
hyse mid h^le, 
and JjLsses hrsegles neot, 
)jeod-gestre6na, 2440 

and gejjeoh tela : 
cen pec mid crsefte, 
and jjyssum cnyhtum wes 
lara liSe ; 
ic pe J)3es lean geman. 

Hafast })u gefered, 

J)aet 6e feor and neah, 

ealne wide-ferbS, 

weras ehtigaS, 

efne swa side 2450 

swa See bebugeS 

2429. MS. reafeden. 



over the cup of waves, 

the powerful king ; 

he fell beneath his shield : 

departed then into the grasp of 

the Franks 
the king's life, 
his breast-weeds, 
and the collar also : 
worse warriors 
plunder'd the fall'n, 
after the lot of war ; 
^^^ Goths' people 
held the mansion of the dead. 
The "hall receiv'd the sound : 
Weaththeow spake, 
before the company she said : 
" Use this collar, 
dear Beowiilf, 

youth, with prosperity, 
and this mantle enjoy, 
these lordly treasures, 
and thrive well : 

animate thyself with vigour, 
and to these boys be 
in counsels gentle ; 

1 will "therefore be mindful to 
reward thee. 

Thou hast that achiev'd, 
that thee far and near, 
throughout all time, 
men will esteem, 
even as widely 
as the sea encircles 
2440. MS. i>eo. 



BEOWULF. 



83 



windge eard-weallas. 
Wes jjenden ]>u. lifige, 
ae})eling eadig : 
ic \>e an tela 
I sinc-gestreona : 
beo J)u sunum minum 
dsedura gedefe, 
dream-healdende . 
Her is eeghwylc eorl 2460 
ojjrum getiywe, 
modes milde, 
man-drihtne hold ; 
jjegnas syndon ge|)w?ere, 
\>e6d eal gearo, 
druncne dryht-guman 
doS swa ic bidde. 
E5de j>a to setle : 
))aer waes symbla cyst, 
druncon win weras 2470 
wyrd ne cujjon, 
geosceaft grimne, 
swa hit agangen weai-^ 
eorla manegum. 
SyJjSan sefen cwom, 
and him HroSgar gewat 
to hofe sinum, 
rice to reste, 
reced weardode 
unrim eorla, 2480 

swa hie oft £er dydon ; 



the windy land-walls. 

Be while thou livest 

a prosperous noble : 

I will well grant thee 

precious treasures : 

be thou to my sous 

gentle in deeds, 

holding them in joy. 

Here is every man 

to other true, 

mUd of mood, 

to his liege lord faithful ; 

the thanes are united, 

the people all ready, 

the drunken vassals â– ^'^^ ^^^-'â– '^ 

do as I bid." i^io-w-i-., *►'• 

She went then to her seat : 

there was of feasts the choicest, 

the men drank wine, 

fate they knew not, 

grim calamity, 

how it had befallen 

many a man. 

After evening came, 

and Hrothgar had departed 

to his court, 

the powerful one to rest, 

guarded the mansion 

countless warriors, 

as they oft ere had done ; 



2453. MS. wind geard weallas. 
2457. MS. suna, originally perhaps sunu. 
2463. MS. heol, the e with a stroke through it. 
2472. geocsceaft? 



8"4 



BEOWULF. 



benc-|)elu beredon : 

hit geond-breeded wearS 

beddum and bolstram. 

Beor-scealca sum, 

fus and fsege, 

flet-reste gebeag : 

setton him to heafdum 

hilde randas, 

bord-wudu beorhtan, 2490 

))ser on bence wses, 

ofer ae))ehnge, 

y))-gesyne 

heajjo-steapa helm, 

hringed byrne, 

'))raec-wudu jjrymlic. 

Waes ))eaw hyra, 

jjaet hie oft wseron 

an wig gearwe, 

ge aet ham ge on herge, 2500 

ge gehwsej'er {)ara ; 

efne swylce mgela 

swylce hira man-dryhtne 

Jjearf geseelde 

waes seo Jjeod tilu. 



they bared the bench-floor ; 

it was overspread 

with beds and bolsters. 

Of the beer-skinkers one, 

ready and fated, 

bow'd to his domestic couch : 

they set at their heads 

their disks of war, 

their shield-wood bright ; 

there on the bench was, 

over the noble, - ^ 

easy to be seen T" 

his high martial helm, 

'his ringed bymie, 

and war- wood stout. 

It was their custom, 

that they oft were 

for war prepar'd, 

both at home and in the host, 

or both of them ; 

just at such times 

as to their hege lord 

need befel 

was the people ready. 



Sigon j)a to sleepe : 
sum sare ongeald 
sefen-reste, 



XIX. 



TTiey sank then to sleep 
one sorely paid for 
his evening rest, 



2486. Why the beor-scealc was fus and ftege does not appear, as no 
further mention of Viini occurs : probably some lines are wanting. 
3488. MS. heafdon. 2493. MS. gesene. 

â– 2496. MS. l>rec. 2507. MS. angeald. 



BEOWULF. 



85 



swa him ful oft gelamp, as to them full oft had happen'd, 
sif>San gold-sele 2510 since the gold-hall 



Grendel warode, 

unriht aefnde, 

oJ)))8et ende becwom, 

swylt sefter synnum. 

pset gesyne wearS, 

wid-,cu)> werum, 

))8ette wrecend Jsa-gyt 

lifde sefter lci)>um, 

lange )>rage, 

sefte'r guS-ceare, 

Grendles modor ; 

ides agljec wlf 

yrmSe gemunde, 

seo )je waeter-egesan 

wunian scolde, 

cealde strearaas, 

si))5an Cain gewearS 
to ecg-banan 
angan bre]>er, 
faederen-maege. 
He }>a fag gewat 
mor})re gemearcod, 
man-dream fleon, 
westen warode ; 
J)anon woe fela 
geosceaft-gasta, 
wses J)tera Grendel sum, 
heoro-wearh hetelic ; 
se aet Heorote fand 
wseccendne wer 



Grendel occupied, 

unrighteousness perpetrated, 

until an end came, 

death after sins. 

That was seen, 

wide -known to men, 

that an avenger yet 

liv'd after the foe, 

for a long space^ 
2520 after the battle-care, 

Grendel's mother; 

the woman, wretched crone, 

was of her misery mindful, 

she who the watery horrors 

must inhabit, , 

the cold streams, 

after Cain became 

iht murderer 

of his only brother,, 
2530 his father's son. 

He then blood-stain'd departed 
by murder mark'd, 
fleeing the joy of man, 
dwelt in the waste i 
thence arose many 
wretched sprites, 
of those was Grendel one, 
the hateful fell wolf ; 
who had at Heorot found 
540 a watching man 



2524. MS. se Jje. 2527. MS. camp weafS. 

2536. geocsceaft? 
I 



86 



BEOWULF. 



wiges bidan, 
jjaer him [se] aglseca 
^( set-gfadig wearS ; 

hwseJJre he gemunde 
mcEgenes strenge, 
ginfaeste gife, 
Se hhn 'God sealde, 
and him to anwaldan 
are gelyfde, 

frofre and fultum ; 2550 
Sy he J>one feond ofercwom, 
gehn*gde helle gast ; 
]ja he" hean gewat, 
dreame bedselcd, 
deajj-vsic seoj^, 
mari-cynnes fcond ; 
Hf his modor )>a-gyt, 
gifre and galg-mod, 
gr;4n wolde 

= thfulne sio 256c 

3unu jjeod-wr-^ un 
Com jja to Heorote, 
' rr Hring-Dene 
^'eond J>£et sseld sweefon. 

r)a jjser sona weai^ 
• ihwyrft eorluin. ,,<' 
Si))$an jnue fealh V.0 ' 
Grendles modor. 



the conflict awaiting, 
where for him the miserable being 
food-greedy was ; S^ ^-^ *'*' â–  ' ' ; 
yet he remember'd 
the strength of his might, 
the abundant gift, 
that God had given him, 
and in him as sole Ruler | 

piously trusted, 
his comfort and support ; 
therefore he overcame the foe, 
subdued the sprite of hell ; 
then he humble departed, 
of joy depriv'd, 
the mansion of death to see, 
the foe of mankind ; 
but his mother yet, 
greedy and gallows-minded, 
would go .^ 

c sorrowful journey, 
direfully to avenge her son. 
She came then to Heorot, 
where the Ring-Danes 
throughout the hall were sleep- 
ing. 
Then forthwith there was 
a relapse to the warriors'. 
When in rush'd 
Grendel's mother, 

3543. MS. grsepe. 



2542: se is uoi ... — e MS. 

2544. he, i. e. Beowulf. 

2546. MS. gimfseste. See Boet. p. 179. edit. Rawl. 

2555- secan? 2557. MS. and. 2564. MS. swafiin. 

^566. That is of the miseries caused by Greadel. 



BEOWULF. 



87 



wses se gryre Isessa, 
efiie swa micle 2570 

swa bit5 mscg))a craeft, 
wig-gryre wifes, 
bewsepned-men, 
))onne heoru-bunden, 
hamere ge})uren, 
sweord swate fah, 
swm ofer helme, 
ecgura jjyhtig, 
andweard scireS. 
pa waes on healle 2580 
heard-ecg togen, 
sweord ofer setlum, 
sid-rand manig 
hafen handa-fost, 
helm ne gemunde, 

byrnan side, 

\>ix hine se broga angeat. 

Heo wses on ofste, 

wolde ut Jjanon 

feore be organ, 2590 

J)a heo onfunden wses. 

HraSe heo seSelinga 

anne hsefde 

faePte beictugen, 

hd h^o to feune gang . 

, waes Hro^gare 
â–  la leofost, 
_ -• iSes had, 

â– e 8aem tv.. 



was the terror less, 

by just as much 

as is the power of maidens, 1 

the hostile dread from women, 

to that from an arm'd man, 

when strongly bound, 

with hammer beaten, 

tfie sword stain'd with gore, 

the swine above the helm, 

doughty ,of edges, * 

present shears. 

Then was in the haU 

the hard edge drawn, 

the sword over the seats, 

many a broad disk 

rais'd fast in hand, 

helm the tcarrior remember'd 

not, 
nor ample bymie, 
when terror was on him shed.- 
She was in haste, 
would out from thence 
save her life, 
as she was discover'd. 
Of the nobles quickly she 
had one 
fast seiz'd, 

as to the fen she went ; 
he was to Hrothgar 
of heroes dearest, 
in a comrades' character, 
between the seas. 



2578. Thorkelin has dyhttu 



In the MS. the word is destroyed, 
i 2 



H8 



BEOWULF. 



>! 



ric e rand -wiga, 2600 

))one ^iheo on reste abreat 

blged-faestne beorn. 

Nses Beowulf Sser, 

ac waes o))er in 

XT geteohhod, 

aefter ma|>5um-gife, 

meerum Geate. 

Hream weartS in Heorote ; 

heo under heolfre genam 

cu])e folme ; 2610 

cearu waes geniwod 

geworden in wicum. 

Ne wees jjaet gewrixle til, 

])ast hie on ba healfa 

bicgan scoldon 

freonda feorum. 

pa wses frod cyning, 

bar hilde-rinc, 

on hrepnjmode, 

sySjjan he aldor-j^egn 2620 

unlyfigendne, 

jjone deorestan, 

deadne wisse. 

Hra))e waes to'bure 

Beowulf fetod, 

sigor-eadig secg. 

Samod cer dsege 

eode eorla sum, 

â– ee]>e\e cempa, 

self mid gesiSum, 2630 

J»?er se snotera bad, 

hwsejjre him AKvalda 

2612. MS. wicun. 




a powerful shield-warrior, 
,whom she on/«scouchdestroy'd, 
a prosperous hero.^ 
Beowulf was not there, 
for another dwelling had been 
before assign'd, 
after the costly gift, 
to the renowned Goth. 
There was a cry in Heorot ; 
she amid clotted gore took 
the well known hand ; 
grief had renew'd 
become in the dwellings. 
That was no good exchange, 
that they on both sides 
must buy 

with the lives of friends. 
Then was the wise king, 
the hoary man of war, 
in angry mood,, 
when he his senior thane • 
lifeless, 
the dearest, 
knew to be dead. . 
Quickly to his bower was 
Beowulf fetch'd, 
the victorious warrior. 
Together ere day 
weiit with some of his earls, 
the noble champion, 
himself with his comrades, 
to where the wise prince awaited, 
whether him the All-powerful 
2632. MS. alfwalda. \ 



BEOWULF. 



89 



aefre wille, 
aefter wea-spelle 
wyrde gefremman. 
Gang 6a aefter flore 
fyrd-wyrSe man 
mid his hand-scole, 
heal-wudii dynede, 
^set he ))one wisan 
wordum hnsegde, 
frean Ingwina ; 
frsegn gif him wsere, 
aefter neod-laSu, 
niht getsese. 



ever would, 

after the sad intelHgence, 
his fortune prosper, .a^^ -^-UT ^^ 
Went then along the floor 
the warlike man 
with his suite, 
{the hall- wood resounded) 
2640 till that he the wise prince 
by his words sooth'd, 
the Ingwinas' lord ; 
ask'd if he had had, 
after the urgent summons, 
an easy night. 



-,^- 



' HroSgar ma)>elode, 
helm Scyldinga : 
Ne frin )ju aefter sslum 
sorh is geniwod 
Denigea leodum ; 2 

dead is ^Eschere, 
Yrmenlafes 
yldra br6))or, 
min run-wita, 
and min rsed-bora, 
eaxl-gestealla, 
})onne we o n orl ege 
hafelan weredon, 
{)onne hniton fejjan 



XX. 

Hrothgar spake, 

the Scvlding's protector : 
; " Ask thou not after happiness ; 

sorrow is renew'd 
650 to the Danes' people ; 

iEschere is dead, 

Yrmenlaf's 

elder brother, 

my confident, 

and my counsellor, 

my near attendant, 

when we in war 

our heads defended, 

when hosts against each other 
rush'd 



2635. MS. wyrpe. 2638. !}IS. scale. 

2644. i* e. after having sent so urgent a summons to Beowulf. 



13 



-^ 



so 



BEOWULF. 



eoferas cnysedon : 2660 
swylc scolde eorl wesan 
cer-god * * 
swylc ^schere wses. 
WearS him on Heorote 
to hand-banan 
wsel-gaest wsefre. 
Ic ne wat liwaejjer 
atol sese-wlanc 
eft si8as teah, 
fylle gefrefrod. 2670 

Heo J)a fcehSe wrsec, 
]>e Jju gystran niht 
Grendel cwealdest, 
jjurh hcestne had, 
heardum clammum ; 
forjjan he to lange 
leode mine 
v;anode and wyrde : 
he set vrige gecrang, 
ealdres scyldig, 2680 

and nu o)>er cwom 
mihtig man^iScaSa, 
wolde hyre mseg wrecan ; 
gefeor hafaS 
|^]jSe gestaeled ; 
jJEes \>e Jjincean mssg, 
|)egne monegtma, 
se J)e eefter sinc-gyfan 
on sefan greotej), 
hre^er-bealo hearde. 2690 
Nu se5 hand ligeS, 
se ))e eow wel hwylcra 
2660. MS. cnysedan. 



and boar-crests crash'd : 
such should a man be, 
preeminently good * * 
such as yEschere was. 
To him in Heorot there has been 
for murderer 

a deadly wandering guest. 
I know not whether 
the fell glorier in carrion 
her steps back has traced, 
with slaughter comforted. 
She has avenged the quarrel, 
for that thou yesternight 
didst Grendel slay, 
through thy vehement nature, 
with hard grasps ; 
for that he too long 
my people 

diminish'd and destroy'd : 
he in battle succumb'd, 
his life forfeiting, 
and now is come another 
mighty fell destroyer, 
who would her son avenge, 
she far off has 
Wcirfare establish'^!, 
as it may seem, . 
for many a thane, 
who after his treasure -giver 
in spirit weeps, 
in hard heart-affliction. 
Now the hand lies low, 
which you for every 
2670. MS. gefrsegnod. 



BEOWULF. 



91 



wilna_dphte. 
Ic J)aet lond-buend, 
leode mine, 
sele-rsedende, 
secgan hyrde, 
))aet hie gesawon 
swylce twegen 
micle mearc-stapan 
moras hecddan, 
ellor-gsestas, 
tSaera oSer wses, 
))8es ]>e hie gewislicost 
gewitan meahton, 
idese onlicnes, 
o^er earm-sceapen, 
on weres wsestmum 
wrsec-lastas trsed^ 



desire avail'd. 
I it the land's inhabitants, 
my people, 
my hall-counsellors, 
have heard say, 
that they have seen 
two such 
2700 huge march-stalkers 
inhabiting the moors, 
stranger guests, 
of which one was, 
from what they most certamly 
could know, 
a woman's likeness, 
the other wretched wight, 
in a man's figure, 
trod a wanderer's footsteps, 



nsefoe he waes mara ))on 2710 save that he greater was than 



jenig man oj>er,- 
J)one on gear-dagum 
Grendel nemdon 
fold-buende : 
no hie fseder cunnon, 
hw3e})er him senig wses 
ser acenned 
dvrnra gasta. 
Hie dygel lond 
warigeaS wulf-hle5t5u, : 
windige nsessas, 
frecne fen-gelad, 
Saer fyrgen- stream, 
under naessa genipu, 
nij)er gewiteS, 



any other man; 
whom in days of yore 
Grendel nam'd 
earth's inhabitants : 
they a father know not, 
whether any to them was 
before' bom 
of the dark ghosts. 
They that secret land 
inhabit, the wolf's retreats, 
windy nesses^ 
the dangerous fen-path, 
where the mountain-stream, 
under the nesses' mists, 
downward flows, 
2706. MS. onlicnses. 



92 



BEOWULF. 



flod under foldan. 

Nis jjaet feor heonon, 

mil gemearces, 

J)8et se mere standeS, 

ofer ])8em^_hongia6 2730 

hrinde-bearwas ; 

wudu wyrtum fsest 

wBeter ofe rhel ma^ : 

))3er mseg nihta gehwsem 

ni6-wundor se5n, 

fyr on flode. 

No jjaes frod leofaS 

gumena bearna 

jjset ])one grand wite. 

peah jje hccS-stapa 2740 

hundura geswenced, 

heorot homum tram, 

holt- wudu sece, 

feorran geflyraed, 

ser he feorh seleS, - 

aldor on ofre, 

ser he in wiUe 

hafelan [hydan] : 

nis jjset heoru stow ; 

J)onon y8-geblond 2750 

up-astige8 

won to wolcnum, 

J)onne wind styreS 

la6-gewidru, {_ 

o8})8et lyft dryrmaS, 

roderas reotaS. 

Nu is s e rsed gelang 

eft set )je anum ; 



the flood under the earth. 
It is not far thence, 
a mile's distance, 
that the mere stands, 
over which hang 
ha^y groves ; 
a wood fast by its roots 
the water overshadows : 
there every night may 
a dire miracle be seen, 
fire in the flood. 
No one so wise lives 
of the children of men, 
who the bottom knows. 
Although the heath-stalker, 
by the hounds v?earied, 
the hart firm of horns, 
seek that holt-wood, 
driven from afar, 
ere will he life resign, 
his breath upon the bank, 
ere he will in it 
[hide] Ms head : 
that is no holy place ; 
thence the wave-blending 
rises up 

dark to the clouds, 
when the wind stirs 
hateful tempests, 
until the air grows gloomy, 
the heavens shed tears. 
Now is counsel long 
again of thee alone ; 



2748. hydan added from conjecture. 2755' MS. drysma^. 



BEOWULF. 



93 



eardjgit_ne const, 

frecne stowe, 2760 

J>jer ))u fiudan miht 

fela-sinnigne secg. 

Sec gif ]ju dyrre ; 

ic J»e })a fsehSe 

feo^leanige, 

eald-gestreonura, 

swa ic 8cr dyde, 

wunden-golde, 

gyf jjii onweg cymest. 



the spot thou yet knowest not, 
the perilous place, 
where thou mayest find 
this much sinful man. 
Seek it if thou durst ; 
I will thee for the strife 
with money recompense, 
with old treasures, 
as I before did, 
with twisted gold, 
if away thou comest." 



n 



XXI. 



Beowulf ma})elode, 
beam Ecg{)e6wes : 
Ne sorga snotor guma, 
selre biS segliWcem 
})aet he his freond wrece, 
Jjonne he fela mume. 
lire aeghwylc sceal 
ende gebidan 
worolde lifes : 
wyrce se ]je mote 
domas ser deat5e : 
|)aet biS driht-guman 
unEfgendura 

agfteTjipIfltit^ 

Aris rices weard, 
uton hra])e feran 
Grendles magan 
gang sceawigan : 
ic hit j)e gehate, 

2768. MS. wundum 



2770 



2780 



Beowulf spake, 

Ecgtheow's son : 

" Sorrow not, sage man, 

better 'tis for every one 

that he his friend avenge, 

than that he greatly mourn. 

Each of us must 

an end await 

of this world's hfe : 

let him who can, work | 

high deeds ere death ; J 

to the warrior that will be, 

when lifeless, 

afterwards best. 

Arise, guardian of the realm, 

let us quickly go 

of Grendel's parent 

the course to see : 

I promise it thee, 

2780. MS. domes. 



94 



BEOWULP. 



no heo on hglm losaS, 
\ DC on foldan fsej)m, 2790 
I ne on fyrgen-holt, 
â– ^ ne on geofones grund, 
KOC^T)^ ga )>aer heo wille. 

pys dogor ]ju 

ge))yld hafa 

weana gehwylces, 

swa ic ]je wene to. 

Ahleop 3a se gomela, 

Gode jjancode, 

mihtigan Drihtne, 2800 

\>!es se man gesprsec. 

pa waes HroSgare 

hors gebjeted, 

wicg wunden-feax. 

Wisa fengel 

geatolic gengde ; 
(' " gum-fe]>a stop 

lind-haebbendra. 

Lastas waeron 

after wald-soa^fm 2810 

wide ^esyne, 

gang ofer grundas 
-â–  oj gegcum^or, 
^ ofer myrcan mor : 

mago-])egn^a beer 

j?one selestan 

sawolleasne, 

J>ara ]>e mid HroSgare 
I ham eahtode. 

2789. MS. he, and helm. 
2793. MS. he. '. 

2810. swajjum. 



not into the sea shall she escape, 

nor into earth's bosom, 

nor into the momitain-wood, 

nor in ocean's ground, 

go whither she will. 

This day do thou 

have patience 

for every woe, 

as I expect from thee." 

Leapt up then the aged man, 

thank'd God, 

the mighty Lord, 

for what the man had said. 

Then was for Hrothgar 

a horse bitted, 

a steed with curled mane. 

The wise prince 

stately went ; 

a troop of men proceeded, 

shield-bearing. 

Traces were 

after the forest-spoiler 

widely seen, 

her course o'er the grounds 

before them, 

over the murky moor : 

of their fellow thanes she bore 

the best 

soulless, 

of those who with Hrothgar 

their home defended. 

2792. MS. gyfenes- 
2806. MS. gende. 
2819. ealgode.' 



BEOWULF. 



95 



Ofer-eode ))a 

aej>elinga beam 

steap stan-hliSp, 

stige nearwe, 

enge anpaSas, 

uncuS gelad, 

neowle njessas, 

nicor-husa fela. 

He feara sum 

beforan gengde 

wisra raonna, 2: 

wong sceawian, 

o))))set he fseringa 

fyrgen-beamas 

ofer harne stan 

hleonian funde, 

wynleasne wudu ; 

wseter under stod 

dreorig and gedrefed ; 

Denum ealluni wses, 
•j- winura Scyldinga, 2 
- '!^S9Xce. on mode 

to gejjolianne, 

Segne monegum, 

oncj6 eorla gehw£era, 

sy8]?an j^Escheres, 

on ))am holm-clife, 

hafelan metton. 

Flod blode weol, 
^ folc tossegon «tt^aj»»'>vv 

hatan heolfre ; 

horn stundum song 
" fuslic furjjon leo8. 



2820 Went over then 

these sons of nobles 

deep rocky gorges, 

fl narrow road, 

strait lonely paths, 

an unknown way, 

precipitous headlands, ^.c- 

nicker-houses many. 

He with a few 

went before, 
2830 wise men, 

the plain to view, 

until he suddenly 

mountain-trees, 

o'er the hoar rock 

found leaning, 

a joyless wood ; 

water stood beneath 

gory and troubled ; 

To all the Danes it was, 
840 tJie Scyldings' friends, 

grievous in mind 

to suffer, 

to many a thane, 

portentous to every warrior, 

when of .55schere, 

on the sea-shore, 

the head thei/ found. 

The flood boil'd with blood, 

the people look'd on 
2850 the hot gore ; 

the horn at times sang 

also a de^th song. 



2852. Thork. fiighton. The word has perished from the MS. 



96 



BEOWULF. 



re]>a eal gesaet ; 
gesawon jja sefter waetere 
wyrm-c}Tines fela, 
sellice sse-dracan, 
sund cunnian ; 
swylce on nses-hleoj'um 
nicras licgean, 
t5a on undern msel 2860 
oft bewitigaS 
sorhfulne si6 
on segl-rade, 
wyrmas and wildeor : 
hie onweg hruron, 
bitere and gebolgne, 
bearhtm ongeaton, 
gu6-horn galan : 
^ sumne Geata leod, 
of flan-bogan, 2870 

feores getwgefde, 
yS-gewinnes, 
})aet him on aldre stod 
here-strsel hearda : 
he on holme wses 
sundes ]je ssenra, 
\>a hjne swylt fornam. 
Hraj^e wearS on ySum, 
mid eofer-spreotum 
heoro-hocihtum, 2880 

hearde genearwod, 
nitJa genaeged, 
and on nses togen, 
wundorUc waeff-bora : 



The band all sat ; 
they saw along the water 
of the worm-kind many, 
strange sea dragons, 
tempting the deep ; 
also in the headland- clefts 
nickers lying, 
which at morning time 
oft keep 

their sorrowful coarse 
on the sail-road, 
worms and wild beasts : 
they sped away, 
bitter and angry, 
the instant they heard 
the war-horn sing : 
one the Goths' lord, 
from his arrow-bow, 
from life separated, 
from his wave-strife, 
so that in his vitals stood 
the hard war-shaft : 
he in the sea was 
in swimming the slower, 
when him death took off. 
Quickly on the waves was he 
vrith boar- spears 
sharply hook'd, 
hardly press'd, 
humbled of his mischiefs, 
and on the headland drawn, 
the wondrous wave-bearer : 



2877. MS. i>e. 2880. MS. hoc yhtum. 

9884. i. e. the monster that Beowulf had shot, 1. 2869 sqq. 



BEOWULF. 



07 



weras sceawedon 

gryrelicne gist 

Gyrede hine Beowulf 

eorl-gewsedum : 

nalles for ealdre mearn ; 

scolde here-bvrne, 2890 

hondum gebroden, 

sid and searo-fah, 

sund cunnian, 

seo ^e ban-cqfan 

beorgan cu})e, 

jjaet him hilde grap 

hre})re ne mihte, ' 

eorres inwit-feng, 

aldre gesce{)San ; 

ac se hwita helm 2900 

hafelan werede, 

se jje mere-grundas 

mengan scolde, 

secan sund-gebland, 

since geweorjjad ; 

befongen frea-wrasnum, 

swa hine fym-dagum 

worhte waepna smi^, 

wundrum teode, 

besette swin-licimi, 2910 

jjaet hine sySjjan no 

brond ne beado-mecas 

bitan ne meahton. 

I^?e_s })aet jjonne msetost 

maegen-ftdtuma, 

jjaet him on ^earfe lah 



the men gaz'd on 

the grisly guest. 

Clad himself Beowulf 

in warlike weeds : 

for life he car'd not ; 

his martial byrnie must, 

with hands twisted, 

ample and curiously variegated, 

tempt the deep, 

which his body 

could ivell secure, 

so that hostile gripe his 

breast might not, 

the wrothful's wily grasp, 

his hfe injure : 

but the bright helm 

guarded that head, 

(which the sea-grounds 

should disturb, 

seek the mingle of the deep.) 

with treasure ornamented, 

with noble chains encircled, 

as it in days of yore 

the armourer wrought, 

wondrously fram'd, 

beset with forms of swine, 

so that it afterwards no 

brand nor battle-falchions 

might bite. r 

Nor then was that the least 

of powerful aids, 

which at need him lent 



2t^i. " Helm nor hauberk's twisted mail." Gr»y. 



98 



BEOWULF. 



]?yle Hro^gares. 

Waes jjsem hseft-mece 

Hrunting nama ; 

))aet wses an foran 2920 

eald-gestreona ; 

ecg wses iren 

ater-tanum fah, 

ahyrded heaj)0-swate ; 

naefre hit set hilde ne swac 

manna sengum, 

J)ara J)e hit mit mundutn 

bewand, 
se ^e gryre si¥as 
gegan dorste, 
folc-stede fara. 2930 

Nses ])set forma si^, 
J>Bet hit ellen-WQorc 
sefnan scolde : 
huru ne gemunde 
mago Ecglafes, 
eafojjes craeftig, 
J»aet he aer gespraec, 
wine druncen, 
)>a he jjses waepnes onlah 
selran sweord-frecan, 2940 
Selfa ne dorste 
under ySa gewin 
aldre gene|)an, 
drihtscype dreogan ; 
]>8er he dom forleas 
ellen-meerjjum ; 



Hrothgar's orator. 

Was of that hafted falchion 

Hrunting the name ; 

that had before been one 

of the old treasures ; 

its edge was iron 

tainted with poisonous twigs, 

harden'd with warrior-blood ; 

never in battle had it deceiv'd 

any man, 

of those who brandish'd it with 

hands, 
who ways of terror 
durst go, 

the trysting place of perils. 
That time was not the first, 
that it a work of valour 
should achieve : 
at all events remember'd not 
Ecglaf's son, 
crafty in trouble, 
what he ere had said, 
with wine drunken, 
when he the weapon lent 
to a better sworded warrior. 
Himself durst not 
amid the strife of waves 
venture his life, 
a noble deed perform ; 
there he his credit lost 
for valorous deeds ; 



2917. Hunferth. See 1. 1002. 2922. See note on 1. 3070. 

2935. See 1. 1003. 2945. MS. dome. 



BEOWULF. 



U9 



ne waes })?em o'Srum swa, 
s}r8))an he hine to g\x6e 
gegyred haefde. 



not so was it with the other, 
when himself for battle he 
had prepared. 



XXII. 



2960 



Beowulf ma'Selode, 

beam Ecg))e6wes : 

Gejjenc nil se meera 

maga Healfdenes, 

snottra fengel, 

nu ic eom si^es fus, 

gold- wine gumena, 

hwaet wit ge5 sprsecon : 

Gif Ic aet |)earfe 

Jjinre scolde 

aldre linnan, 

Jjast \>u me a wsere 

for^-gewitehum 

on fseder stsele. 

Wes \>n mundbora 

minum mago-|)egnum, 

hond-geseUum, 

gif mec hild nime ; 

sw)'lce \>u Sa raadmas, 

]>e \>u me sealdest, 

Hro^gar leofa, 

Higelace onsend : 

maeg ])onne on pxm golde 

ongitan 
Geata dryhten, 
geseon sunu Hre^les, 



2950 Beowulf spake, 
Ecgtheow's son : 
' ' Let now bear in mind the great 
son of Healfdene, 
the sagacious prince, 
now I am ready for my journey, 
gold-friend of men, 
what we have before spoken : 
If I for thy 
need should 
lose my life, 

that thou wouldst ever be to me,- 
u'hen hence departed, 
in a father's stead. 
Be thou a guardian 
to my fellow thanes, 
my near comrades, 
if war take me off; 
also do thou the treasures, 
which thou hast given me, 

2970 dear Hrothgar, 
send to Hygelac : 
then by that gold may know 

the Goths' lord, 
the son of Hrethel see, 
)7onne he on jjaet sine stara?, when he on that treasure gazes, 

2974. MS. Hraedles. 
K 2 



^^A^^- 



100 



BEOWULF. 



)>aet ic gum-cystum 

g5dne funde, 

beaga brj'ttan : 
Ibreac )>onne moste. 

And J)u Hunfer^ Iset 

ealde lafe^ 

wraetlic wTg-sweord, 
, wid-cu^ne man, 

heard-ecg babban : 

ic me mid Hruntrnge 

dom gew}Tce, 

ojj^e mec dea^ nime^. 

--Efter Jjsem wordum 

Weder-Geata leod 

efste mid ebie, 

nalas andsware 

bidan wolde : 

brij^-wj'lm onfeng 

bilde rince. 

Da waes bwH daeges 

jer he Jjone grund-wong 

ongytan mibte. 
fSona })Bet onfunde 

seo ^e floda begong 

heoro-gifre bebeold 

bund missera^ 

grim and grsedig, 

J)set jjser gumena sum 

aelwihta eard 

ufan cunnode ; 

grap J)a t5-geanes, 

gu6-rinc gefeng 



that I for his bounties , 

found a good 

distributor of rings : 

I enjoyed them when / might. 
2980 And do thou let Hunferth 

the ancient rehc, 

the curious war-sword, 

the far-fam'd man, 

the hard-edged, have : 

I will with Hrunting me 

work renown, 

or me death shall take." . 

After those words 

the Weder-Goth^ord 
2990 with ardour hasten'dj ' ^ 

nor answer ^ 

would await : 

the ocean-surge received 

the warlike man. 

Then was a day's space 

ere he the ground-plain 

could perceive. / 

Forthwith discover'd 

she who the floods' course 
3000 bloodthirsty had held 

a hundred years, 

fierce and greedy, 

that there a man 

the country of strange creatures 

was from above exploring ; 

then grasp'd towards him, 

the warrior seiz'd 



2982. MS. waeg sweord. wig-sweord=gu5-sweord. 
i^97. MS. mehte. 2999- MS. se l>e. 



BEOWULF. 



101 



3010 



atolan clommum : 
no ])y aer in-^estod 

halan lice, 

bring utan-ymb bearh, 

Jwet heo })one fyrd-hom 

)>urh-f6n ne mihte, 

locene leoSo-syrcan, 

la)>an fingrum. 

Baer ]>a seo brim-wylf, 

J)a heo to botme com, 

hringa jjengel 

to h5fe sinum, 

swa he ne mihte no, 3020 

he J>8em modig waes, 

waepna gewealdan ; 

ac hine wundra ))aes fela 

swencte on sunde, 
sse-deor monig 
hilde-tuxum 
here-syrcan braec, 
ehton aglsecan. 
pa se eorl ongeat 
jjset he [in] ni5-sele 3030 
nat hwylcum waes, 
Jjser him nsenig waeter 
wihte lie scQJ>ede, 
ne hipi for hrof-sele 
hrinan ne mihte 



in her horrid clutches : 

yet not the sooner did she pene- 
trate 

the sound body, 

for the ring-mail protected him 
without, 

so that she that war-case 

might not pierce through, 

the lock'd hmb-sark, 

with her hostile fingers. *-^ 

Bore then the sea- wolf, 

when she to the bottom came. 

the prince of rings 

to her dwelling, 

so that he might not 

(resolute as he was) 

his weapons command ; 

but him therefore many won- 
drous beings 

oppress'd in the deep, 

many a sea-beast 

with its battle-tusks 

the martial sark brake, 

Me miserable beings pursued him. 

Then the warrior found 

that he in a hostile hall, 

he knew not what, was, 

where him no water 

in aught could scathe, 

nor him for the roofed-hall 

could touch 



A 



3009. MS. gescod. 3«i4' ^IS. leodo. 

,3016. MS. wyL Seel. 3203. 3024. MS. swecte. 

3030. in is inserted as necessary to the sense. 3035. -MS. meht*' 



102 



BEOWULF. 



faer-gripe flodes ; 
fyr-leoht geseah, 
blacne leoman, 
beorhte scman : 
ongeat J)a se goda 3040 
grund-vfyrgenne, 
mere-wif mihtig ; 
msegen-rses forgeaf 
hilde bille ; 

heoro-sweng ne ofteah, 
]>?et liire on hafelan 
hring-rasel agol 
gryreKc gu6-leo6. 
pa se gist onfand 
jjaet se beado-leoma 3050 
bitan nolde, 
aldre scej)6an, 
ac seo ecg geswac 
))e6dne set jjearfe ; 
J>olode ser fela 
hond-gemota, 
helm oft gescser, 
fseges fyrd-hrsegl ; 
J)a waes forma si5 
deorum madme, 3060 

]>cet his dom alaeg. 
Eft wses anreed, 
nalas elnes Iset, 
mffirSa gemyndig, 
mseg Hygelaces ; 
wearp Sa wunden-msel, 
^settum gebunden, 

3045. MS. hord swenge. 
3065. JUS. Hylaces. 



the flood's sudden gripe ; 

he saw a fire-light^ 

a pale beam, 

brightly shine : 

then the good warrior perceiv'd 

the ground-wolf, 

the mighty mere-wife ; 

he made a powerful onslaught 

with his war-falchion ; 

the sword-blow withheld not, 

so that on her head 

the ringed brand sang . . 

a horrid war-song. 

Then the guest found 

that the war-beam 

would not bite, 

hfe injure, 

but that the edge fail'd 

its lord at need ; 

erst it had endur'd many 

hand- encounters, 

the helmet often slash'd, 

the fated's war-garb ; 

then was the first time 

for the precious treasure, 

that its power fail'd. 

Again was resolute, 

slacken'd not his ardour, 

of his great deeds mindful, 

Hygelac's kinsman ; 

cast then the twisted brand, 

curiously bound, 

3048. MS. grsedig. 
3066. MS. wuudel. 



BEOWULF. 



103 



y rre oretta, 

]>3st hit on eorSan laeg 
stiS and styl-ecg, 3070 

strenge getruwode, 
mund-gripe msegenes ; 
swa sceal man don, 
)jonne he set gilSe 
gegan jjenceS 
longsumne 16f, 
na ymb his lif cearaS. l 
Gefeng Sa be eaxle, 
nalas for fsehSe mearn, 
guS-Geata leod 3080 

Grendles modor : 
braegd Jja beadwe heard, 
j)a he gebolgen wses, 
feorh-geniSlan, 
^})3et heo on flet gebeah. 
He5 him eft hrapie 
hand-lean forgeald 
grimman grapum, 
and him to-geanes feng : 
ofer-wearp ]>a, werig- 

m5d 3090 

â– vvngena strengest, 
fejje-cempa, 
|>aethe' on fylle weart5. 
Qfsaet \>a )jone sele-gyst. 



the angry champion, 

so that on the earth it lay 

stiff and steel-edged, 

in his strength he trusted, 

in his hand-gripe of power f a*^^ 

so must a man do, 

when in battle he 

thinks of gaining 

lasting praise, 

nor about his life cares. 

Seiz'd then by the shoulder, 

(he reck'd not of her malice) 

the war-Goths' lord, 

Grendel's mother : 

then the fierce warrior drag'd 

(as he was incens'd,) 

the mortal foe, 

so that on the place she bow'd. 

She him again quickly 

paid a iiand*re\Yard 

with her fierce grasps, 

and at him caught : \ 

overthrew then the weary of 

mood, . 
of warriors strongest, 
the active champion, 1' - ^ 
so that he was about to perish, ^n 
She then press'd down the hall-' 

guest. 



3070. Tliis is to be understood literally; the weapon, whether 
sword or axe, being, like those of Homer's heroes, of bronze or copper, 
and having an edge of iron or steel fastened on it by means of rivets. 
Specimens of this kind are preserved in the Museum of Northern 
Antiquities at Copenhagen. 



104 



BEOWULF. 



and h)Te seaxe geteah, 

brad brun-ecg ; 

wolde hire bearn wrecan, 

angan eaferan. 

Him on eaxle laeg 

breost-net broden, 3100 

|)3et gebearh feore, 

wi6 ord and wiS ecge 

ingang forstod. 

Hsefde 6a forSsiSod 

sunu Ecgjjeowes 

under ginne grund, 

Geata cempa, 

nemne him hea6o-byme 

helpe gefremede, 

here-net hearde, 31 10 

and hahg God 

geweold wig-sigor ; 

witig Drihten, 

rodera Rsedend, _ 

hit on rvht gescod 

ySehce, 

syJ)San he eft astod. 



and her poniard drew, 

broad, brown-edged ; 

she would avenge her son, 

her only offspring. 

On his shoulder lay 

the braided breast-net, 

which his life protected, 

against point and against edge 

entrance withstood. 

Had then perish'd 

Ecgtheow's son 

under the spacious ground, 

the Goths' champion, 

had not him Ms martial byrnie 

help afforded, 

his war-net hard, 

and holy God 

in war triumphant, rul'd ; 

the wise Lord, 

Ruler of the skies, 

decided it with justice 

easily, 

when he again stood up. 



XXIII. 



Geseah Jja on searwum 

sige-eadig bil, 

eald sweord eotenisc 3120 

ecgum Jjyhtig, 

wigena weort5mynd ; 



Then saw he among the arras 
a victorious falchion, 
an old eotenish sword 
of edges doughty, 
the pride of warriors ; 



3104. MS. forsi^od. 
31 15. MS. gesced. 



3106. MS. gynne. 
31 1 7. he, i. e. 6eowul£ 



BEOWULF. 



105 



))aet [wges] wrcpna cyst, 
buton hit wses mare ))onne 
aenig mon o'Ser 
to beadu-lace 
aetberan meahte, 
god and geatolic, 
giganta geweorc. 
He gefeng \>a, fetel-hilt, 3 130 
freca Scyldinga ; 
ireoh and heoro-grim, 
hring-msel gebraegd, 
aldres orwena 
yrringa sloh, 
\>set hire wig halse 
heard grapgde, 
ban-hringas brsec, 
bil eal Surh-w6d, 
faegne flaesc-homan r 3140 
heo on flet gecrong. 
Sweord wses swatig. 
I s ecg w eorce gefeh ; 
lixte^e le5ma, 
leoht inne stod ; 
efne swa of heofene 
hadre scineS 
rodores candel 
He aefter recede^ wlat ; 
hwearf J)a be wealle, 3150 
waepen hafenajlef 
heard be hUtum, 
Higelaces 5egn, 
yrre and anrsed ; 

3123. wses is not in the MS., 
3146. MS. hefene. 



that [was] of weapons choicest, 

save it was greater than 

any other man 

to the game of war 

might bear forth, 

good and elegant, 

the work of giants. 

Then seiz'd he the knotted hilt, 

the Scyldings' warrior ; 

fierce and deadly grim, 

the ringed brand he drew, 

of hfe hopeless 

angrily struck, 

so that against her neck 

it grip'd her hard, 

her bone-rings brake, 

the falchion pass'd through all 

her fated carcase : 

on the ground she sank. 

TTie sword was gory, 

the warrior in his work rejoiced ; 

the beam shone, 

light stood within, 

even as from heaven 

serenely shines 

the candle of the firmament. 

He through ^^e dwelling look'd; \y 

then by the wall tum'd, 

his weapon rais'd 

hard by the hilt, 

Hygelac's thane, 

angry and resolv'd ; ; 

but inserted as necessary to the sense. 
3154. 3IS. unrsed. 



106 



BEOWULF. 



naes seo ecg fracod 

hilde rince ; 

ac he hrajje wolde 

Grendle forgyldan 

gu3-rcesa fela, 

)>ara jje he geworhte 3160 

to West-Denum, 

oftor micle 

Jjonne on cenne siS, 

J)onne he Hro^gares 

heorS- geneatas 

sloh on sweofote, 

sleepende fraet 

folces Denigea 

fyftyne men, 

and o^er swylc 3170 

ut of-ferede 

laSKcu lac. 

He him jjses lean forgeald, 

rej)e cempa, 

to Saes J)e he on reste 

geseah, 
gu8-werigne, 
Grendel hcgan 
aldorleasne, 
swa him ser gescod 
hUd set Heorote. 3180 

Hra wide sprong, 
syj'San he sefter deaSe 
dre£e_^rowade, 
heoro-sweng heardne. 



(nor was the edge useless 

to the warrior ;) 

for he would forthwith 

Grendel requite for 

the many onslaughts , 

that he had made 

on the West- Danes, ^ 

oftener by much 

than on one occasion, . 

when he Hrothgar's 

hearth-enjoyers 

slew in their rest, 

sleeping devour'd 

of the Danes' folk 

fifteen men, 

and as many others 

convey'd away, 

hateful offerings. 

He had for that paid him his 

reward, 
the fierce champion, 
so well that on his couch he 

saw, 
of contest weary, 
Grendel lying 
lifeless, 

as had for him before decided 
the conflict at Heorot •- /^ 
{The corpse ypcdng far away, 
when after death he 
the stroke suffer'd, 
the hard sword-blow,) 



3175. MS. raeste. 



BEOWULF. 



107 



and hine \>s, heafde be- 

cearf. 
Sona j>aet gesawon 
snottre ceorlas, 
})a 6e mid HroSgare 
on holm wlitou, 
])aet wges yS-geblond 3190 
eal. gcTnenged, 
brim blode fah ; 
blonden-feaxe 
gomele ymb g5dne 
on-geador sprgecon, 
))aet hig jjaes seSelinges 
eft ne wendon, 
jjaet he sige-hre^ig 
secean come 

m«rne jjeoden ; 3200 

})a ^ses monige gewear^, 
]>xt hine seo brim-wylf 
abroten haefde. 
pa com Don dseges, 
naes ofgeafon 
hwate Scyldingas ; 
gewat him ham jjonon 
gold-wioe gumena,(»^ 
gistas -eeesm, v- ^ "^ '' ' •'' 
modes seoce, ''â– â– ' 3210 
and on mere staredon, 
wiscton and ne wendon 

]>3st hie 
heora wine-drihten 
selfne gesawon. 



and him then sever'd from his 

head. 
Saw it forthwith 
the sagacious men, 
those who with Hrothgar, 
were on the water looking, 
that the wave-blending was 
all mingled, 

the deep stain'd with blood ; 
the grizzly hair'd, 
the old, about the good warrior 
together spake, 
that of the noble they ' 
expected not again, 
that he in victory exulting, 
would come to seek 
their great prince ; * 

as of this it was a notice, 
that him the sea-wolf 
had destroy 'd. 
Then came the noon of day, 
left the headland 
the bold Scyldings ; 
departed home thence 
the gold-friend of men, 
his guests to seek, 
sick of mood, . 
and on the mere they gaz'd, 
wish'd and ween'd not that 

they • 
their dear lord 
himself should see. 



3203. MS. abreoten. 

3212. MS. wiston. K., no doubt rightly, reads wiscton. 



108 



BEOWULF. 



pa {>set sweord ongan 
aefter heajjo^wate 
hilde gicelum, 
wig-bil wanian, 
Jjaet wses wundra sum, 
Jjset hit eal gemealt 3220 
ise gelicost, 
jjonne forstes bend 
Faeder onlseteS, 
onwindeS weeg-rapas, 
se geweald hafaS 
ssela and meela ; 
)>aet is s65 Metod. 
Ne nom he in J)sem wicum 
Weder-Geata le5d, 
ma5m-3ehta ma, 3230 

J)eh he pier monige geseah, 
buton J)one hafelan, 
and ]>a hilt somod, 
since fage ; 
sweord ser gemealt, 
forbarn broden msel ; 
waes jjset blod to ]>xs hat, 
aettren eUor-gaest, 
se ])aer-inne swealt^ 
Sona waes on sunde 3240 
se ]>e Eer set saecce gebad 
wig-hiyre wraSra ; 
waeter up )jurh-deaf, 
weeron y5-gebland, 
eal gefgelsod, 
eacne eardas, 

3217. Lit. in icicles of war. 
3224. MS. wael, for which K. 



Then that sword began' 

after with battle-gore 

in icicles of blood, 

that war-falchion, to fade away ; 

(that was a miracle \) 

so that it ciU melted 

to ice most hke, 

when the frost's band 

the Father relaxes, 

unwinds the wave-ropes, ^ 

who has power ^^' 

of times and seasons \^>y^ 

that is the true Creator. • 

He took not in those dwellings, 

the Weder- Goths' lord, 

more treasures,' •"'^ 

(though he there many saw,) 

except the head, 

and the lult also, 

with treasure variegated ; 

the sword bad already melted, 

the drawn brand was burnt ; 

so hot was the blood, 

so venomous the strang er g ue st, 

who therein had perish'd. 

Forthwith was afloat 

he who before at strife awaited 

the battle-faU of foes ; 

he div'd up through the water, 

the wave-blendings were 

all clear'd, 

the vast dwellings. 



'< 




, no doubt rightly, reads wjeg. 






no 



BEOWULF. 



fela-modigra : of those rauch-daring ones . 

feower scoldon, four must, 

on })2em wsel-stenge, 3280 on the deadly stake. 



weorcum gefenan 
to J)£em gold-sele 
Grendles heafod ; 
ojj^set semninga 
to sele comon 
frome f^^d-hwate 
feowertyne 
Geata gongan, 
gum-dryhten mid : 
raodig on gemonge 
meodo-wongas traed. 
pa com in-gan 
ealdor Segna, 
dsed-cene mon, 
dome gewur))ad, 
haele-hilde-deor, 
HroSgar gretan. 
pa. waes be feaxe 
on flet boren 
Gr^3les heafod, 
))8er guman druncon, 
egeshc for eorlum, 
and Jjsere idese mid ; 
wlite seon wcaEflic 
weras onsawon. 



laboriously convey 
to the gold-hall 
Grendel's head ; 
until at once 
to the hall came 
stout active in warfare 
fourteen 

Goths marching, 
with their lord : 

3290 proud in the throng 

he trod the meadsjs;,- plains. 
Then came entering 
the prince of thanes, 
the deed-bold man, 
with glory honour'd, 
the human war-beast, 
Hrothgar to greet. 
Then by the locks was 
into the court borne 

3300 Grendel's head, 

where men were drinking, 
terrific b^ors the warriors, 
and the woman'iS also ; 
an aspect wonderful to see 
men look'd on. 



f 



Beowulf majjelode, 
beam Ecgjjeowes : 
Hwaet we \>e J)as sse-lac. 



XXIV. 

Beowulf spake, 
Ecgtheow's son : 
" Behold, we thee these 
offerings, 



-^ 



BEOWULF. 



109 



|)a se ellor gast 

oflet llf-dagas, 

and ]jas leenan gesceaft. 

Com pa, to lande 3250 

lidmanna helm, 

swi'8m6d swymman, 

SEe-lace gefeah, 

m8Pgen-byr})enne, 

jjara \>e he him mid hsefde. . 

Eodon him jja to-geanes, 

Gode l^ancodon, 

SrySlic jjegna heap, 

jjeodnes gefegon, 

)jaes J)e hi hyne gesundne 

geseon moston. 3261 

Da waes of jjseni hroran 

helm and byrne 

lungre alysed, 

lagu drusade, 

waetei* under wolcnum, 

wael-dreore fag. 

Ferdon forS jjonon, 

fe^e-lastum 

ferh|)um faegne, 3270 

fold-weg mEeton. 

cujje streete ; 

cyning-balde men, 

from j)£em holm-clife, 

hafelan bseron, 

earfoSIice 

heora seghwae]>rum. 



when the stranger guest 
left her life-days, 
and this miserable creation. 
Came then to land \ 

the sailors' refuge, 
stoutly swimming, 
in his sea- offerings rejoiced! 
his mighty burthen, 
of the^/joiVsthat he had with hiin. 
Went then towards him, 
thank'd God, 
the stout band of thaneS, 
in their lord rejoiced, 
for that they him sound 
might see. 

Then was from the vigorous chief 
helm and bymie 
quickly loosed, 

'the stream toekled down,^: -i- 
water under the clouds, 
stain'd with deadly gore. 
They went forth thence, 
with their foot- steps, ' 
(in their souls rejoicing,) 
the high-way measur'd, 
the well-known road ; 
the nobly bold men, 
from the sea-shore, 
bore the head^, 
with difficulty 
to each of them. 



3253. OflPeriDgs, i. e. to Hrothgar, the heads of his deadly foes. 
3255. Spoils, i. e. the heads of Grendel and his mother and the 
ponderous sword-hilt. 

L 



BEOWULF. 



Ill 



sunu Healfdenes, 
leod Scyldinga, 
lustum brohton, 
tires to tacne, 
j>e })U her to-locast. 
Ic jjaet unsofte 
ealdre gedigde, 
wigge under wsetere, 
weorce gene))de ; 
earfo^lice 
aet rihte wses 
gu5 getw£pfed, 



son of Healfdene, 
3310 lord of Scyldings^ 

joyfully have brought, 

in token of glory, 

â– which thou here lookest on. 

I it hardly 

with life escap'd from, 

the conflict under water, 

with pain ventur'd on it ; 

with difficulty 

according to right had been 
3320 the contest parted. 



nymSe mec God scylde. 

Ne meahte ic set hilde 

mid Hruntinge 

wiht gewyrcan, 

\>eah ))get wsepen duge ; 

ac me geuSe 

ylda Waldsnd, 

)>8et ic on wage geseah 

wHtig hangian 

eald sweord eacen, S33 

oftost wisode 

wineleasum 

))aet ic ]>y waepne gebrsed. 

Ofsloh J)a aet |)jere saecce, 

\>a. me Sfel ageald 

buses h\Tdas ; 

))a jjaet hilde bil 

forbam brogden mael, 

swa j)aet blod gesprang, 

hatost heaJ)o-swata : 



had not God shielded me. 

I might not in the conflict 

with Hrunting 

aught accomplish, 

though that weapon be good ; 

but me granted 

the Ruler of men, 

that on the wall I saw 

hang beautiful 

an old powerful sword, 

(full oft has He directed 

the friendless,) 

and that I the weapon drew; 

/ slew then in that conflict 

(as me the opportunity requited) 

the house's keepers ; 

then that battle-falchion, ". 

that drawn brand, was burnt up. 



as the blood sprang, 
3340 hottest of hostile gores : • 

3332. wingea, Thork. ; but the to has perished from the MS. What 
remains appears like nigea. 

L 2 



112 



BEOWULF. 



ic |)aet hilt Jjanon 
feondum aetferede, 
fyren-dseda wi-sec, 
deaS-cwealm Denigea, 
swa hit gedefe waes. 
Ic hit )>e |)onne gehate, 
J>aet ])u on Heorote most 
sorhleas swefan 
mid )>mra secga gedryht, 
and |)egna gehwylc 3350 
^inra leoda, 
dugoSe and iogo)>e ; 
])aet jju him ondrsedan ne 

Jjearft, 
Jjeoden Scyldinga, 
on J^a healfe. 



I the hilt thence 

from the foes bore away, 

avenged the crimes, 

the Danes' deadly plague, 

as it was fitting. 

I now promise it thee, 

that thou in Heorot may'st t 

sleep secure 

with the company of thy warriors, 

and every thane 

of thy people, 

noble and youthful ; 

so that for them thou needest 

not to fear, 
prince of Scyldings, 



3360 



on that side, 

aldor-bealu eorlum, ^<;^^^^ life's bane of thy wzuriors, 
yj swa |)U ser dydesj^^i^^^" as thou erst didst." 

Da waes gylden miz Then was the golden hilt 

to the aged warrior, 
the hoar war-leader, 
in hand given, 
the giants work of old : 
it pass'd into the possession, 
after those devils' fall, 
of the Danes' lord, 
the work of wondrous smiths ; 
and when this world resign'd 
the fierce hearted man, 
God's denier, 
of murder guilty, 
and his mother eke, 
it pass'd into the power 
of worldly kings 



gamelum rince, 
harum hild-fruman, 
on hand gyfen, 
enta ser-geweorc : 
hit on aeht gehwearf, 
sefter deofla hryre, 
Denigea frean, 
wundor-smijja geweorc ; 
and J)a ]jas worold ofgeaf 
grom-heort guma, 
Godes andsaca, 
morSres scyldig, 3370 

and his modor eac, 
on geweald gehwearf 
worold- cyninga 



BEOWULF. 



113 



â– ^it'in selestan 

je Seem tweonum, 
jjara \>e on Sceden-igge 
sceattas dselde. 
HroSgar maSelode, 
hylt sceawode, 
ealde lafe, 3380 

on ^Eem wses or writen 
fyrn-gewinnes, 
sy^jjan fl5d ofsloh, 
geofon geotende, 
giganta cyn ; 
frecne geferdon. 
past waes fremde )>e6d 
ecean Dryhtne ; 
him J>ses ende-lean, 
J)urh ^aeteres wylm, 3390 
Waldend sealde. 
Swa waes on ^aem sceDDum 
sciran goldes, 
)>urh run-stafas, 
rihte gemearcod, 
geseted and gessed, 
hwam ))3et sweord geworht, 
irena cyst, 
jerest waere, 

wreo)>en-hilt and wyrm- 
fah. 3400 

Da se wisa sprsec 



the best 

between the seas, 
of those who in Scania 
treasures dealt. 
Hrothgar spake, 
gaz'd on the hilt, 
the old reUc, 

on which the origin was written 
of the ancient war, ' 

after the flood had slain, 
the flowing ocean, 
the giants' race ; 
insolently they bore them, 
that was a people strange 
to the eternal Lord ; 
to them, therefore, a final reward, 
through the water's rage, ' ' 

the Almighty gave. 
So was- on the mounting 
of bright gold, 
in runie letters, 
rightly mark'd, 
set and said, 
for whom that sword, 
of irons choicest, 
first was wrought, 
with hilt bound round and ser- 
pentine. 
Then spake the wise 



3384. MS. gifen. 

34CX). That is, adorned with figvu-es of snakes interlaced, a favourite 
and uiuversal ornament among the Scandinavian nations, innumerable 
specimens of which still exist in works of metal, wood and stone, as 
capitals of pillars, etc. 



114 



BEOWULF. 



sunu Healfdenes : 

swigedon ealle : 

paet la mseg secgan, 

se )je soS and riht 

fremeS on folce, 

feor eal gemon, 

eald -X'-weard, 

))8et Ses eorl waere 

gebcvea betera. 3410 

Bleed is arsered 

geond wid-wegas, 

wine min Beowulf, 

J)in ofer |)e6da gehwyice. 

Eal Jju hit gejjyldum heald- 

est, 
msegen mid modes snyt- 

trum. 
Ic ))e sceal mine gelaestan 
freode swa wit furSum 

sprsecon : 
t5u scealt to fr5fre weorjjan, 
eal lang-tidig, 3420 

le5dum {)inum, 
hseleSum to helpe. 
Ne wearS Heremod swa, 
eaforum Ecgwelan, 
ar Scyldingum ; 



son of Healfdene : 

(all were silent) 

" Lo, that may say, 

he who truth and right 

practises among people, 

far back all remembers, 

an old country's guardian, 

that this earl should have been 

born better. 

Thy glory is exalted 

through wide ways, 

my friend Beowidf, 

over every nation. 
Thou supportest it all pa- 
tiently, 

thy might, with prudence of 
mind. 

I shall evince to thee my 

love, even as we two have 
said : 

thou shalt for a comfort be, 

a very long time, 

to thy people, 

for a help to warriors. 

Not so was Heremod 

to Ecgwela's children, 



a blessing to the Scyldings ; 
ne geweox he him to willan, he wax'd not for their benefit, 
ac to wael-fylle, but for their slaughter, 

and to deaS-cwalum and for a deadly plague 

Deniga le5dum ; to the Danes' people ; 

breat bolgen-mod 3430 he in angry mood destroy'd 

' 3410. That is of higher degree ; that he should have been a king. 
3420. MS. twidig. 3427. MS. fealle. 



beod-geneatas, 

eaxl-gesteallan, 

o)»}»set he ana hwearf, 

msre jjeoden, 

mon-dreamum from ; 

8eah Jje hine mihtig God 

maegenes wynnum, 

eafejjum stepte, 

ofer ealle men 

forC gefremede ; 3440 

hwse})ere him on ferhSe 

greow 
breost-hord blod-reow ; 
nallas beagas geaf 
Denum aefter dome : 
dreamleas gebad, 
{>aet he jjses gewinnes 
weorc Jrowade, 
leod-bealo longsum. 
Pu ))e leer be ))on, 
gum-cyste ongit. 3450 

Ic ))is gid be \>e 
awrsec wintrum frod. 
Wundor is to secganne 
hu mihtig God 
manna cynne, 
jjurh sidne sefan, 
snyttru bryttaS, 
eard and eorlscipe : 
He ah ealra geweald ; 
hwilum He on lufan 3460 
laetcS hworfan 
monnes m6d-ge|)onc, 



BEOWULF. 



his table sharers, 
his nearest friends, 
until he lonely departed, 
the great prince, 
from the joys of men ; 
although him mighty God 
with the delights of power, 
with energies had exalted, 
above all men 
advanced him ; 
yet in his soul there grew 



115 



/.wx. 



it 



3442. 



a sanguinary heart ; 
he gave no rings 
to f^e Danes according to desert : 
joyless he continued, 
so that of war he 
the misery suffer'd, 
a longsome public bale. 
Teach thou thyself by this man, 
understand munificence. 
This strain of thee I 
in winters wise have recited. 
Wonderful 'tis to say 
how mighty God, 
to the race of men, 
through his ample mind, 
dispenses wisdom, 

land and valour : ^*<^ , -r-i-U, . ^ 
He possesses power of all ; 
sometimes He as it Ukes 
lets wander 

the mind's thought of man. 
Lit. breast-hoard. 



116 



BEOWULF. 



mseran cynnes, 

seleS him on ej)le 

eor|>an wynne 

to healdanne, 

hleo-burh wera ; 

gedeS him swa gewealdene 

worolde dcelas, 

side rice, 3470 

jjset he his selfa ne mseg, 

for his unsnyttrum 

ende gejjencean : 

wuna)) he on wiste, 

ne hine wiht drefeS 

adl ne yldo, 

ne him inwit-sorh 

on sefan sweorceS, 

ne gesacu ohwaer 

ecg-hete eoweS ; 3480 

ac him eal worold 

wendeS on willan ; 

he Jjset wyrse ne con, 



of the great race, 

gives him in Ms country 

joy of earth 

to possess, 

a shelter- city of men ; 

thus makes to him subject 

the portions of the world, 

ample realms, 

so that he himself may not, 

through his lack of wisdom, 

think of Ms end : 

he continues in feasting, 

nor him in aught afflicts, 

disease or age, 

nor for him guileful care 

in his mind darkens, 

nor strife anywhere 

shows hostile hate ; 

but for him all the world 

turns at his will ; 

he the worse knows not, 



XXV. 



0)jj>8et him on-innan 
ofer-hygda dsel 
weaxe^ and wrida^, 
))onne se weard swefeS, 
sawele hyrde ; 
biS se sleep to fsest 
bisgum gebunden, 3490 
bona swi^e neah, 
se pe of flan-bogan 

3470. Correctly ricu. 



Until within him 

a deal of arrogance â–  i 

grows and buds, 

when the guardian sleeps, 

the soul's keeper ; 

too fast is the sleep 

bound by cares, 

the slayer very near, 

who from Ms arrow-bow, 

3475. MS. dwele^. 



BEOWULF. 



117 



fyrenum sce5te^ ; 

jjonne biS on hrej)re, 

under helm drepen, 

biteran strjele ; 

him bebeorgan ne con 

wom-wundor-bebodum 

wergan gastes ; 

â– pince^ him t5 lytel 3500 

]>det he to lange heold, 

gytsa^ grom-hydig, 

nallas on gylp sele^ 

faette beagas, 

and he Jja forS-gesceaft 

forgyte^ and forgyme^, 

jjaes \>e him ser God sealde, 

wuldres Waldend, 
weor^mynda dsel. 
Hit on ende-stsef 3510 
eft gelimpeS, 
))3et se lic-homa 
Isne gedreose?, 
faege gefealle^ ; 
feh^ o]>er to, 
'"' se \>e unmumlice 
madmas dsele^, 
eorles fer-gestre5n, 
egesan ne gyme?. 
Bebeorh ]je ))one bealo- 
tiy6, 3520 

Beowulf le5fa, 
secg betsta, 

3504. MS. fsedde. 



wickedly shoots ; 

then will he be in the breast, 

beneath the helm stricken, 

with the bitter shaft ; 

he cannot guard himself 

from the wicked wondrous com- 
mands 

of the cursed spirit ; 

seems to him too little 

what he too long had held, 

fierce-minded he covets, 

gives not in his pride 

rich rings, 

and he the future state 

forgets and neglects, 

because God to him before has 
given. 

Ruler of glory, 

a deal of dignities. 

It in the final close 

afterwards befals, 

that the body 

miserably sinks, 

fated falls ; 

another succeeds, 

who without reluctance 

treasures dispenses, 

the warrior's former gains, 

terror heeds not. 

Keep from thee that baleful 
evil, 

dear Beowulf, 

best of warriors, 

3513. MS. Uege. 



118 



BEOWULF. 



and \>e jjset selre geceSs, 

ece rsedas ; 

ofer-hyda ne gym, 

msere cempa : 

nu is ))ines meegnes blsed 

ane hwile ; 

eft-sona bi^ J)set J)ec 

adl oS6e ecg 3530 

eafojjes getwgefeS, 

o^^e fyres feng, 

o^^e flodes wylm, 

o^e gripe meces, 

o^Se gares fliht, 

o^^e atol yldo, 

oSSe eagena bear htm, 

forsite^ and forsworceS : 

semninga bi6, 

J)3et \)ec dryht-guma 3540 

deaS oferswySeS. 

Swa ic Hring-Dena 

hund missera 

weold under wolcnum, 

and hig wigge beleac 

manegum msegjja 

geond jjysne middangeard, 

aescum and ecgura ; 

|)3et ic me anigne 

under swegles begong 3550 

gesacan ne tealde. 

Hwaet me Jjses on e]>\e 

edwendan cwom 

gnym aefter gomene, 



and choose for thee the better, 

eternal counsels ; 

heed not arrogance, 

renown'd champion ! 

now is the flower of thy might 

for a while ; 

eftsoons 't will be that thee 

disease or sword 

from thy energy separates, 

or fire's clutch, 

or rage of flood, 

or falchion's gripe, 

or arrow's flight, 

or dire age, 

or twinkhng of eyes, 

oppresses and darkens : 

suddenly it will be, 

that thee, warrior, 

death overpowers. 

Thus I the^ Ring-Danes 

for half a hundred years 

had rul'd under the clouds, j\ 

and them from war secur'd 

from many tribes 

throughout this mid-earth, 

with spears and swords, 

so that I me any, 

under heaven's course, 

adversary counted not. 

Lo, to me of this in my country 

a reverse came, 

sadness after merriment. 



3537. This alludes to the e\Tl eye, for which see Grimm, D.M. p. 1053. 
3564- MS. gyrn. 



i 



BEOWULF. 



119 



seo))(5an Grendel wear?!, 
eald gewinna, 
in-genga min : 
ic f)Eere socne 
singales wseg 
mod-ceare micle ; 
\>xs sig Metode ))anc, 



ecean Drihtne, 

jjses Se ic on aldre gebad, 

J)set ic on ))one hafelan, 

heoro-dreorigne, 

ofer eald gewin, 

eagum starige. 

Gra nu to setle, 

symbel- Wynne dreoh, 

wig-geweor]>ad ; 

unc sceal worn fela 

ma]}ma gerocenra, 

si))San morgan biS. 

Geat Wees glsed-mod, 

gong sona t5 

setles neosan, 

swa se snottra heht. 

pa wses eft swa ser, 

ellen-rofum, 

flet-sittendum, 

faegere gereorded 

niowan stefne. 

Niht-helm geswearc, 

deorc ofer dryht-gumum ; 

doguS eal aras ; 



since Grendel became, 

my old adversary, 

my invader : 

I for tbat visitation 

constantly have borne 
3560 great mental care ; 

therefore be to the Creator 
thanks, 

to the eternal Lord, 

for that I have remain'd in life, 

that I on that head, 

clotted with gore, 

after our old contention, 

with my eyes may gaze. 

Go now to thy seat, 

enjoy the pleasure of the feast, 
3570 for battle honour'd ; 

for us two shall a great many 

common treasures be, 

when it shall be morning." 

The Goth was glad of mood, 

went straightways to 

occupy his seat, 

as the sage commanded. 

Then were again as before, 

the valour-fam'd 

court-residents, 

fairly feasted, 

with new spirit. 

The helm of night grew murky, 

dark o'er the vassals, 

the courtiers all arose ; 



.^580 



3573. After this line I suspect that two lines are wanting. 
3575. MS. geong. 



120 



BEOWULF. 



wolde blonden-feax 

beddes neosan, 

gamela Scylding ; 

Geat ungemetes wel 

roftie rand-wigan 3590 

restan lyste. 

Sona him sele-))egn, 

siSes wergum, 

feorran-Gumenum, 

forts wisade, 

se for andrysnum 

ealle beweotede 

jjegnes Jjearfe, 

swylce ]>j dogore 

heajJo-liSende 3600 

habban scoldon. 

Reste hine \>a rum-heort, 

reced hlifade, 
geap and gold-fah : 
gsest inne swsef, 
o}j})8et hrefn blaca 
heofenes wynne 
bliS-heort bodode 
cuman beorhte [sunnan] 
scacan sca])an. 3610 

[Scealcas] onetton, 
wgeron sejjelingas 
eft to leodum 



the grizzly hair'd prince would 
his bed visit, 
the aged Scylding ; 
the Goth immeasurably well 
the renown'd shield-warrior 
wished to rest. 

Forthwith the hall-thane him, 
from his journey weary, 
the comer from afar, 
guided forth, 
who from reverence 
had all things provided 
for the thane's need, 
such as in that day 
navigators of the main 
should have. 

Rested him then the ample- 
hearted ; 
the mansion tower' d, 
vaulted and golden-hued : 
the guest slept therein, 
until the black raven 
heaven's delight 
blithe of heart announced 
the bright [sun] coming, 
robbers fleeing away. 
[The warriors] hasten'd, 
the nobles were 
again to their people 



3597- 



MS. beweotene. 



3594. MS. feorran cundum. 
3603. MS. hliuade. 

3609. Thork. coman. The word has perished from the MS. 
beorht. sunnan is supplied from conjecture. 
36x1. Scealcas is added from conjecture. 



MS. 



BEOWULF. 



121 



fuse to farenne ; 

wolde feor ))anon 

cuma collen-ferhS 

ceoles neosan. 

Heht J)a se hearda 

Hrunting beran, 

sunu Ecglafes 3620 

heht his sweord niman, 

leoflic iren ; 

ssegde him ]>?es leanes jjanc, 

cw8e$ he J)one guS-wine 

godne tealde, 

wTg-craeftigne ; 

nales wordum log 

meces ecge : 

jjset w?es modig secg. 

And ]>a. siS-frome, 3630 

searwum gearwe 

wigend wjeron, 

eode West-Denum 

3ej>eling to-yrnan, 

fjser se o}>er vrses, 

haele-hilde-deor : 

Hr56gar grette. 



anxious to go ; 

would far from thence 

the high-soul'd guest 

his vessel visit. 

Bade then the bold chief 

Hrunting be borne, 

the son of Ecglaf .-'â– -â– > 

bade take back his sword, 

the precious iron ; 

gave him for the loan thanks, 

said that he the war-friend 

accounted good, 

in battle powerful ; 

nor with words blam'd he 

the falchion's edge : 

that was a high-soul'd warrior. 

And when eager for departure, 

with arms all ready 

the warriors were, 

went to the West-Danes 

the noble renaing, to 

where the other was, 

the human war-beast ; 

he Hrothgar greeted. 



Beowulf majjelode, 
beam Ecgjjeowes : 



XXYI. 



Beowulf spake, 
Ecgtheow's son ; 



3614. MS. farene. 

3615. The MS. has ne before wolde, apparently a repetition of that 
immediately preceding. 

3624. gu5-wine, i.e. the sword. 3633. MS. weor^. 

3634. MS. to yppan. 3636. 3IS. helle. 

M 



122 



BEOWULF. 



Nu ]>e s£e-liSend 3640 

secgan wyllaS, 

feorran cumene, 

))cet we fundiaS 

Higelac secan ; 

wgeron her tela 

willum be)>enede, 

J)u us wel dohtest. 

Gif ic Jjonne on eorjjan 

owihte maeg, 

J)inre mod-lufan, 3650 

maran tilian, 

gumena dryhten, 

Sonne ic gyt dyde, 

gu3-geweorca, 

ic beo gearo sona ; 

gif ic ])8et gefricge, 

ofer floda begang, 

\>iet pec ymb-sittend 

egesan ])ywa6, 

swa ]jec hetende 3660 

hwilum dj'don, 

ic Jje jjusenda 

))egna bringe, 

haelejja to helpe. 

Ic on Higelace wat, 

Geata dryhten, 

))eah 6e he geong sy 

folces hyrde, 

])set he mec fremman wile, 

wordum and weorcum, 3670 

)>set ic ]>e wel werige, 

3646. MS. bewenede. 

3671- 



" Now to thee we sea-farers 

desire to say, 

we comers from afar, 

that we are most desirous 

Hygelac to seek ; 

we have here been kindly, 

cordially, serv^, i---^**-^*— ** 

thou hast well treated us. 

If I now on earth 

in aught can, 

for thy mind's love, 

execute more, 

lord of men, 

than I yet have done, 
of warlike works, 

1 shall be straightways readv ; 
if I learn, 

over the floods' course, 

that thee those dwelling around 

with terror urge, 

as those hating thee 

at times have done, 

I to thee thousands 

of warriors will bring, 

of heroes, to thy help. 

I know of Hygelac, 

lord of Goths, 

although he be a young 

shepherd of his folk, 

that he will enable me^ 

by words and works, 

that I may well defend thee, 

3670. MS. weordum and worcum. 
MS. herige. 



BEOWULF. 



123 



and \)e to geoce 

gar- holt here, 

maegenes fultum, 

))aer Se bi6 manna J)earf. 

Gif him j>onne Hrejjric 

to hofum Geata 

ge)>inga6 })e6dnes beam, 

he mseg ]>xr fela 

freonda findan : 3680 

feor-cy))Sa be55 

selran gesohte, 

jjaem \>e him selfa deah. 

Hr66gar ma))elode, 

him on andsware : 

pe Jja word-cwydas 

wittig Drihten 

on sefan sende : 

ne hyrde ic snotorlicor. 



and to thee for succour 

the javelin- shaft bear, 

a support to thy power, 

if thou have need of men. 

If then Hrethric 

at the Goths' courts, 

the king's son, craves it, 

he may there many 

friends find : 

far countries are, 

better when sought, 

to hira who on himself relies." 

Hrothgar spake 

to him in answer : 

" To thee those words 

the wise Lord 

into thy mind has sent : 

never have I heard more pru- 



dently, 
on swa geongum feore, 3690 in so young a life, 
guman jjingian. a man discourse. 

pii eart maegenes sti'ang. Thou art strong of might, 
and in mind sage, 
wise of verbal utterances : 
I think there is expectation, 
if it happen, 
that the dart take, 
war fiercely grim, 
Hrethel's ofi'spring, 
3700 disease or iron, 
thy prince. 



and on mode frod, 
wis word-cwida : 
wen' ic talige, 
gif {»8et geganget5, 
J>8et se gar nimeS, 
hild heoru-grim, 
Hre))les eaferan, 
adl o})6e iren, 
ealdor Sinne, 



3676. MS. HreSrinc. 
3678. MS. geHnged. 
3687. MS. wigtig. 



Hrothgar' s son. See 1. 2382. 

3681. MS. cy>;Se. 
3697. MS. \>e. 3698. MS. grimme. 
M 3 



124 



BEOWULF. 



folces hyrde, 

and ])u ))in feorh hafast, 

]>8et \>a. See-Geatas 

selran naebben 

to geceosenne, 

cyning senigne, 

hord-weard h8elej)a ; 

gif ]ju healdan wylt 

maga rice. 3710 

Me J)in mod-sefa 

lica^ leng swa wel, 

le5fa Beowulf: 

hafast j)u gefered 

\>xt ))am folcum sceal, 

Geata leodura 

and Gar-Denum, 

sib gemgenum 

and sacu restan, 

inwit-ni))as, ^20 

))e hie cer dnigon, 

wesan |?enden ic wealde 

widan rices, 

ma))mas gemeene ; 

manig ojjeme 

g5dum gegretan ; 

ofer ganotes baeS 

sceal hring-naca, 

ofer bea^u bringan 

lac and luf-tacen. 3730 

Ic ]ja leode wat 

ge wi6 fe5nd ge wiS 

freond 
fseste geworhte, 

3704. MS. t>e. 



his people's shepherd, 

and thou thy life hast, 

that the Sea- Goths 

wiU not have a better 

to choose, 

not any king, 

or treasure-ward of heroes ; 

if thou wilt hold 

t/iy kinsmen's realm. 

Me thy mind 

pleases the longer the better, 

dear Beowulf: 

thou hast borne thyself 

so that for the nations shall 

(the Goths* people 

and the Gar-Danes) 

peace be to both, 

and contention rest^ 

the guileful enmities, • 

which they erst have borne, 

shall be while I rule 

the ample realm, 

treasures common ; 

many a one another 

greet with benefits ; 

over the gannet's bath 

the r'mg-prow'd bark shall, 

o'er the main, bring 

gifts and love-tokens. 

I the nations know 

both towards foe and towards 

friend 
fast constituted, 

3726. MS. gegrettan. 



BEOWULF. 



1 -i.") 



aeg^hwaes untsele, 

ealde wisan. 

Da git him eorla HTeo -j, L- 

inne gesealde, 

mago Healfdenes, 

majjmas xii ; 

het hine mid jjsem lacum 

leode swsese 3741 

secean on gesyntum ; 

snude eft cuman. 

Gecyste })a 

cyning jejjelum god, 

j)e6den Scyldinga, 

Segn betstan, 

and be healse genam ; 

hruron him tearas, 

blonden feaxum ; 3750 

him waes bega wen, 

ealdum infrodum, 

oJ)re3 s\vi6or, 

\>set hi seo66an 

geseon moston, 

modige on mej)le. 

Wses him se man to ))on leof, 

jjset he jjone breost-wylm 

forberan ne mihte ; 

ac him on hrejjre, 3760 

hyge-bendum faest, 

aefter deorum men, 



bkmeless in everything, 

in the old wise." 

To him besides the warriors'pro- 

tector 
gave to possess, 
the son of Healfdene, 
treasures twelve ; 
bade him with the gifts 
his own people 
seek in safety ; 
quickly come again. 
Kiss'd then 
the king nobly good, 
the Scyldings' prince, 
the best of thanes, 
and round the neck him took ; 
tears fell from him, 
the grizzly hair'd prince ; • 
he had hope of both, 
the old sage, 

but of the second stronger, 
that thei/ themselves afterwards 
might see, 

the loftv 07168, in conference, i 
To him was the man so dear, 
that he the fervour of his breast 
might not restrain ; 
but in his bosom, 
fast in bonds of thought, 
after the dear man. 



3740. MS. inne. 

3751. hope of both, i. e. of liis safe amval at home, and of his 
speedy return to Denmark, referring to U. 3740-3743. 
3759. MS. mehte. 

M3 



126 



BEOWULF. 



dyme langaS 

born %vi(5 blode. 

Him Beowulf })anon, 

guS-rinc gold-wlanc, 

grses-moldan traed, 

since hremig. 

Sse-genga bad 

agend-frean, 

se \>e on an ere rad. 

pa waes on gange 

gifu HroSgares 

oft geaehted. 

pset wses an cyning 

segbwses orleahtre, 

o))})aet bine yldo benam 

maegenes wynnum, 

se j)e oft manegum scod 



longing secretly 
bum'd against blood. 
Beowulf tbence, 
the warrior proud with gold, '^ 
trod the grassy mould, 
in treasure exulting. 
The sea-ganger awaited 
3770 2^5 owning lord, 

which at anchor rode. 

Then was on the way 

the gift of Hrothgar 

often prized. 

That was a king 

in ever}i:hing faultless, 

until age him took 

from the delights of vigour, 

which oft had overpower'd man v . 



Cwom })a to flode 
fela modigra 
hsegstealdra ; 
hring-net bseron, 
locene leoSo-syrcan. 
Land-weard onfand 
eft-si^ eorla, 
swa he aer dvde : 



XXVII. 

3780 Came then to the flood 
manv proud 
bachelors ; 
ring-nets they bore, 
clos'd limb-sarks. 
TTie land-warden perceiv'd 
the warriors' return, 
as he before had done : 



3764. MS. beom. The words ' wi5 blode' are very questionable. 
The only interpretation of which the line seems susceptible is, that he 
(Hrothgar) entertained a stronger affection for Beowulf than for his 
own blood, that is, his own children. I consider the case an incur- 
able one. 

3765. MS. l>anan. 3770. MS. aged. 3785. See 11. 473, sqq. 



BEOWULF. 



127 



no he mid hearme, 

of hli^es nosan, 

gaest ne grette, 3790 

ac him to-geanes rad ; 

cwae^ ]ja vvilcuman 

Wedera leodum. 

Scacan scir-hame 

to scipe foron. 

Da waes on sande 

sae-geap naca 

hladen here-wgedum, 

hringed-stefna, 

mearum and maSmum ; 3800 

msest hlifade 

ofer Hr55gares 

hord-gestreotium. 

He })cem bat-wearde, 

bnnden golde, 

sward gesealde, 

jjaet he syS])an wses, 

on meodo-bence, 

madme ))y weorjjra, 

yrfe-lafe. 3810 

Gewat him on nacan, 

drefan deop waster, 

Dena land ofgeaf. 

pa waes be maeste 

mere-hraegla sum, 

segl sale faest : 



not with insult he, 
from the hill's point, 
greeted the guest, 
but towards hira rode ; 
bade welcome then 
to the Weders' people, r 
Departing, the bright-clad war- 
riors 
went to the ship. 
Then was on the sand 
the sea-curv'd bark 
laden with martial weed^, 
the ringed prow, 
with steeds and treasures ; 
the mast tower'd 
over Hrothgar's 
hoard- treasures. 
He to the boat-guard, 
bound with gold, 
gave a sword, 
so that he was afterwards, 
on the mead-bench, 
the worthier for the treasure, 
the heritable relic. 
He departed in the bark, 
agitating the deep water, 
the Danes' land left. 
Then was by the mast 
a sea-mantle, 
a sail, by a cord fast : 



3792. MS. J)8et. 3794- MS. scawan. 

3804. He, i. e. Beowulf. 3809. BIS. madma t>y weorJ>re. 

3810. No alliteration with the following line; for nacan we should 
probably read yjjum. 



128 



BEOWULF. 



sund-wudu jjunede ; 

no ]>3ZT wteg-flotan 

wind ofer j Sum 

siSes getwsefde : 3820 

SEe-genga for, 

fleat famig-heals 

for6 ofer yfSe, 

bunden-stefna 

ofer brim-streamas, 

J)aet hie Geata clifu 

ongitan meahton, 

cuj)e nsessas. 



3830 



Ceol up-gejjrang, 
lyft-geswenced 
on lande stod. 
Hrajje waes set holme 
hy6-weard geara, 
se ])e eer lange tid 
leofra manna, 
fus <et faroSe, 
for wlatode : 
sEelde to sande 
sid-ffe6med scip 
oncer-bendum fsest, 
]>y Ises hit y|)a 'Srym, 
wudu wynsuman, 
k forwrecan meahte 
Het jja up beran 
aej)elinga gestreon, 
frsetwa and fset gold 
nses him feor Jjanon 



3818. MS. weg. 3837. 

3840. MS. on cear bendum. 

3841. MS. hym. 



3840 




the sea- wood rattled ; 
not there the wave-floater 
the wind above the billows 
from its course parted : 
the sea-ganger went, 
floated the foamy neck'd 
forth o'er the wave, 
the bounden prow 
over ocean's streams, 
so that they the Goths' shores 
might perceive, 
the known headlands. 
The vessel press'd up, 
weather- beaten 
on land it stood. 
Quickly at the sea was 
the hithe- guard ready, 
who, a long time before, 
the dear men's 
(prompt at the shore) 
course had beheld : 
he bound to the sand 
the broad-bosom'd ship • 
with anchor-bonds fast, 
lest it the billows' force, . 
- the gallant wood, 
might wreck. 

He then bade be home up â–  . 
the nobles' treasures,, 
ornaments and rich gold : 
he had not far thence 

MS. feor. 3839. MS. fas'Sme. 

Tlie rectification is Grundtvig's. 
3846. MS. fraetwe. 



BEOWULF. 



\29 



to gesecanne 

>iaces bryttan, 

Higelac Hrejjling, 3850 

vr set hiim wunode 

Ifa mid gesiSum, 
5ia?-wealle neah. 
Bold wses betlic, 
brego rof cvning, 
hea healle ; 
Hygd swiSe geong, 
wis wel-})ungen, 
jjeah ^e wintra lyt 
under burh-locan 3860 

gebiden hsefde 
Hserejjes dohtor : 
naes hi5 hnah swa-))eah, 
ne to gneS gifa 
Geata leodum, 
majjin-gestreona, 
5(n6d-|;TySo wseg 
fremu folces cwen, 
firen ondrysne. 
N«enig ]>xt dorste 3870 
deor genegan^ 
swEesra gesiSa, 
nefne sin-frea, 
\>e hire aii-dseges 
eagum starede ; 
ac him wsel-bende 
weotode tealde. 



to seek 

the dispenser of treasure, 

Hygelac, Hrethel's son, 

where at home dwelt, 

himself with his companions, 

near the sea-wall. 

The mansion was excellent, 

a chief renown'd the king, 

high the hall ; 

Hygd very young, 

wise, well-nurtur'd, i • 

though winters few 

amid the burgh- enclosure 

had abided 

Hsereth's daughter : 

although she was not mean, 

nor of gifts too sparing 

to the Goths' people, 

of treasure-acquisitions^ 

yet violence of mood mov'd 

the folk's bold queen, 

crime appalling. 

No one durst that 

beast address, 

of the dear companions, 

save her wedded lord, 

who on her daily 

with eyes gaz'd ; 

but to him a death band :^'- 

decreed, calculated. 



3851. MS. wuna*'. 3861. MS. hsebbe. 3864. MS. gnea«. 

3868. Fremu seems here without sense. Perhaps we should read 
frome, bold, strenuous. 
• 3871. MS. gene^an. vt— 



130 



BEOWULF. 



hand-gewrijjene, 

hraSe seo])5an wses, 

sefter mund-gripe 3880 

mece ge|?inged ; 

jjaet hit sceaSen msel 

scyran moste, 

cwealm-bealu cj'San : 

ne bi¥ swylc cwenlic jjeaw 

idese to efhanne, 

J)eah Se hio senlicu sy, 

jjsette freoSu-webbe 

feores onscece, 

aefter lig-tome, 3890 

leofne mannan ; 

huru jjaet onhohsnode 

Heminges maeg, 

ealo-drincende ; 

o3re SEedon, 

))set hio leod-bealewa 

laes gefremede, 

in^^it-ni^a, 

sj-^^an ?erest wear^ 

g)-fen gold-hroden 3900 

geongum cempan, 

aeSelum diore, 

sy65an hio Offan flet. 



jtjUAM^ ^Wt-Vll 



hand-bound, 

was quickly -after, 

after the hand-grasp, f" t., , ^ 

with the sword resolv'd ; 

so that it the pernicious brand 

must decide, 

the deadly bale make known : 

such is no feminine usage 

for a woman to practise, 

although she be beautiful, 

that a peace -weaver . -- ^-'^ 

machinate to deprive of life, 

after burning anger, 

a dear man ; 

at least with that reproach 'd her 

Hemming's son, 

while drinking ale ; 

others said, 

that she dire evUs 

less perpetrated, 

guileful iniquities, 

after she was first 

given gold-adom'd 

to the young warrior, 

the noble beast, 

after she Offa's court, 



3880. The grasp of affected reconciliation. 
3882. MS. sceaden. 

3884. From this line the 3IS. is vrritten in another and worse hand. 
3888. A periphrasis for a woman. See also " The Scop or Gleeman's 
Tale," 1. II. 

3890. MS. lige. 3892. MS. onhohsnod. qu. on hosp dyde ? 

3893. MS. Hemninges. Hemming's son is Eomer. See 1. 3925. 
3895. MS. o^er sseden. 



BEOWULF. 



131 



ofer fealone flod, 
be faeder lure, 
si8e gesohte, 
j)aer hio sySSan wel 
in gum-stole, 
gode msere 
lif-gesceafta 
lifigende breac, 
heold heah-lufan 
wis heelej)a brego, 
ealles uion-cynnes, 
mine gefrccge, 
)>one selestan 
. bi ssem tweonum, 
eormen-cynnes ; 
forjjam Offa waes, 
geofum and gu})um, 
gar-cene man, 
â– wide geweorjjod ; 
wisdome heold 
e6el sinne ; 
|jonon Eomer woe 
hseleSum to helpe, 
Heminges meeg, 
nefa Gurmundes, 
ni6a craeftig. 



39'o 



over the fallow flood, 
through her father's counsel, 
by journey sought, 
where she afterwards well 
on the throne, 
the good and great 
life's creations 
living enjoy'd, 
high love entertain'd 
towards the prince of heroes, 
of all mankind, 
as 1 have heard, 
the best 

between the seas, 
of the human race ; 
for Offa was, 
3920 for gifts and wars, 
(a bold man in arms) 
widely honour'd ; 
he in wisdom held 
his country ; 
from him Eomer sprang 
for help to heroes, 
Heming's son, 
Garmund's grandson, 
mighty in conflicts. 



3916. MS. J>8es. 3925- MS. geomor. 

3928. It would seem from this line that nefa signified not only 
nephew and grandson, but also great-yrandson, unless it be an error 
for gen. nefaa, as I suspect it to be, and in opposition to Heminges, 
meaning that Heming was the grandson of Garmund. 

3929. The preceding digression about Hygd and Offa is barely 
intelligible. 



132 



BEOWULF. 



XXVIII. 



Gewat him J>a se hearda 
mid his hond-scole, 3931 
sylf sefter sande, 
sse-wong tredan, 
wide waro'Sas. 
Woruld-candel scan, 
sigel suSan fus : 
hi si8 dragon, 
elne geeodon, 
to J)3es ]>e eorla hleo, 
bonan Ongen)>e6wes, 3940 
burgum in innan, 
geongne gu^-cyning 
g5dne gefrunon 
hringas dslan. 
Higelace waes 
siS Beowulfes 
snude gecy^ed, 
Jjset ))aer on worSig, 
wigendra hleo, 
lind-gestealla, 3950 

lifigende cwom, 
hea^o-laces hal 
to hofe gongan. 
Hra'Se wses geiymed, 
swa se rica behead, 
feSe-gestum 
flet innanweard. 
Gesset J^a wi5 sylfhe 
se ?e ssecce genaes, 

3940. MS. Ongen)>eoes. 



Departed then the bold warrior 
with his chosen band, 
himself along the sand, 
the sea-plain treading, 
the wide shores. 
The world's candle shone, 
the sun from the south hastening : 
they drag'd on their way, 
resolutely went, 
until the protector of men, 
the slayer of Ongentheow, 
within his burghs, 
the young martial king, 
the good, they had heard, 
was rings dispensing. 
To Hygelac was 
Beowulf's voyage 
speedily made known, 
that there into the place 
the protector of warriors, 
his shield -companion, 
was come alive, 
whole from the game of war 
proceeding to his mansion. 
Quickly was clear'd, 
as the chief commanded, 
for the pedestrian guests 
the hall within. 
Sat then facing himself 
he who had come safely from 
the conflict, 

3959. MS. se '5a. 



BEOWULF. 



133 



maeg wi5 maege. 3960 

Syt5tSan man-dryhten, 
J)urh hleoSor-cvrj'de, 
holdne gegrette, 
meaglum wordum, 
meodu-scencum hwearf, 
geond )>3et heal-reced, 
HsereSes dohtor : 
lufode 5a leode, 
li5-w?ege baer 
h eanum to handa. 3970 
I Higelac ongan 
sinne geseldan 
in sele J)am hean 
fsegre fricgean : 
hyne fynvet braec, 
hwylce Sse-Geata 
si6as wjeron. 
Hu lomp eow on lade, 
le5fa Beowulf, 
\)a. 8u fseringa 3980 

feorr gehogodest 
saecce secean 
ofer sealt wseter, 
hilde to Heorote, 
)>aet tJu HroSgare 
wid-cu6ne wean 
wihte gebette, 
mserum J)e6dne. 
Ic jjses mod-ceare 
sorh-wylmum seaS ; 3990 



kinsman facing kinsman. 

After his liege lord, 

in sonorous speech, ''â– ^<jrr.\t" 

his faithful /r/enrf had greeted, 

in powerful words, 

with mead-hbations went, 

through the hall, 

Hiereth's daughter : 

she lov'd the people, 

the wine-cup bare 

to the high chief's hand. 

Hygelac began 

his guest 

in the high hall 

kindly to question : 

curiosity was bursting him, 

as to what the Sea-Goths' 

coui:ses had been. 

" How befel it you on the way, 

dear Beowulf, 

when thou suddenly 

didst resolve afar 

conflict to seek 

over the salt water, 

contest at Heorot, 

that thou to Hrothgar 

his wide-known calamity 

mightest somewhat compensate, 

the great prince ? 

I on this account my mind's care 

have in sorrow-boilings seeth'd ; 



3966. MS. side reced. 
3970. MS. haenum. 
3986. MS. wi«. 



The alliteration requires heal. 
3985. MS. ac 
3987. MS. gebettest 
N 



1J4 



BEOWULF. 



sitSe ne tniwode 
leofes mannes ; 
ic J)e lange bsed, 
J)set t5u J)one wsel-gaest 
wihte ne grette, 
lete SiiS-Dene 
sylfe geweorSan 
gu^e wis Grendel. 
Gode ic )>anc secge, 
)>ses tSe ic Se gesundne 4.000 
kgespon moste. 

Beowulf maSelode, 
beam Ecgjjeowes : 

paet is undyme, 

dryhten Higelac, 

[uncer] geineting 

monegum fyra, 

hwylce [orleg]-hwil 

uncer Grendles 

weart5 on J)am wange, 4010 

J)aer he worna fela 

Sige-Scyldingum 

sorge gefremede, 

yrmSe to aldre. 

Ic ))set eall gewrsec, 

swa ne gj'lpan ))earf 



/ trusted not in the voyage 
of the dear man ; 
I pray'd thee long, 
that thou the deadly guest 
shouldest in no wise greet, 
but let the South Danes 
themselves decide 
the contest with Grendel. 
To God I say thanks, 
for that I thee sound 
might see." 
Beowulf spake, 

Ecgtheow's son : 

" It is not secret, 

my lord Hygelac, 

[our] meeting 

to many men, 

what while [of conflict] 

of myself cind Grendel 

was on the place, 

where he a great abundance, 

to the victorious Scyldings, 

had of sorrow caus'd, 

misery everlasting. 

I have avenged all that, 

so that need not boast 



4006. uncer is supplied from conjecture. 

4008. orleg is supplied from conjecture. 

4009. This is an O. Norse construction. The rule is, that where 
in other tongues a personal pronoun is joined with a proper name by 
the conjunction and (ok), the ok is in O. Nor. omitted, and the pro- 
noun put in the dual or plural number, and the same case as the 
proper name. Rask, Anvisn. till Islandskan. Stockh. 1823, p. 228. 
See Caedmon, p. 296. 6, and Cod. Ezon. pp. 324. 31, 467. 7, for other 
instances. 



BEOWULF. 



135 



Grendles maga 

[aenig] ofer eort5an 

uht-hlem Jjone, 

se J>e lengest leofa^ 4020 

laSan cynnes. 

jPeeribifongen, 

ic ))ser furSum cwom, 

to Sam hring-sele, 

HroSgar gretan : 

sona me se msera 

mago Healfdenes, 

sy^an he mod-sefan 

minne cu¥e, 

wi^ his sylfes sunu 4030 

setl getsehte. 

Weorod waes on wynne ; 

ne seah ic Avidan-feorh, 

under heofones hwealf, 

heal-sittendra 

medu-dream maran ; 

hwilum mseru cwen, 

fri^u-sibb folca, 

flat eall geond-hwearf. 



of Grendel's kinsmen 

any on earth 

of that twihght tumult, 

who shall longest live 

of the hateful race. 

With perils encompass'd, 

I had but just come there, 

to the ring-haU, 

Hrothgar to greet : 

when forthwith to me the great 

son of Healfdene, 

after he my 

mind's purpose knew, 

opposite his own son . , , 

a seat assign'd. 

The company was joyous ; 

not in my life have I seen^ 

under heaven's vault, 

of hall-sitters 

a mead-joy greater ; 

at times the great queen, 

the peaceful tie of nations, 

the hall all travers'd. 



baedde byras geonge ; 4040 her young sons address'd ; 



oft hio beah-wri^an 
secge [sealde], 
«er hie to setle gong. 
Hwilum for dugu^e 
dohtor Hro^gares 
eorlum on ende, 
ealu-wsege baer, 
)»a ic Freaware 

4042. sealde is supplied from conjecture 

4043. MS. geoDg. 

N 2 



oft she a ringed wreath 
to the warrior gave, 
ere to her seat she went. 
At times before the nobles 
Hrothgar's daughter 
to the earls in order 
the ale-cup bore, 
whom I Freaware 



136 



BEOWULF. 



flet-sittende 

nemnan hyrde, 4050 

j)8er hio gled-sinc 

hsele]jum sealde : 

sio gehaten [wses], 

geong gold-hroden, 

gladum suna Frodan ; 

[ha]fa6 ))8es geworden 

wine Scyldinga, 

rices hyrde ; 

and J)8et rsed talaS, 

|)8et he mid '6y wife 4060 

wael-fcehSa dsel, 

ssecca gesette ; 

oft seldan hwaer^ 

aefter leod-hryre, 

lytle hwile 

bon-gar bugeS, 

))eah seo bryd duge. 



the court residents 

heard name, 

where she bright treasure 

to the warriors gave : 

she was promis'd, 

young, gold-adom'd, 

to the glad son of Froda ; d>^i^ 

therefore is he become 

the Scylding's friend, 

the kingdom's shepherd ; 

and that report tells, 

that with the wife he 

a deal of deadly feuds 

and strifes has allay'd ; 

though seldom anywhere, 

after a people's fall, 

even for a little while 

the fatal dart ceases, 

although the bride be good. 



XXX. 



•*u at 



Mseg J>3es ))onne ofjjyncan This then may ill endure 
))e6dneHea6o-beardna4o7i the Heathobeards' prince 



4053. wses is supplied from conjecture. 

4063. Oft seldan present a very incompatible juxta-position. For 
oft I suspect we should read J^eah. But ignorance of the events alluded 
to and the defective state of the MS. render every attempt at inter- 
pretation little else than guess-work. 

4070. Here a part of the MS. is wanting, consisting of the remainder 
of Canto XXVIII., the whole of XXIX., and the beginning of XXX. 

4071. MS. Jjeoden. 



BEOWULF. 



137 



and )>egna gehwam 
jjara leoda, 

|)onne he mid fsemnan 
on flet gseS, 
dryht-bearn Dena, 
dugu^e bejjenede, 
on him gyrdeS â– ''â– '^'*-^ 
gomelra lafe, 

heard and hring-msel, 4080 
HeaSo-beardna gestreon, 
jjenden hie ))am wsepnum 
jrealdan moston, 
otJSset hie forla^ddon 
to ?am hnd-plegan 
swaese gesiSas 
ond hyra sylfra feorh. 
ponne cwi^ set beore 
se J)e beah gesyhS, 
eald sesc-wiga, 4090 

se \>e eall geman 
gar-cwealra gumena, 
him biS grim [se]fa, 
onginne^ geomor-mod 
geong[ne] cempan, 
))urh hre'Sra gehygd, 
higes cunnian, 
wig-bealu weccean, 
and ]j3et word acwyS : 
Meaht Su min wine 



and every thane 

of those peoples, 

when with the woman he 

walks in the court, 

the Danes' princely child. 

by the noble serv'd, - l- 

on him girds 

the relic of the old, 

hard and ring-raail'd, 

Me treasure of the Heathobeards . 

while they those weapons 

might command, 

until they misled 

to the shield- play 

their dear associates 

and their own hves. 

Then at the beer will say 

he who the ring shall see, 

an old spear-warrior, 

who remembers all 

the slaughter of the men, 

(fierce will be his spirit,) 

sad of mood will he begin 

of the young warrior, 

through his bosom's thought 

the mind to prove, 

war-bale waken, 



and that word will say : 
4100 "Thou, my friend, mightest 
mece gecnawan, the falchion know, 

Jjone \>m f seder which thy father 

to gefeohte bser bore to the fight 

4077. MS. dugufia bewenede. 
4081. Hea^a-beama. 4084. 

N3 



4078. MS. gladia'g. 
MS. forlaeddan. 



138 



BEOWULF. 



under here-griman, 
hindeman sitSe, 
dyre iren, 

))ser hine Dene slogoij,. ^_ 

weoldon wael-stowe, 

sySSan WiSergyld laeg, 

sefter hselejja hryre, 4110 

hwate Scyldingas. 

Nu her ]>ara banena 

byre nat hwylces 

frsetwum hremig 

on flet gseS, 

morjjres gylpeS, 

and jjone ma5|)um byreS, 

])one pe 'Su mid rihte 

rsedan sceoldest. 

ManaS swa and myndga^, 

meela gehwylce, 41 21 

sarum wordum, 

oSSaet Seel cyraeS, 

Joet se fsege jjegn, 

fore feeder dcedum, 

sefter billes bite, 

bl6d-fag swefeS, 

ealdres scyldig. 

Him se o])er J)onan 

losaS wigende, 4130 

con him land geare. 

ponne bi53 brocene, 

on ba healfa, 

aS-sweord eorla. 

[SyS]J)an Ingelde 

4124. MS. femnan. 






under the martial helm, 

for the last time, 

the dear iron, 

where the Danes him slew, 

were masters of the slaughter ^ 

place, 
when Withergyld had perish'd, 
after the faU of heroes, 
the bold Scyl dings. ,.,.- 

Now here of those murderers 3>'-' 
the son, I know not whose, 
in arms exulting 
walks in the court, 
of the slaughter boasts, 
and the treasure bears, 
which thou with right 
shouldst command." 
Thus prompts he and reminds, 
on every occasion, 
with painful words, 
until the time comes, 
when the fated thane, 
for his father's deeds, 
after the falchion's bite, 
blood-stain'd sleeps, 
to death condemn'd. 
Thence the other 
vrarrior escapes, 
he the land well knows. 
Then will be broken, 
on both sides, 

the oath-swearing of warriors. 
Afterwards in Ingeld 
4i33» MS. healfe. 



BEOWULF. 



I :v.i 



deadly hates will boil, 

and his woman's love, 

after the heats of care, 

will become cooler. 

Therefore I the Heathobeards' 

affection esteem not, 

nor part of lordly kinship 

to the Danes guileless, 

their friendship fast. 

I shall now speak on 

again about Grendel, 

that thou well mayst know, 

O dispenser of treasure, 

how afterwards fell out 

the hand-conflict of warriors. 

After heaven's gem 

had glided o'er the earth, 

the guest came angry, 

the giant fierce at eve, 

to visit us, 

where we sound 

guarded the hall : 

there was his glove 

in the war not idle, 

a life-bale to the fated : 

who foremost lav, 



weallat5 wael-ni8as, 
and him wif-lufan, 
aefter cear-waelmum, 
colran weor6a6. 
py ic Heaj)0-beardna 4140 
hyldo ne talige, 
dryht-sibbe dsel 
Denum unfsecne, 
freondscipe fsestne. 
Ic sceal forS-sprecan 
gen ymbe Grendel, 
J)aet 6u geare cunne, 
sinces brytta, 
to hwan S}i55an wearS 
hond-rees h8ele))a. 4150 

Sy66an heofenes gim 
glad ofer grundas, 
gaest yrre cwom, 
eatol aefen-grom, 
user neosan, 
))aer we gesunde 
sele weardodon : 
jjaer waes hond-scio 
hilde onssege, 
feorh-bealu feegum : 4160 
se ]>e fyrmest Iseg, 

4140. MS. Hea^o-beama. 4i4i- MS. telge. 

4154. Giants are no doubt said to be fierce at eve, because, shunning 
the light of day, it was only after nightfall, that they issued forth bent 
on deeds of violence. If surprised by the light of the sun, they became 
transformed to stone. See Glossary, v. eatol. Eatol may, however, 
be an error for atoL 

4157. MS. saeL 

4161. se )>e. Thorkelin has he, but in the MS. all that remains 
is e. K., rightly I think, supplies the defect with se \>e. 



140 



BEOWULF. 



gyrded cempa, 
him Grendel wearS, 
mserum magu-jjegne, 
to inu(5-bonan ; 
leofes mannes 
lie eall forswealg ; 
no Sy ger ut ))a-gen, 
idel-hende, 
bona bl5dig-t66, 
bealewa gemyndig, 
of Sam gold-sele 
gongan wolde ; 
ac he raaegnes rof 
min costode, 
grapode gearo-folm, 
gl5f [hangode] 
sid and syllic, 
searo-bendum fsest, 
si5 wees orSoncum 
eall gegyrwed 
diofles crseftum 
and dracan fellum : 
he mec jjser on-innan 
unsynnigne 
dior*dced-fruma, 
ged5n wolde 
manigra sumne 



a girded champion, 

to him was Grendel, 

to my great fellow-thane, 

a mouth-murderer ; 

the belov'd man's 
idy he all swallow'd ; 

nor yet for that the earher out, 

empty-handed, 
4170 the bloody-tooth'd murderer, 

of evils mindful, 

from that gold-hall 

would go ; 

but he, proud of his might, 

trial made of me, 

grasp'd ready-handed, 

his glove hung 

wide and wondrous, 

with curious bindings fast ; 
4180 it was cunningly 

all prepared 

with a devil's crafts 

and dragon's skins : 

he me there within 

unsinning, 

the brutal perpetrator, 

_would make 

one of manv : 



4165. i. e. because he devoured his victims. 

4177. This about Grendel's glove (hond-scio, 1. 4158) is not very 
intelligible. I imagine it to be identical with what at 1. 1976 is called 
his hand-sporu. I once thought with Gnmdtvig that hand-scio was 
the name of the warrior slain by Grendel (as Handschuh does exist as 
a proper name), but both the context and this mention of his glove 
are adverse to this interpretation. 



BEOWULF. 



]4l 



hyt ne mihte swa, 
sy6t5an ic on yrre 4190 
upp-riht astod. 
To lang ys to reccenne 
hu [ic] })am leod-scaSan, 
yfla gehwylces, 
(^ond-lean forgeald ; 
J)aer ic, )>e6den mm, 
\>me leode 
weorSode weorcum. 
He onweg losade ; 
lytic hwile 4200 

lif-wynna breac ; 
hwaejjre him sio swiSre 
swa6e weardade 
hand on Hiorte, 
-?^-^and he hean 6onan, 
modes geomor, 
mere-grund gefeoU. 



Me jjone wael-raes 

wine Scyldinga 

faettan golde 4210 

fela lean ode, 

manegum mat5mum, 

sySSan mergen com, 

and we to symble 

geseten hsefdon. 

paer waes gidd and gle5, 

gomela Scylding, 

fela fricgende, 

feorran rehte ; 

hwilum hilde deor 4220 

hearpan wynne, 

gomen-wudu grette ; 



it might not so be, 
when in anger I 
upright stood. 
Too long is it to recount 
how [I] to the miscreant, 
for every evil, 
paid a manual reward ; 
there I, my prince, 
thy people 

honour'd by my works. 
He escap'd away ; 
for a little while 
life's pleasures enjoy'd ; 
yet his right hand 
guarded on his track 
in Heorot, 

and he humble thence, 
sad of mood, 
to the lake-ground feU. 
^M.e for that deadly onslaught 
the Scyldings' friend 
with rich gold 
abundantly rewarded, 
with many treasures, 
after morning came, 
and we to the feast 
had sat. 

There was song and glee, 
the aged Scylding, 
much inquiring, 
related things irom times remote, 
at whiles the beast of war 
the joy of harp 
greeted, the wood of mirth ; 



142 



BEOWULF. 



4230 



hwilum gyd awraec 

s5^ and sarlic ; 

hwilum syllic spell 

rehte sefter rihte 

riim-heort cyning ; 

hwilum eft ongan, 

eldo-gebunden, 

gomel guS-wiga 

geoguSe cwiSan, 

hilde strengo ; 

hret5er inne weoll, 

))omie he wintrum frod 

worn geraunde. 

Swa we J)3er-inne 

andlangne daeg 

niote namon, 

oS^set niht becwom 

o])er to yldum. 

pa WKs eft hra^e 

gearo gyrn-wrsece 

Grendel's modor ; 

si(5ode sorhfull ; 

sunu dea)) fomam, 

wig-hete Wedera : 

wif unhyre 

hyre beam gewraec, 

beom acwealde 

eUenlice. 

paer wses ^schere, 

frodan fyrn-witan, 

feorh uSgenge ; 

no tSser hy hine ne moston, 

sy66an mergen cwom, 

4238. MS. 



4240 



4250 



sometimes the lay recited 

sooth and sorrowful ; 

sometimes a wondrous tale 

told in order due 

_the liberal-hearted king ; 

sometimes again began, 

by age restrain'd, 

the old warrior 

with the youth to speak, 

the strength of war ; 

his breast within him boil'd, 

when he in winters wise 

many things eall'd to mind. 

So we therein 

the livelong day 

in enjoyment pass'd, 

until night came 

the second to men. 

Then was in turn quickly 

ready with wily vengeance 

Grendel's mother ; 

she joumey'd sorrowful ; 

her son death had taken, 

the Weders' hostile hate : 

the monster woman 

her child avenged, 

a warrior slew 

daringly. 

There was from ./Eschere, 

the sage ancient councillor, 

life departed; 

nor there might they him, 

when morning came, 

niode naman. 



BEOWULF. 



143 



deaS-werigne, 

Deuiga leode 

bronde forbaernan, 

ne on bsel hladan 

leofne mannan : 4260 

hio })aet He setbaer, 

feondes ftedrunga, 

jjaer under firgen-stream. 

paet wses HroSgare 

hreowa tornost, 

]jara jje leod-fruman 

lange begeate : .\,r £>v^ 

pa se Seoden mec, 

[be] pme life, 

healsode hre5h-m6d, 4270 

)>aet ic on holma gejjring 

eorlscipe efnde, 

ealdre geneSde, 

msertJo fremede : 

he me mede gehet. 

Ic 'Sa ^ses waelmes, 

jje is wide cuS, 

grimne gryrelicne 

grund-hyrde fond ; 

J)aer unc hwile wses 4280 

hand-gemsene ; 

holm heolfre weoll, 

and ic heafde becearf, 

in ^m [gu^]-sele, 



the death-weary one, 

the Danes' people 

with fire consume, 

nor on the pile raise 

the dear man : 

she the corpse bore away, 

the fiend's parent, i'^' -1-*^!J<\*^ =• 

there under Me mountain stream. 

That was to Hrothgar 

of sorrows saddest, 

of those which the nation's chief 

had long o'erwhelm'd : 

Then the prince me, 

by thy life, 

besought, fierce of mood, 

that in the throng of waters I 

would a valorous deed perform, 

wy life would ventuj-e, 

great glory achieve : 

he me a meed promis'd. 

I then of the boiling deep, 

which is widely known, 

the grim, horrific 

ground-keeper found ; 

there we had a while 

a hand-conflict ; 

the water bubbled with blood, 

and from her head I cut, 

in that battle-hall, 



4257. MS. Denia. 

4269. be is supplied from conjecture. 
4278. MS. griinme. 

4284. gu'S is not in the MS., but supplied as necessary to the 
rhythm and alliteration. 



144 



BEOWULF. 



Grendles modor 
eacnum ecgum ; 
unsofte Jjonan 
feorh o^ferede : 
nEes ic feege j^a-gyt ; 
ac me eorla hleo 
eft gesealde 
ma^ma menigeo, 
maga Healfdenes. 



4290 



Grendel's mother 

with powerful edge ; 

with difficulty thence 

I my life hore awav : 

I was not yet doom'd ; 

but me the protector of warriors 

again gave 

many treasures, 

Healfdene's son. 



XXXI. 



Swa se ^eod-cyning 

)>eawum lyfde ; 

nealles ic Sam leanum 

forloren hsefde, 

msegnes mede ; 

ac he me [magmas] geaf, 

sunu Healfdenes, 4300 

on [minne] sylfes dom, 

€a ic Se, beorn-cyning, 

bringan wyUe, 

estum gegyrwan ; 

gen is eall set ^e 

lissa gelong : 

ic lyt hafo 

heafod-maga^ 

nefne Hygelac ))ec. 

Het ^a in-beran 4310 

eofor-heafod-segn, 

hea^o-steapne helm, 



So the great king 

becomingly liv'd ; 

not the rewards 

had I lost, 

the meed of might ; 

for he me [treasures] gave, 

Healfdene's son, 

in [my] own power, 

which I to thee, warrior-king, 

will bring, 

with gladness make ready ; 

moreover of thee are all 

my pleasures long : 

I have few 

near kinsmen, 

save thee, Hygelac." 

Bade then in be borne 

the boar-head banner. 

the warlike towering helm. 



4285. MS. Grendeles. 

4299. magmas is supplied from conjecture; it has perished from 
the MS. So likewise K. 
431 1. MS. eafor. 



BEOWULF. 



14.3 



[here]-bynian, 
gu^-sweord geatolic ; 
gyd aefter wra?c : 
Me ¥is hilde-sceorp 
Hr6Â¥gar sealde ; 
snotra fengel 
surae worde het, 

))aet ic his terend j)e 4320 

eft gessegde : 

cwse^ ]>set hyt hasfde 

Hiorogar cvning, 

leod Scyldinga, 

lange hwfle : 

no ^y ser suna sinum 

syllan wolde, 

hwatum Heorowearde, 

|)eah he him hold WEere, 

breost-gewfedu : 4330 

bruc ealles well. 

Hyrde ic Jjset )>ani fraet- 

wum 
feower mearas, 
lungre gelice, 
last weardode, 
aeppel-fealuwe. 
He him est geteah 
meara and ma^ma. 
Swa sceal meeg don, 
nealles inwit-net 4340 

o^rum bregdan 



the [martial] byrnie, 

the splendid battle-sword ; 

this speech afterward recited : 

" To me this war-gear 

Hrothgar gave ; 

the sagacious prince 

some things by word com- 
manded, 

that I to thee his errand 

again should say : 

said that it had had 

king Hiorogar, <^' 

the Scyldings' lord, 

for a long while : 

yet not the sooner to his sou 

would he give, 

to the bold Heoroweard, 

though he to him was kind, 

these breast-weeds : 

enjov it all well !" 

I heard that of these appoint- 
ments 

four steeds, 

swift alike, 

foUow'd the track, 

apple-fallow. 

He gave to him a present 

of steeds and treasures. 

So should a kinsman do, 

not a net of treachery 

for another braid 



4313. here is supplied from conjecture. 

4320. MS. 8erest, for which Conybeare justlv substitutes aerend. 

4341. MS. bregdon. 

O 



146 



BEOWULF. 



dyrnum craefte, 
dea6 re * * 
hond-gesteallan. 
Hygelace waes, 
nijja heardum, 
nefa swy^e hold, 
and gehwsej^er o¥>ruin 
hrojjra gemyndig. 
Hyrde ic J)8et he ))one heals 
beah 435° 

Hygde gesealde, to Hygd gave, 

wrsetlicne wundor-majrSum, the curious, wondrous treasure, 
J)one ^e him Wealhjjeow which to him Wealhtheow had 



with secret craft, 

death * * 

for an associate. 

Was to Hygelac, 

the bold in conflicts, 

his nephew very afifectionate, 

and each to other 

mindful of benefits. 

I heard that he the neck-ring 



geaf, 
Seodnes dohtor, 
])rio wicg somod, 
swarte and sadol-beorhte : 
hyre sy^^an waes, 
sefter beah-^ege, 
breost geweor^od. 
Swa bealdode 4360 

beam Ecg^eowes, 
guma gu^um cu^, 
godum dfedum ; 
dreah aefter dome ; 
nealles druncne slog 
heor^-geneatas ; 



given, 
a prince's daughter, 
together with three horses, 
black and with saddles bright : 
was then, 

after the presentation of rings, 
her breast honour'd. 
Thus flourish'd 
Ecgtheow's son, 
the man known in wars, 
for good deeds ; 
he acted after judgment ; 
nor struck he the drunken 
enjoy ers of his hearth ; 



4353. HIS. W3ell>eo. 

4356. 3IS. swancor and sadol-beorht, both sing., though the noun 
wicg is plur. 

4358. Not improbably an error for beor-J^ege, as at 1. 234; though 
the reading of the text receives support from hring-^ege, Cod. Exon. 
308. 24. 

4359. MS. brost. Her breast was honoured or adorned with the 
collar. 



BEOWULF. 



14) 



naes him hreo sefa, 

ac he man-cynnes 

maeste craefte, 

ginfaestan gife, 4370 

\>e him God sealde, 

heold hilde deor. 

Hean waes lange, 

swa hine Geata beam 

godne ne tealdon, 

ne hyne on medo-bence 

micles wyrSne 

Drihten wereda 

gedon wolde ; 

sw\Â¥e [oft saegjdon 4380 

))aet he sleac wjere, 

ae^eling unfrom : 

edwendan cwom 

tir-eadigum men 

torna gehwylces. 

Het 6a eorla hleo 

in gefetian, 

hea6o-r6f cyning, 

HreSles lafe, 

golde geg}'rede ; 4390 

nses mid Geatum ^a 

sinc-ma^)5um seka 
on sweordes had ; 
)>8et he on Beowulfes 
bearm alegde, 



his was no rugged soul, 

but he of mankind 

t/ie greatest strength, 

the ample gift, 

that God had given him, 

possess'd, the beast of war. 

Long was the shame, 

when him the sons of the Goths 

not good accounted, 

nor him on the mead-bench 

of much worthy 

the Lord of hosts 

would make ; 

very [oft they said] 

that he was slack, 

a sluggish prince : 

a reverse came 

to the glorious man 

of every grievance. 

Bade then ike protector of war- 
riors 

fetch in, 

the war-fam'd king, 

Hrethel's relic, 

with gold adom'd ; 

there was then not among the 
Goths 

a better treasure 

of a sword's kind ; 

which he on Beowulf's 

bosom laid, 



4380. [oft saeg] is supplied from conjecture. 
4383. MS. edwenden. 

4395. See 11. 2290-2293 for a similar expression. 
O 2 



148 



BEOWULF. 



and him gesealde 
seofoa jjusendo, 
bold and brego-stol. 
Him wses bam samod 
on ^am leodscipe 4400 

lend gecynde, 
eard-e^el-riht 
o?>rum swiSor, 
side rice 

^iam 6ser selra waes. 
Eft ]>xt geeode 
uferan dogrum, 
hilde hlemmum, 
sy^^an Hygelac Iseg, 
and Heardrede 4410 

hilde mecas, 
under bord-hreo^an, 
to bonan wurdon, 
))a hyne gesohton, 
on sige-{)e6de, 
hearde hilde-frecan, 
hea^o-Scylfingas 
ni^a gensegdon 
nefan Hererices. 
Sy^^an Beowulfe 4420 
brade rice 
on hand gehwearf : 



and to him gave 

seven thousand, 

a habitation and a princely seat. 

To them both together was 

in the community 

the land natural, 

the patrimonial right 

in the one stronger, 

the ample realm 

his, who there was the better. 

Afterwards that pass'd away, 

in later days, 

in war's tumults, 

when Hygelac had fall'n, 

and to Heardred 

battle-falchions, 

under the shield, 

became the bane, ^^^ 

when him sought ' 

among the victor-people, 

bold-daring warriors, 

the martial Scylfings 

quell' d in wars 

Hereric's nephew. 

Afterwards of Beowulf 

the broad realm 

into the hand devolv'd : 



4397. This expression has undergone many attempts at explanation. 

but none of them satisfactory. 

4405. i. e. the better (higher) born, namely Hygelac. 

4406. MS. ^ft l^aet geiode. 4407- MS. ufaran. 
4408. MS. hlammum. 4410. MS. Hearede. 
441 1. MS. meceas. 44i4- MS. gesohtan. 
4418. MS. gehnsegdan. 4421. MS. brsede. 



BEOWULF. 



149 



he geheold tela 
fiftig wintru ; 
waes J)set frod cyning, 
eald e)>el-weard, 
o^set an ongan, 
deorcum nihtum, 
draca ricsian, 
se 5e on heape 
hord beweotede ; 
stan-beorh steapne 
stig under laeg, 
eldum uncu^. 
paer on-innan gong 
ni^a nat hwylc 

* * * 
hge^num horde 
bond * * hwylc 
since fah 

he })8et sy^an 

* * * 
slspende be fire, 
f)Tena h\Tde 
|)e6fes craefte, 
jjset sie * * 

* * folc-biom 
))aet he gebolge waes. 



he held it well 
fifty winters ; 
that was a wise king, 
an old land-guardian, 
until one began, 
in the dark nights, 
a dragon, to hold sway, 
4430 which in a heap 

his hoard watch'd over ; 
a steep stone-mount 
the path lay beneath, 
to men unknown. 
There within went 
of men I know not who 

* * * 

to the heathen hoard 

* * * 
4440 * * * 

he that after 

* * * 
sleeping by the fire, 
the guardian of crimes 
by a thief's craft, 
that * * 

* * * 
that he was angry. 



•W4,.{L.t^U 



XXXII. 

Nealles [mid] geweoldum. Not spontaneously, 
wyrm-horda craeft, the worm-hoards' craft, 

sylfes willum, of his own will, 



4425. MS. J>a. 



4427. MS. on. 
4435. MS. giong. 

03 



4432. MS. steame. 



-J 



150 



BEOWULF. 



se 6e him * * gesceod, 


he who * * * 


ac for ))rea-nedlan 4450 


but from dire need 


* * nat hwylces. 


* * I know not of what 


haeleSa bearna, 


sons of men. 


hete-swengeas 


hateful strokes 


* * j^ea 


* * * 


and jjser-inne weall 


and therein * 


secg syn * sig 


* * * 


sona in-wlatode, 


forthwith look'd in 


jjset * * 'Sam gyste 


* * * 


braeg * * stod 


* * * 


Hwae * * sceapen 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


* se fees begeat 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


peer waes swylcra fela, 


There of such were many. 


in Mm eorS-[scr8efe], 


in that earth-cave. 


8er-gestre6na, 


ancient treasures, 


swa he on gear-dagum, 


as he in days of yore, 


gumena nat hwylc, 


what man I know not, 


eormen-lafe 4460 


the great legacy 


ae))elan cynnes. 


of a noble race. 


)janc-hycgende. 


thoughtful, 


)>8er gehydde, 


there had hidden, 


deore magmas. 


precious treasures. 


Ealle hie dea^ fornam, 


Death had taken them all, 


serran mselum, 


in former times. 


and se an Sa-gen 


and the one at length 


leoda duguSe, 


of peoples' nobles. 


se '8aer lengest hwearf, 


who there longest wander'd, 


wearS wine geomor ; 447c 


was a sad man ; 


4454. MS. in watide. 


1467. MS. si. 4469. MS. â– Ser. 


4470. 


MS. weard. 



BEOWULF. 



151 



wiscte ]>xs yldan, 
])!et he lytel faec 
leng gestreona 
brucan moste. 
Beorh eal gearo 
wunode on wonge, 
waster-y^um neah, 
niwel be nsesse, 
nearo-crseftum faest : 
\>ser on-innan bser 






4480 



eorl gestre5na, 
hringa hyrde, 
heap-fundne dsel 
fsettan goldes ; 
fea worda cwae^ : 
Hold ^u nii hruse, 
mi hsele^ ne moston, 
eorla aehte ; 
hwjer hit jer on Se 
gode begeaton ; 449° 

gu^-dea^ fornam, 
feorh-bealo frecne, 
fyra gehw}'lcne 
leoda minra ; 
jjara 5e })is [lif ] ofgeaf : 
gesawon sale- dream 
4v<^.- hwa sweord-wege, 
otSSe fe * * 
*3 . fseted wjege, 
^ drync-fset deore, 4500 



he wish'd for a delay, 
that he a little space 
longer the treasures 
might enjoy. 
The mound all ready 
stood on the plain, 
near to the water-waves, 
down by the headland, 
fast by arts stringent : 
there within bore 
the earl his treasures, 
the guardian of rings, 
the heap-found portion 
of rich gold ; 

a few words said : 

" Hold thou now, earth I 

(now men must not) 

the possession of nobles ; 

where it erst on thee 

good 7nen acquir'd ; 

war-death has taken, 

a cruel life-bale, 

every man 

of my people ; 

of those who this life resign'd 

they had seen joy of hall 

* brandishing of swords, 
or * * 
the rich cup, 
the precious drink-vessel. 



4471. MS. rihde. 4473- MS. long. 4478. MS. niwe, 

4483. MS. hard fyrdne. 4485. MS. fee. 

4487. MS. msestan. 4489. MS. hwaet. 4493- ^IS. fyrena. 
4495. MS. l>a na. lif is supplied from conjecture. 



152 



BEOWULF. 



dug[ut5e] ellen-seoc : 

sceal se hearda helm, 

[hyrjsted golde, 

faegum befeallan ; 
, feorh-wund swefaS 

]>a 5e beado gnmman 

bymian sceoldon : 
«~7^ geswylce seo here-pad, 

seo set hilde gebad, 

ofer borda gebraec, 4510 

bite arena, 
j^^J^^ brosna^ sefter beome ; 
j^^i.5 ne maeg byrnan bring 

sefter wig-fruman 

wide feran 

hsele^um be healfe ; 

nis hearpan wyn, 

gomen gleo-beames, 

ne god hcifoc 

geond ssel swinge'S, 4520 

ne se swifta mearh 

burb-stede beate^, 

bealo-cwealm hafa^ 

tela feorb-cynna 
[for^] onsended. 

Swa gioraor-mod 

gioh^o msende 

an sefter eaUum 

unblfSe hwse * * 

dseges and nihtes, 4530 



nobles valour sick : 

the hard helm shall, 

adorn'd with gold, 

from the fated fall ; 

mortally wounded sleep ' 

those who war to rage 

by trumpet should announce, 

in like manner the war-shirt, 

which in battle stood, 

over the crash of shields, 

the bite of swords, 

shall moulder after the warrior ; 

the byrnie's ring may not 

after the martial leader , 

go far 

on the side of heroes ; 

there is no joy of harp, 

no glee-wood's mirth, 

no good hawk 

swings through the hall, 

nor the swift steed 

tramps the city-place, 

baleful death has 

many living kinds 

sent [forth j." 

So, sad of mood, 

his afflictions bewail'd 

one after all, 

unbhthe * * 

by day and night. 



4501. MS. ellor. 4504. MS. faetum befeallen. 

4505. MS. feor mynd. 4507- ^IS. bj'wan. 

4517. MS. uses. 4520. sele? 

4525. forts is supplied from conjecture. 



BEOWULF. 



l.)3 




o^^aet dea¥es folm 

hran aet heortan. 

Hord-wynne foncl ^j 

eald uht-scea'Sa 

opene standan, 

se ¥e byrnende 

biorgas sece^ ; 

nacod ni^-draca 

nihtes fleoge^ 

fyre be fangen ; 4540 

hyne fold-buend 

* * he ge * 

* * sceall 
beam * * 

* * hrusan, 
))aer he hte^en gold 
waraS wintrum fr5d ; 
ne b)"^ him wihte 

* * * 

* * * 

* * * 

Swa se jieod-scea^a 
))re6 bund wintra 
heold on hrusan 
hord-eerna sum 
eacen-crseftig, 
o¥^8et hyne an abealh 4550 
mon on mode : 
man-dryhtne baer 
faeted wsege, 
frio^o-w£ere baed 
hlaford sinne. 
pa waes hord rasod, 

4S3I. MS. wylm. 4547. 



;il death's hand 
touch'd him at heart. 
The hoard-delight found 
the old twilight scather 
standing open, 
who burning 
seeks out mounts ; 
the naked, spiteful dragon* 
flies by night 
in fire envelop'd ; 

him the land-dwellers 

* * * 

* * * 
^ ^ ^ 

* * * 

where he heathen gold 
defends, with winters wise ; 
he has not aughtl 

* * * 

So the great scather 
three hundred winters 
held in the earth 
a hoard-house 
exceeding strong, • 
until him enraged one- 
man in mood : 
to his liege lord he bore 
a rich cup, 

pray'd a covenant of security 
of his lord. 

Then was the hoard explor'd, 
MS. hrusam. 4556. reafod ? 



_/ 



154 



BEOWULF. 



o^boren beaga liord, 
ben geti^ad 
feasceaftum men. 
Frea sceawode 4560 

hnra fyrn-geweorc 
forman si^e. 
pa se wyrm onwoc 
wroht wses geniwad ; 
stone ^a sefter stane, 
stearc-heort onfand 
feondes fot-last ; 
he to forS gestop, 
dyrnan crsefte, 
dracan lieafde neah. 4570 
Swa mseg unfsege 
ea^e gedigan 
wean and wrsec-si^, 
se Se Waldendes 
hyldo gehealdeS. 
Hord-weard sohte 
georne sefter grunde, 
wolde guman findan, 
))one \)e him on sweofote 
sare geteode : 4580 

hat and hreoh-mod 
hlcew oft ymbe-hwearf, 
ealne utanweardne ; 
ne Saer eenig mon 
on J)am westene 



the hoard of rings borne off, 

the prayer granted 

to the poor man. 

The lord beheld 

the ancient work of men 

for the first time. / 

When the worm awoke 

the crime had been renew'd ; 

he then smelt along the stone, 

the stout of heart found 

the foe's foot-trace ; 

he had stept forth, 

by secret craft, 

near to the dragon's head : 

Thus may an undoom'd man 

easily escape from 

calamity and exile, 

who the Almighty's 

favour holds. 

The hoard- ward sought 

diligently along the ground, 

he the man would find, 

him who to him in sleep 

had caused pain : 

hot and savage of mood 

Memound/^eoftwander'd round, 

all outward ; 

not there any man 

in that desert. 



4557. MS. onboren. emend. K. 4558- MS. bene. 

4568. he, i. e. the foe. 4582. MS. hlsewii. 

4585. Thork. ^aere. !MS. westenne. The sense seems to be that 
the dragon went prowling about, but found no one inclined to contend 



BEOWULF. 



155 



hwse^ere hilde gefeh, 
bea[do]-weorces; 
hwilum on beorh set- 

hwearf, 
sinc-fset sohte ; 
he })set sona onfand, 4590 
J)3et hsefde gumena sum 
goldes gefandod, 
heah-gestreona. 
Hord-weard onbad 
earfo^lice 

oS^set aefen cwom ; 
waes ^a gebolgen 
beoi'ges hyrde, 
wolde fela ^a 

fyre forgyldan 4600 

drync-faet dyre. 
pa wses dseg sceacen, 
wyrme on v/illan ; 
no on weaile leng 
bidan vrolde ; 
ac mid btele for, 
fyre gefysed. 
Wses se fruma egeslic 
leodum on lande, 
swa hit lungre wearS, 4610 
on hyra sinc-gifan, 
sare geendod. 



however, in conflict rejoiced, 
in the work of war ; 
sometimes he return'd to the 

mount, 
his treasure vessel sought ; 
he forthwith found, 
that some man had 
meddled with the gold, 
the chief treasures. 
The hoard-ward awaited 
with difficulty 
until evening came ; » 
then was angry 
the mount's guardian, 
would much then 
with fire requite 
dearly for A^s" drink- vessel. 
Then was day departed, 
after the worm's wishes ; 
not within his mound longer 
would he abide ; 
but with burning went, 
with fire hastening. 
The beginning was dreadful 
to the people in the land, 
as it quickly was, 
in their treasure giver, 
painfully ended. 



with him. The whole story, owing to the bad state of a very bad MS. 
is very unintelligible. 

4600. MS. lig e, with no alliteration. 

4604, MS. Iseg! 



i 



\rn 



156 



BEOWULF. 



XXXIII. 



pa se gsest ongan 

gledum spiwan, 

beorht-hofu bcernan ; 

bryne-leoma stod 

eldum on andan ; 

no ^0er aht cwices 

la^ lyft-floga 

Ixfan wolde. 4620 

Wses J)aes wyrmes wig 

wide gesyne, 

nearo-fages ni6, 

nean and feorran, 

hu se gu6-scea^a 

Geata leode 

hatode and hj'^nde ; 

hord eft gesceat, 

dryht-sele dyrnne, 

ssr daeges hwile. 4630 

Haefde landwara 

lige befangen, 

bcele and bronde ; 

beorges getruwode, 

wiges and wealles : 

him seo wen geleah. 

pa waes Beowulfe 

broga gecy^ed 

snude t5 so^e, 

))aet his sylfes ham, 4640 

bolda selest, 

bryne-wylmum mealt, 

gif-stol Geata. 

4640. 



Then the guest began 

with gleeds to vomit, 

the bright dwelhngs to burn'; 

the fire-beam stood 

in hate to men ; 

nothing Hving there • " 

the hostile air-flier 

would leave. 

That worm's war wa§ 

widely seen, 

the torturing foe'a malice, 

near and far, 

how the hostile scather 

the Goths' people 

hated and oppress'd ; 

then darted back to his hoard, 

his secret hall, 

ere day-time. 

He had the land-inhabitants 

in flame envelop'd, 

with fire and burning ; 

in his mount he trusted, 

his war and mound : 

him that hope deceiv'd. 

Then was to Beowulf 

the terror made known 

speedily in sooth, 

that his own home, 

of mansions best, 

was by fire-heats consum'd, 

the Goths' gift-chair. 

MS. him. 



BEOWULF. 



157 



pset 8am godan waes 
hreow on hre^re, 
hyge-sorga msest : 
wende se wisa 
J>aet he Wealdende, 
ofer ealle riht, 
ecean Dryhtne, 465c 

bitre gebulge : 
breost innan weoll 
)>eostrum gejjoncum, 
swa him gejjwsere ne waes. 
Hsefde lig-draca 
leoda faesten, 
ealond utan, 
eor^-weard ^one, 
gledum forgrunden. 



That to the good prince was 

grievous in mind, 

of mental sorrows greatest : 

the wise chief ween'd 

that he with the Almighty, 

against all right, 

with the eternal Lord, 

should be bitterly incens'd : 

his breast boil'd within . . 

with dark thoughts, 

as it was not befitting him. 

The fire-drake had 

the people's fastness, 

an island without, 

the country's safeguard, 

with gleeds destroy'd. 



Him ]>ses gu5-cyning, 4660 For this the warlike king, 



Wedera J)e6den, 
wraece leomode : 
heht him }>a gewyrcean 
wigendra hle5, 
eall irenne, 
eorla dryhten, 
wig-bord wraetlic : 
wisse he gearwe 
}>set him holt-wudu 
helpan ne meahte, 
lind wi6 hge. 
Sceolde Isen-daga 
aejjeling jer-god 



the Weders' prince, 
vengeance learn'd ; 
bade for him then be wrought 
the protector of warriors, 
all of iron, V 

the lord of earls, 
a wondrous war-board : 
he well knew 
that him the forest-wood 
4670 might not help, 

linden against fire. 

Of these miserable days must 

the good prince 

4658. card? 



4649. MS. ealde. 4654. MS. get>ywe. 

4660. Him here seems redundant. 

4672. MS. t)end, without either sense or alliteration. I adopt with 
K. Ian. 



158 



BEOWULF. 



ende gebidan, 
worulde lifes, 
and se wyrm somod ; 
j)eah Se hord-welan 
heolde lange. 
Oferhogode" 
hringa fengel 4680 

]>set he jjone wid-flogan 
weorode gesohte, 
sidan herge ; 

no he him J)a ssecce ondred, 
ne him \>?es wyrmes wig 
for wiht dyde, 
eafoS and ellen ; 
for})on he ser fela, 
nearo-neSende, 
niSa gedigde, 4690 

hilde hlemma, 
sy33an he HroSgares, 
sigor-eadig secg, 
sele fslsode, 
and aet guSe forgrap 
Grendles magan, 
laSan cynnes. 
I No J)3et Isesest wses 
hond-gemota, 
|)8er monHygelacslob, 4700 
sySSan Geata cyning, 
guSe-raesum, 
frea-wine folca, 
Freslondum on, 
H regies eafora. 



an end abide, 
of this world's life, 
amj the worm with him ; 
^though the hoard-wealth 
he long had held. 
Disdain' d then 
the prince of rings 
that he the wide-flier 
with a host should seek, 
a numerous band ; 
he dreaded not the conflict, 
nor the worm's warfare 
for aught accounted, 
his energy and valour ; 
because he erst many, 
rashly darings 
strifes had escap'd from, 
tumults of war, 
since he Hrothgar's 
(victorious warrior) 
hall had purified, 
and in conflict grasp 'd 
Grendel's relation, 
of loathsome race. 
Nor was that least 
of hand-meetings, 
where Hygelac was slain, 
when the Goths' king, 
in war-onslaughts, 
the lordly friend of nations, 
in the Frieslands, 
Hrethel's ofi'spring, 



4684. MS. H. 



4696. MS. Grendeles megum. 



BEOWULF. 



1.09 



heoro-druncen swealt, 
bille gebeaten. 
ponan Beowulf com 
sylfes crsefte, 

sund-nyde dreah ; 4710 
haefde him on earme 

* * XXX. 

hilde geatwa, 

j)a he to holme [st]ag. 

Nealles Hetware 

hream ge))orfton. 

fetSe-wiges, 

\>e him foran ongean 

li^e bseron : 

lyt eft becwom 4720 

fram J)am hild-frecan, 

hames niosan : 

ofer-swam J>a siole^a bigong 

sunu EcgtSeowes, 

earm anhaga, 

eft to leodum, 

{)aer him Hygd gebead 

hord and rice, 

beagas and brego-stol : 

beame ne truwode, 4730 

|>8et he wi^ selfylcum 

e))el-st61as 

healdan cu^e. 



sword-drunken perish'd, 
by the falchion beaten. 
Thence Beowulf came 
by his own power, 
the need of swimming suffer'd ; 
he had on his arm 
* * thirty 
war-equipments 
when he to the sea went down. 
Not the Hetwaras 
had need of exultation, 
in that host of war, 
who in front against him 
bore the hnden ; 
few again came • 
from that warlike darer, 
their home to visit : 
swam over then the seals' course 
Ecgtheow's son^ 
a poor solitary, 
again to his people, 
where him Hygd offer' d 
treasure and realm^ 
rings and princely throne : ' f 
in her child she trusted not, 
that he against foreign folks 
his paternal seats 
could hold. 



t/- 



4706. MS. hioro dryncum. 4710. MS. nytte. 

4723. I suspect that the word S5el is lurking in this ^iole'Sa, and 
that bigong is merely a gloss dragged into the text by the copyist, to 
the destruction of both sense and rhythm, and that we should read, 
ofer-swam l>& siol-eSel 
sunu Ecg^eowes, etc 
P 2 



160 



BEOWULF. 



Da waes Hygelac dead, 

/lio ]>y £er feasceafte 

findan meahton 

set ^am ae^elinge, 

senige jjinga 

))aet he Heardrede 

hlaford Wcere, 4740 

o^^e J)one cynedom 

ciosan wolde ; 

hwse^re he hine on folce 

freond-larum heold, 

estum mid are ; 
o^aet he yldra wearS, 
\Weder-Geatum weold. 
Hyne wrsec-mecgas 
ofer see sohton ; 
sunu^ Ohtheres 4750 

haefdon hy forhealden, 
helm Scylfinga, 
})one selestan 
sae-cyninga, 
jjara ^e in Swio-rice 
sine brytnade, 
mserne J)e6den ; 
him ])aet to mearge wear^ : 
he J)8er*orfeonne 



-Then was Hygelac dead^ 

^et not for that sooner the poor 

people 
could prevail 
with the prince, 
on any account, 
that he to Heardred 
would be lord, 
or the kingdom 
would choose ; 

yet he him among his people 
with friendly instructions main- 

tain'd, 
kindly with honour ; ^ 

until he became older, 
and rul'd the Weder-Goths. 
Him rovers 
over the sea sought ; 
the son; of Ohthere 
they had subdued, 
the Scylfings' helm, 
the best 
of sea-kings, 
of those who in Sweden 
treasure dispens'd, 
a great prince ; 
that to his marrow went : 
he there iraitlessly 






4737. i. e. Beowulf. 
4749. MS. sohtan. 
4752. EadgUs. 

4758. MS. mearce. Es geht einem durch ilark und Bein 
refers to Heardred, as also he in the line following. 

4759. he, i. e. Heardred. 



4743. MS. him. 4748. MS. msecgas. 
4750. MS. suna Ohteresj but see 1. 4764 

Hint 



BEOWULF. 



161 



feorh-wunde hleat, 4760 
sweordes swengura, 
sunu Hygelaces ; 
and him eft gewat 
-Ofetheres bearn, 
hames niosan, 
sy^an Heardred laeg ; 
let ^one brego-stol 
Beowulf healdan, 
Geatum wealdan : 
\)Xt waes god cyning. 4770 



*ank with a mortal wound, 

with strokes of the sword, 

the son of Hygelac ; 

and again departed 

Obthere's son, 

his home to visit, 

after Heardred had fall'n ; 

he the royal seat left 

Beowulf to hold, 

over the Goths to nile : 

that was a good king. 



Se tJses leod-hryres 
lean gemunde 
uferan d5grum ; 
Eadgilse wearS 
feasceaftum freond ; 
folce gestepte 
ofer See side 
sunu Ohtheres, 
wigum and wsepnum 
he gewrsec sy^an 



XXXIV. 

He for the people's fall 
retribution reraember'd 
in after days ; 
he became to Eadgils 
when in distress a friend ; 
with people he supported, 
over the wide sea, 
Ohthere's son, 
with warriors and weapons 
4780 he afterwards avenged 
* * * 



cealdum cear-si^um, 
cyning ealdre bineat. 



with cold sad fortunes, 
their king of Ufe depriv'd. 

4767. let refers to Heardred. 



4764. MS. OngenSiowes. 

4778. MS. Ohteres. 

4780. Here some couplets are evidently wanting, containing an 
account of Beovrulf's, or Ead^la', proceedings against the " wraec- 
mecgas" (1. 4748), who had slain Heardred, and driven Eadgils to 
seek aid of Beowulf. The king mentioned at 1. 4782 is, no doubt, the 
king of those rovers. 

P3 



162 



BEOWULF. 



Swa he m^a gehwane 
genesen haefde, 

sli^ra geslyhta, 

sunu Ecg^iovres, 

ellen-weorca, 

0^ ¥one anne daeg, 4790 

\>e he wi^ })am wyrme 

gewegan sceolde. 

Gewat |)a xiia sum, 

tome gebolgen, 

dryhten Geata, 

dracan sceawian ; 

haefde ])a gefrunen 

hwanan sio fgeh^ aras, 

bealo-ni^ beoma ; 

him to banan cwom 4800 

ma^]>um-faet vaxre, 

))urh jjses meldan hoad, 

se waes on ^am Create 

])reotteo^a secg, 

se ^aes orleges 

5r onstealde ; 

haefde hyge giomor, 

sceolde hean ^anon 

wong wisian : 

he ofer willan gong, 4810 

to Saes ¥e he eorS-sele 

ana wisse, 

hlaew under hrusan, 

holm-wylme neah, 

yt5-gewinne, 



Thus he every enmity 

had outUv'd, 

every fierce conflict, 

Ecgtheow's son, 

every valorous work, 

until that one day, 

•when he against the worm 

must proceed. 

Went then with xii. others, 

with anger swollen, 

the Goths' lord, 

the dragon to behold ; 

he had then leam'd 

whence the hostihty arose, 

baleful enmity of warriors ; 

for his bane to him had come 

the fam'd precious vessel, 

through the discoverer's hand, 

who in that band was 

the thirteenth man, 

who of that strife 

the beginning caus'd ; 

he had a sad mind, 

he must humble thence 

the plain point out : 

against his will he went, 

because that he the earth-hall 

alone knew, 

the mound under the earth, 

to the sea-raging near, 

the strife of waves. 



4797. MS. hseft. 
4808. MS. honon. 
4812. MS. anne. 



4800. MS. bearme. 4802. 
4810. MS. giong. 
4814. MS. neh. 



MS. maeldan 



BEOWULF. 



1H3 



se waes inn an full 
wraetta and wira ; 
weard unliiore, 
gearo gu^-freca, 
gold-magmas heold, 
eald under eor^an : 
naes Jjaet y^e ceap 
to gegangenne 
gumena senigum. 
Gesaet t5a on naesse 
ni^-heard cyning, 
))enden hselo abead 
heorS - geneatum , 
gold- wine Geata : 
him wses geomor sefa, 
waefre and wael-fus, 
wyrd ungemete neah, 
se Jjone gomelan 
gretan sceolde, 
secean sawle hord, 
sundur-gedgelan 
lif wi^ lice : 
no Jjon lange wses 
feorh 3e})elinges 
fljesce bewunden. 
Beowulf raajjclode, 
beam EcgSeowes : 
Fela ic on giogo^e 
gu^-raesa genses, 
orleg-hwila ; 
ic J)set eall gemon : 
ic waes syfan wintre, 
\>a. mec sinca baldor, 



it was full within 
of ornaments and wires ; 
a monstrous guardian, 
a ready bold warrior, 
4820 held the golden treasures, 
old, under the earth : 
that was no easy bargain 
to obtain 
for any man. 
Sat then on the ness 
the bold warrior king, 
whUe he bade farewell 
to his hearth-enjoyers, 
the Goths' gold-friend : 
4830 his mind was sad, 

wandering and death-bound, 
the fate close at hand, 
which the aged man 
must greet, 

must seek his soul-treasure, 
asunder part 
life from body : 
not then long was 
the prince's life 
4840 wrapt in flesh. 
Beowulf spake, 
Ecgtheow's son : 
" I in youth many 
war-onslaughts have outliv'd,. 
hours of warfare ; 
I all that remember : 
I was seven winters old, 
when me the lord of treasures. 



4841. MS. maj>elade. 



164 



BEOWULF. 



frea-wine folca, 

aet minum feeder genam, 

heold mec and haefde 4851 

Hre^el cyning ; 

geaf me sine and symbel, 

sibbe gemunde ; 

naes ic him to life 

la^ra owihte, 

beorn in burgum, 

))onne his bearna hwylc, 

Herebeald and Hse^cyn, 

0^6 Hygelac min. 

Waes })am yldestan 

ungedefelice, 

mjeges dsedum, 

mor))or-bed stred, 

sy^^an hyne Hse^cyn 

of horn-bogan, 

his frea-wine 

flane geswencte ; 

miste mercelses, 

and his mseg ofscet, 

bro'Sor o'Serne, 

blodigan gare : 

)jaet waes feohleas gefeoht, 

fyxenum gesyngad, 

hre^re hyge-me^e : 

sceolde hwse^re swa-))eah 

sejjsling unwrecen 

ealdres linnan ; 

swa bi^ geomorlic. 



the noble friend of nations, 
from my father took, 
held and had me 
Hrethel the king ; 
gave me treasure and feasting, 
of our kinship was mindful ; 
I was not to him in life 
in aught more unwelcome, 
a warrior in his burghs, 
than any of his children, 
Herebeald and Haethcyn, 
4860 or my Hygelac. 
For the eldest was 
unbecomingly, 
by his brother's deed, 
the death-bed strew'd, 
when Haethcyn him 
from his hom'd bow, 
his lord and friend, 
with a shaft laid low ; 
he miss'd his mark, 
and his kinsman shot, 
one brother another, 
with a bloody arrow : 
that was a priceless fight, 
criminally perpetrated, 
heart- wearying to the soul : 
yet nathless must 
the prince unavenged 
lose his life ; 
so sad it is. 



4870 



4873. i. e. inexpiable with money. The Swedish seems at variance 
with what we know of the old German law, by which every crime had 
its price. 



BEOWULF. 



165 



gomelum eorle 



4880 for an aged man 



to gebidanne 

jjset his byre ride 

giong on galgan : 

|)onne he gyd wrece, 

sarigne sang, 

jjonne his sunu hangaS 

hrefne to hroSre, 

and he him helpe ne mseg, 

eald and infrod, 

aenige gefremman : 4890 

symble biS gemyndgad, 

moma gehwylce, 

eaforan ellor-siS ; 

o^res ne gymeS 

to gebidanne 

burgum on-innan 

yrfe-weardes, 

})onne se an hafaS, 

]jurh deaSes nyd, 

deeda gefondad. 4900 

GesyhS sorh-cearig 

on his sun a bure 

win-sele westne, 

wind-gerseste, 

rote berofene : 

ridend swefa^ 

haele^ in hodman ; 

nis Jjcer hearpan sweg, 

gomen in geardum, 

swylce jjaer iu waeron. 4910 

4880. MS. ceorle. 
4896. MS. in innan. 



to await 

that his child hang 

young on the gallows : 

then may he a lay recite, 

a sorrowful song, 

when his son hangs 

for solace to the raven, 

and he him help may not, 

old and feeble, 

any afford : 

ever will he be reminded, 

every morning, 

of his offspring's death ; 

another he cares not 

to await 

within his burghs, 

another heir, 

when the one has, 

through death's necessity, 

his deeds expiated. 

He sees sorrow-anxious 

in his son's bower 

the wine-hall desert, 

wind-rush'd, 

of the rote bereft : 

hanging sleeps 

the warrior in darkness ; 

there is no sound of harp, 

no mirth in the courts, 

as there were of old. 

4888. MS. helpan. 
4807. MS. weardas. 



4900. gefselsod ? 4904. MS. gereste. 4905. MS. reote. 



166 



BEOWULF. 



XXXV. 



GewiteS Jjonne on sealman, 

8orh-le68 gseleS, 

an aefter anum : 

))uhte him call to rum, 

wongas and wic-stede. 

Swa Wedera helm, 

aefter Herebealde, 

heortan sorge 

weallende wsg ; 

wihte ne meahte, 4920 

on 'Sam feorh-bonan 

fjeh^e gebetan ; 

no ^y ser he Jjone hea^o-rinc 

hatian ne meahte 

la^um dsedum, 

|)eah bun leof ne waes. 

He Sa raid ))gere sorge, 

pa, him sio sar belamp, 

gum- dream ofgeaf, 

Godes leoht geceas, 4930 

eaferum leefde, 

swa de6 eadig mon, 

lond and leod-byrig, 

\>a. he of life gewat. 

pa waes synn and sacu 

Sweona and Geata, 

ofer wid wseter 



Then passes he to songs, 

a sad lay sings, 

one after one : 

all seem'd to him too spacious, 

the plains and habitation. 

Thus the Weders' helm, 

after Herebealde, 

heart's sorrow 

boiling bore ; 

he in no wise might, 

on the murderer 

the feud avenge ; 

nor the sooner he the warrior 

could hate 

with hostile deeds, 

although he was not dear to him. 

He then with that sorrow, 

when him that pain befel, 

gave up the joy of men, 

chose God's light, 

to his offspring left 

(as does a prosperous man) 

land and native city, 

when he from life departed. 

Then was sin and strife 

of Swedes and Goths, 

over the wide water 



4922. MS. fsegh^e. 4927. MS. sorhge. 

4937. The wide water is, no doubt, the Malar sea or lake, which 
formed the boundary between the Swedes and Goths, or Geats. It 
extends about 60 miles from the sea into the interior, and in breadth 
varies from 20 to 40 miles. 



BEOWULF. 



167 



wroht gemsene, 
here-ni6 hearda, 
sy5t5au HreSel swealt, 4940 
oCtSe him OngenSeowes 
eaferan waeron. 



frome fyrd-hwate, 

freode ne woldon 

ofer heafo healdan, 

ac ymb Hreosna-beorh 

atolne inwit-scear 

oft gefremedon ; 4950 

)>aet mseg-winas 

mine gewraecon, 

fseht5e and f}Tene, 

swa hit gefrjege waes, 

J)eah })e oSer [hyra] 

his ealdre gebohte, 

heardan ceape : 

Hse^cynne wearS, 

Geata dryhtne, 

gu^ onsaege. 4960 

pa ic on raorgne gefraegn,. 

raseg oSeme 
billes ecgum 
on bonan staelan : 



dissension common, 
cruel war-hate, 
after Hrethel died, 
or to him Ongentheow's 
sons were 

* * * 

* * * 
bold martial leaders, 
peace would not 
over the water hold, 

but around Hreosna-beorh 

dire artifice 

oft perpetrated ; 

that my kinsmen 

avenged, 

the enmity and crime, 

as it was well known, 

although one [of them] 

with his hfe it bought, 

a hard bargeun : 

for Hsethcyn was, 

the Goths' lord, 

war not idle. 

Then on the morrow, I have 

heard, 
that the other kinsman 
with falchion's edge 
stole on the slaver : 



4942. MS. wjeran. I agree with K. that several lines are here 
wanting, which, no doubt, contained an account of the continuation of 
the war between the Goths and Swedes. 

4949. MS. eatolne. 495 !• MS. wine. 

4952. MS. gewrsecan. 

4955. hyra supplied from conjecture. 



168 



BEOWULF. 



\>xr [wses] Ongenjjeow 
Eofores niSes saed, 
gu8-helm toglad ; 
gomela Scylfing 
hreas blac : 
bond gemunde 
fgeh^e genoge, 
feorh-sweng ne ofteah. 
Ic him ]>a magmas, 
]>e he me sealde, 
geald set gu^e, 
swa me gifeSe wses, 
leohtan sweorde. 
He me lond forgeaf, 
eard e^el-wvn ; 
nses him tcnig })earf, 
\>d£t he t5 GifSum, 
o55e to G&'-Denum, 
o85e in Swio-rice, 
secean jjiirfe, 
wyrsan wig-frecan 
weorSe gecypan. 
Swylc ic him on fe^an 
beforan wolde, 
ana on orde, 



there [was] Ongentheow 

sated with Eofor's enmity, 

his war-helm glided off; 

the aged Scylfing 

fell pale : 
4970 yet did his hand remember 

the feud full well, 

nor withdrew the fatal stroke. 

I him the treasures, 

that he had given me, 

paid in warfare, 

as was granted me, 

with my bright sword. 

He gave me land, 

a paternal home's delight ; 
4980 he had no want, 

so that he among Gifthas, 

or Gar-Danes, 

or in Sweden, 

needed seek, 

a worse warrior 

buy with value. 

Thus in the host I 

would before him go, 

alone in front. 



and swa to aldre sceal 4990 and so while living shall 



ssecce fremman, 

|?enden Jjis sweord J)ola^, 
jjset mec ger and si^ 
oft gelseste, 

srS^an ic for duge^um 
Daegrhrefne wearS 



conflict engage in, 
while this sword endures, 
which me early and late 
has oft bestead, 
since I valorously 
of Dsffhrefn was 



4965. wses inserted from conjecture. 4966. MS. niosaiS. 

4971. MS. faehSo. 4973- ^^j i- e. Hrethel. 



BEOWULF. 



169 



t5 hand-bonan, 

Huga cempan, 

nalles he Sa fraetwe 

Fres-cyninge, 5000 

breost-weorSunge, 

bringan moste, 

ac in campe gecrong 

cumbles hyrde, 

aejjeling on elne. 

Ne waes [ic] ecg-bona, 

ac him hilde grap 

heortan wylmas, 

ban-hiis gebraec. 

Nil sceal billes ecg, 5010 

bond and heard sweord, 

ymb hord wigan. 

Beowulf ma))e]ode, 

beot-wordum sprsec 

niehstan siSe : 

Ic genej)de fela 

gu5a on geogoSe ; 

gyt ic wylle, 

frod folces weard, 

ffeh^e secan, 5020 

mEer^um freraman, 

gif mec se man-scea^a 

of eor^-sele 

lit-geseceS. 

Gegrette ^a 

gumena gehwylcne. 

hwate helm-berend, 



the slayer, 

the Hugas' champion ; 

not the decoration he 

to the Frisian king, 

the breast-honour, 

might bring, 

but in battle sank 

the standard's guardian, 

the noble valorously. 

I slew him not with the sword, 

but in battle grasp'd his 

heart's throbbings, 

the bone-house brake. 

Now shall the falchion's edge, 

the hand and hard sword, 

for the hoard do battle." 

Beowulf spake, 

words of threat utter'd 

for the last time : 

" I have dar'd many 

battles in my youth ; 

I will yet, 

a sage guardian of my people, 

a conflict seek, 

gloriously accomplish, 

if me the atrocious spoiler 

from his earth-hall 

will seek out." 

He then greeted 

each of the men, 

the bold helm -bearer. 



5000. MS. cyning; 5001. breost-weor^unge; i. e. he gained m 
spoil from Beo\vTilf to carry home to his king. 

5003. MS. cempan. 5006. ic supplied from conjecture. 

Q 



170 



BEOWULF. 



hindeman si8e, 

swsese gesi'Sas : 

Nolde ic sweord beran, 5030 

wsepen to wyrme, 

gif ic wiste hu 

wi^ ^am aglsecean 

elles meahte 

gripe wi^-gripan, 

swa ic gio wi^ Grendle dyde ; 

ac ic 'Saer hea^u-fyres 

hates wene, 

reSes and hattres ; 

foi-^on ic rae on hafu 5040 

bord and byrnan : 

nelle ic [me] beorges weard 

ofer-fleon [Isetan] 

[ne] fotes trem ; 

ac unc sceal weorSan set 

wealle 
swa unc wyrd geteo^j 
metod manna gehwses. 
Ic eom on mode from, 
]>aet ic wis |)one guS-flogan 
gylf ofer-sitte. 5050 

Gebide ge on beorge 
byrnum werede, 
secgas on searwum, 
hwaeSer sel nisege, 
aefter weel-rsese, 
wunde gedygan 



for the last time, - 

his dear companions : 

" I would not bear a sword, 

nor weapon to the worm, 

if I knew how 

against the miserable being 

/ might else 

with gripe grasp at him, 

as I of old against Grendel did ; 

but I there intense fire, 

hot, expect, 

fierce and venomous ; 

therefore I will have on me 

shield and byrnie : 

I will not [me] the guardian of 
the mount 

[suffer] to fly over 

[not] a foot's step ; 

but to us it shall be at the 
mound 

as fate shall to us decree, 

the lord of every man. 

I am in mind resolute, 

so that I against the war-fly 

lay aside vaunt. 

Await ye on the moimt 

with byrnies protected, 

ye men, in arms, 

which may the better, 

after the fatal onslaught, 

from wound escape 



5035. MS. gylpe. 5039. hattredes (attredes) ? 

5042, 5043, 5044. The words between brackets are supplied from 
coDJectiu-e. 



BEOWULF. 



171 



uncer twega. 

Nis \>set eower si3, 

ne gemet-mannea, 

nefhe min anes, 5060 

jjaet he wi^ aglcecean 

eafo(5o dsele, 

eorlscipe efne. 

Ic mid elne sceal 

gold gegangan, 

o66e gix6 nimeS, 

feorh-bealu frecne, 

frean eowerne. 

Aras ^a bi ronde 

rof oretta, 5070 

heard under helme ; 

hioro-sercean bser 

under stan-cleofu, 

strengo getruwode 

anes mannes : 

ne hrS swylc earges si^. 

Geseah J)a be wealle, 

se Se worna fela, 

gum-cystura god, 

gu8a gedigde, 5080 

hilde hlemma, 

jjonne hnitan fe^an, 

stondan stan-bogan, 

stream lit ]>onan 

brecan of beorge ; 

waes {>Eere human waelm 



of us two. 

It is no enterprise of yours, 

nor of a common man, 

(of none save me alone) 

that he against the miserable 

being 
labours share, 
stoutness prove. 
I with valour shall 
obtain the gold, 
or war shall take, 
fierce, deadly bale, 
your lord." 

Arose then by his shield 
the renown'd champion, 
bold beneath his helm ; 
he bore his war-sark 
under the stony clifi"s, 
he trusted in the strength 
of a single man : 
such is no coward's enterprise. 
He saw then by the mound 
(he who a number, — 
for his bounties good, — 
of battles had escap'd from, 
tumults of war, 
when hosts assail) 
a stone arch stand, 
and a stream out thence 
break from the mount ; 
the boilins: of that bourn was 



5061. MS. wat. 5062. MS. eofo^o. 

5083. MS. stod on, perhaps originally stodan. 
Q 2 



172 



BEOWULF. 



heatSo-fyrum hat; 

ne meahte horde neah 

unbyrnende, 

senige hwile 5090 

deop gedyfan 

fo r dracaa lege. 
I Let "Sa of breostum, 

5a he gebolgen wees, 

Weder-Geata leod 

word ut-faran. 

Stearc-heort styrmde ; 

stefn in-becom 

heaSo-torht hlynnan, 

under harne stan. 5100 

Hete wses onhrered, 

hord-weard oncneow 

raannes reorde. 

Naes jjaer mara fyrst 

freoSe to friclan ; 

from Eerest cwom 

oruS aglfecean 

lit of stane, 

hat hilde swat : 

hruse dynede, 51 10 

born under beorge ; 

bord-rand onswaf 

wi'S ^am gryre gieste 

Geata drj'hten. 

Da wees bring- bogan 

beorte gefysed 
\ sEGCce to seceanne : 

sweord ser gebraed 



with intense fires hot ; 

he might not near to the hoard 

unburn'd 

for any while 

deep dive, 

for the dragon's flame. 

Let then from his breast, 

as he was incensed, 

the Weder- Goths' lord 

words issue forth. 

The stout of heart storm' d ; 

the voice enter' d 

sounding loudly clear, 

under the hoar stone. 

His hate was rous'd, 

the hoard-ward recogniz'd 

the voice of man. 

No more time was there 

to demand peace ; 

first came forth 

the miserable being's breath 

out of the rock, 

hot sweat of battle : 

the earth resounded, 

burn'd under the mount ; 

his shield's disk turn'd 

against the grisly guest 

the Goths' lord. 

Then was the ring-bow'd's 

heart excited 

to seek the conflict : 

his sword had before drawn 



5091. MS. gedygan. 5io5- MS. freode. 5111. MS. biorn. 



BEOWULF. 



173 



god gu^-cyning, 

gomele lafe, 5120 

ecgum unsleaw : 

aeghwse^rum waes 

bealo-hycgendra 

broga fram oSrum : 

sti6-m6d gestod 

wis steapne rond 

Wedera bealdor ; 

5a se •wyrm gebeah 

snude tosomne ; 

he on searwum bad : 5130 

gewat tSa byraende 

gebogen scriSan 

to gesceape scyndan. 

Scyld-weall gebearg 

lif and lice 

Isessan hwTle 

maerum Jieodne 

Jjonne his myne sohte, 

Caer he py fyrste 

forman d5gore, 5140 

wealdan moste ; 

swa him wyrd ne gescraf. 

Hre^ set hilde, 

hond up-abrsed 

Geata dryhten, 

gryre-fahne sloh 



the good warUke king, 
an ancient relic, 
of edges not dull : 
to either was 
of the bale-intention'd 
fear from the other : 
stubborn of mood stood 
against his towering shield 
the Weders' prince ; 
then the worm bent 
quickly together ; 
(he in arms awaited:) 
went then burning 
bow'd departing, 
hastening to Ids fate. 
The shield-wall secur'd 
the life and body 
for a less while 
of the great prince 
than his mind sought, 
if he the time 
at early day 

might have commanded ; 
so fate ordain'd not for him. 
Fierce in conflict, 
rais'd his hand 
the Goths' lord, 

the grisly variegated monster 
struck 



5121. MS. ungleaw. 5127. MS. winia. 

5130. he, L e. Beowulf. 

5133. MS. gescipe. See 1. 52. 

5134. MS. wel. From this line to !• 5142 the sense is particularly 
obscure. 

Q3 



174 



BEOWULF. 



Incges lafe, 

}jset sio ecg gewac, 

brun on bane 

bat unswiSor 5150 

{)onne his 6i6d-cyning 

jjearfe hsefde, 

bysigum gebseded. 

pa wses beorges weard, 

asfter heaSu-swenge, 

on hreoum m5de, 

wearp wsel-fyre, 

wide sprungon 

hilde le5raan : 

hre6 sigora ne gealp, 5160 

gold-wine Geata, 

giiS-bill geswac, 

na god aet nyde, 

swa hit no sceolde, 

iren ?er-g6d ; 

ne waes Jjset etSe si6 ; 

Jjagt se msera 

maga Ecgt5e5wes 

grund-wong ])one 

ofgyfan wolde, 5170 

sceolde willan 

^v^c eardian 

elles-hwergen. 

Swa sceal aeghwylc mon 

alsetan Iten-dagas. 

Nses ^a long to ?on. 



with Inge's relic, 

so that the edge fail'd, 

the hro-wn falchion on the bone 

bit less strongly 

than its great king 

had need, 

oppress'd with labours. 

Then was the mount's guardian 

after the mighty stroke, 

in a fierce mood, 

he cast deadly fire, 

widely sprung 

the rays of conflict : 

the fierce conqueror boasted not, 

the Goths' gold-friend, 

his battle- falchion fail'd, 

(not good at need,) 

as it should not, 

an iron primely good ; 

that was no easy enterprize ; 

that the great 

son of Ecgtheow 

the earth- plain 

would give up, 

that he should spontaneously 

o dwelling inhabit 

elsewhere. 

So must every man 

leave these transitory days. 

Nor was it then long until, 



5147. MS. incge. My interpretation is quite conjectural, the word 
inege being unknown to me. I believe it, however, to be a corruption 
of some proper name. 

5163. MS. nacod set ni^e. 



BEOWULF. 



175 



pxt ^a aglsecean 
hy eft gemetton ; 
hyrte hyne hord-weard, 

hre^er ee^me weoU, 5180 

niwan stefne ; 

nearo jjrowade, 

fyre befongen, 

se Se ?er folce weold : 

nealles him on heape 

hand-gesteallan, 

aeSelinga beam, 

ymbe gestodon, 

hilde cystum ; 

ac hy on holt bugon, 5190 

ealdre burgan : 

hiora in anum weoll 

sefa wis sorgum : 

sibb sefre ne maeg 

wiht onwendan 

yam 'Se wel jjence^. 



that those fell beings 
again each other met ; 
had recruited himself the hoard- 
ward, 
his breast heav'd with breathing, 
with new energy ; 
suffer'd distress, 
by fire encompass'd, 
he who had ere a people rul'd : 
not in a body him 
his hand-companions, 
sons of nobles, 
stood around, 
in warlike bands ; 
but they to the wood retir'd, 
their life to save : 
in one of them boil'd 
his mind with sorrows : 
kinship can never 
aught pervert 
in him who rightly thinks. 



XXXVI. 



Wiglaf waes haten 
Weoxstanes sunu, 
leoflic lind-wlga, 
leod Scylfinga, 52^ 

maeg ^If heres : 
geseah his mon-dryhten 
under here-griman 
hat J)r6wian : 



Wiglaf was hight 
Weoxstan's son, 
a belov'd shield-warrior, 
a Scylfings' lord, 
^Ifhere's kinsman : 
he saw his liege lord 
under his martial helm 
heat sufi"ering : 



S185. Mne? 



5186. MS. heand. 



176 



BEOWULF. 



gemunde t5a Sa are 



he then call'd to mind the pos- 



))e he him jer forgeaf, 

wic-stede weUgne 

Wsegmundinga, 

folc-rihta gehwylc, 

swa his f seder atrte. 5210 

Ne mihte ^a forhabban, 

hond-rond gefeng, 

geolwe Unde, 

gomel swyrd geteah, 

J)8et wses mid eldum 

Eanmundes laf, 

suna Ohtheres 

))am set ssecce wear¥, 

wreccan wineleasum^ 

Weohstan bana^ 5220 

meces ecgum ; 

and his magum set-baer 

brun-fagne helm, 

hringde byrnan, 

eald sweord eotonisc, 

Jjaet him Onela forgeaf, 

his gsedelinges 

gu^-gewEedu, 

f)Td-searu fuslic : 5229 

n5 ymbe ^a fseh^e sprsec, 

jjeah ¥e he his bro'Sor beam 

abradwade. 

He fraetwe geheold 

fela missera, 

bill and byrnan, 



that he had formerly given him, 

the wealthy dwelling-place 

of the Waegmundings, 

every public right, 

as his father had possess'd. 

He could not then refrain, 

but grasp'd his shield, 

the yeUow-linden, 

drew his ancient sword, 

that among men was 

a relic of Eanmund, 

Ohthere's son, 

of whom in conflict was, 

when a friendless exile, 

Weohstan the slayer, 

with falchion's edges, 

and from his kinsmen bore away, 

the brown-hued helm, "T 

the ringed bymie, 

the old eotenish sword, 

which him Onela had given, 

his companion's 

battle -weeds, 

ready martial gear : 

he spake not of the feud, 

although he his brother's child 

had exil'd. 

He the armour held 

many years, 

the falchion and bjrmie, 



J 



5217. MS. Ohteres. 5219. MS. wrsece. 5220. MS. Weobstanes. 



' 



BEOWULF. 



177 



otJfiaet his byre mihte 
eorlscipe efnan, 
swa his ser-fccder : 
eeaf him 6a mid Geatum 



gu6-gew8eda 
neghwses unrim ; 
)ja he of ealdre gewat 
frod on for8-weg. 
pa wses forma siS 
geongan cempan, 
Jjset he guSe raes 
mid his frea-dryhtne 
fremman sceolde : 



5240 



until his son might 

some valorous deed achieve, 

as his father erst : 

he gave him then among the 

Goths 
of war-weeds 
every kind numberless ; 
then he from life departed 
aged on his way forth. 
Then was the first time 
for the young champion, 
that he a war-onslaught 
with his noble lord 
should achieve : 



negemealthira semod-sefa, nor did his courage melt, 
ne his maegenes laf 5250 nor his kinsman's legacy 



fail in the contest ; 
that the worm found, 
when they together 
had come. 
IWiglaf maSelode Wiglaf spake 

many sentences, 
said to his comrades, 
: (his mind was sad :) 

" I that time remember, 
5260 as we were drinking mead, 
when we promis'd 
our lord 
in the beer-hall, 
who gave us these rings, 
]>3Et we him t^a guS-getawa that we him the war-equipments 
gyldan woldon, would repay, 

gif him J)yslicu if him such-like 

5252. MS. J>a. 5260. MS. Jjser. 



gewac aet wige ; 
Jjset se wvrm onfand, 
syS(5an hie togsedre 
gegan haefdon. 
rWiglaf maSelode 
word-riht'a fela, 
saegde gesiSum, 
him wses sefa geomor 
Ic ^aet mael geman, 
})a we medu Jjegon, 
}>onne we geheton 
ussum hlaforde 
in bi5r-sele, 
Se us Sas beagas geaf. 



178 



BEOWULF. 



jjearf gelumpe, 

helmas and hearde sweord, 

^a he usic on herge geceas 

to jjyssum siSfaete, 5271 

sylfes willutn, 

onmiinde usic mserSa, 

and me ))8es maSmas geaf, 

]>e he usic gar-wigend 

gode tealde, 

hwate helm-berend : 

)>eah ^e hlaford user 

))is ellen-weorc 

ana }johte 5280 

to gefremmannej 

folces hyrde ; 

forjjam he manna maest 

mserSa gefremede, 

dseda dollicra. 

Nu is se daeg cumen 

]>aet ure man-dryhten 

maegenes behofa^, 

g5dra gu^-rinca : 

wutun gongan to 5290 

helpan hild-fruman, 

jjenden hat sy 

gled-egesa grim. 

God wat on mec, 

]>aet me is micle le5fre 

J»aBt minne lic-haman, 

mid minne gold-gyfan, 

gled fejjmie : 



need befel, 

the helms and hard swords, 

when us in his band he chose 

for this expedition, 

of his own accord, 

reminded us of glories, 

and me presents gave, 

because he us warriors 

good accounted, 

bold helm-bearers : 

although our lord 

this bold work 

thought alone 

to perform, 

the people's guardian, 

because he of all men most 

glories had achiev'd, 

rash deeds. 

Now is the day come 

that our liege lord 

has need of might, U i- 'Mu 

of good warriors : 

let us advance 

to help the warlike leader, 

while be hot ka 

the fierce fiery terror. 

God knows in me, 

that to me it is far preferable 

that my body, 

with my gold-giver, 

fire should clasp : 



5269. MS. heard. 5270. MS. \>e. 

'5274. MS. bas. 5278. MS. us. 

5292. MS. hit: hat conj. K. 



5271. MS. si'Sfate. 
5280. MS. a'Sohte. 



BEOWULF. 



179 



ne jjynce^ me gerysne 

})set we rondas beron 5300 

eft to earde, 

nemne we seror msegen 

fane gefyllan, 

feorh ealgian 

Wedra ^eodnes. 

Ic wat geare 

})aet ncPion eald-gewyrht, 

|)aet he ana scyle 

Geata dugu^e 

gnorn jjrowian, 5310 

gesigan set sgecce : 

unc sceal sweord and helm, 

byrne and beadu-scrud, 

bam gemaene ; 

wod \>a Jjurh Jjone wsel-rec. 

Wiglaf ellen bser 
frean on fultum ; 
fea worda cwseS : 
Leofa Beowulf, 
Isest eall tela, 5320 

swa ]>u on geogu8-feore 
geara gecweede, 
))aet 8u ne alaete, 
be tSe lifigendum, 
I dom gedreosan : 
scealt nu dsedum rof 



it seems to me not fitting 
that we our shields bear 
back to our home, 
unless we before may 
fell the foe, 
the life defend 
of the Weders' prince. 
I well know- 
that his old deserts were not such, 
that he alone should 
of the flower of the Goths 
tribulation sufiier, 
sink in conflict : 
for us two shall sword and helm, 
byrnie and martial garb, 
to both le common ; 
he then waded through the 

deadly reek. 
Wiglaf his courage bare 
to his lord's aid ; 
few words he said : 
" Dear Beowulf, 
perform all well, 
as thou in youthful life 
long since didst sav, 
that thou wouldst let not, 
while thou didst live, 
thy greatness sink : 
thou shalt now, for deeds re- 

nown'd. 



5312. MS. urum. 53^3- ^IS. byrdu. 

5314. Thork. ban. 53^5- MS. rsec. 

5316. MS. wig hea folan. If we adopt hafelan, the more usual 
orthography, the validity of the emendation becomes still more evident. 



180 



BEOWULF. 



setSeling anhydig, 

ealle msegene 

feorh ealgian ; 
fie je full^stu. S330 

^fter Sam wordum 

wyrm yrre cwom, 

atol inwit-gest, 

otSre siSe, 

fyr-wylmum fah, 

fionda niosan, - 

la^ra manna : 

lig-ySum forborn 

brad wig-rond ; 

byme ne meahte 5340 

geongum gar-wigan 

geoce gefremman ; 

ac se maga geonga 

under his mseges scyld 

elne geeode, 
' })a his agen [wses] 

gledum forgnmden. 
I pa-gen gu6-C}"ning 

[mserjja] gemunde, 

msegen-strengo sl5h 5350 

hilde bille, 

{jaet hit on heafolan stod, 

mSe genyded; 

Naegling forbserst, 

geswac set saecce, 

sweord Beowulfes, 



a resolute prince, 

with all might 

thy life defend ; 

I will support thee." 

After those words 

the worm came angry, 

the fell, guileful guest, 

a second time, 

with fire-boilings colour'd, 

his foes to visit, 

the hostile men : 

with flame-waves was burnt 

the broad war- disk ; 

the byrnie might not 

to the young warrior 

aid afford ; 

but the young man 

under his kinsman's shield 

valorously went, 

when his own was 

by the gleeds consum'd. 

Then again the warlike king 

his glories call'd to mind, 

with mcdn strength struck 

with his battle falchion, 

so that on the head it stood 

by hate impel'd ; 

Nsegling snapt asunder, 

fail'd in the conflict, 

Beowulf's sword, 



5339. MS. bord wi^ rond. 

5346. wses supplied from conjectvire. 

5349. mserSa supplied from conjecture. 

5354. Naegling is the name of Beowulf's sword. 



BEOWULF. 



181 



gomol and grseg-tnsel : 
him ))aet gife^e ne wses 
})cet him irenne 
ecga mihton 5360 

helpan set hilde : 
waes sio hond to strong, 
seo 8e meca gehwane, 
mine gefrsege, 
swenge ofer-swi^de, 
jjeah he to saecce bser 
wsepen wundrum heard : 
naes him wihte 5e sel. 

pa waes jjeod-sceaSa, 
|>riddan siSe, 5370 

frecne fyr-draca, 
fsehSa gemyndig ; 
raesde on Sone rofan, 
\>a him rum ageald, 
hat and hea^o-grim 
heals ealne ymb-feng 
biteran banum : 
he geblodegod wearS 
sawul-driore ; 
swat y^um weoll. 5380 



an ancient and grey brand : 

it was not granted him 

that him iron 

edges might 

in battle help : 

the hand was too strong, 

which every falchion, 

as I have heard, 

by its stroke overpower'd, 

although he to the contest bore 

a weapon wondrously hard, 

yet 'twas naught for him the 

better. 
Then was the great destroyer, 
a third time, 
the fell fire- drake, 
mindful of enmities ; 
he rush'd on the renown'd chief, 
then him amply requited, 
hot and fiercely grim 
his whole neck he clasp'd 
with his horrid bones : 
he ensanguin'd was >f 

with life-gore ; 
the blood in waves bubbled. 



XXXVII. 

pa ic set )>earfe [gefrsegn] Then I have leam'd that at need 
})e6d-cyninges of the great king 

5359. MS. irenna. S360. MS. ecge. 5363. MS. se^'e. 

5365. MS. ofersohte. 5366. MS. l)omie. 

5367. MS. wundum. 

5381. gefrsegn, supplied by conjecture. K. 
B 



182 



BEOWULF. 



andlongne eorl 
ellen cySan, 
craeft and cen8u, 
swa him gecvnde waes : 
ne hedde he \>ses heafolan, 
ac sio hand gebarn 
modiges mannes, 
jjset he his maeges healpe ,- 
))a he J)one ni5-gsest 5391 
nioSor hwene sloh, 
secg on searwum, 
})8et ]j8et sweord gedeaf 
fah and faeted ; 
})set ))set fyr ongon 
sweSrian sy56an ; 
jja-gen sylf cyning 
geweold his gewitte, 
wael-seaxe gehraed, 5400 
biter and beadu-scearp, 
J>aet he on byman waeg : 
forwrat "Wedra helm 
I wjTm on middan, 
feond gefylde, 
ferh-ellen wraec, 
and hi bNTie )ja begen 
abroten haefdon, 
sib-aeSelingas : 
swylc sceolde secg wesan, 
))egn aet ))earfe. 541 1 



the warrior earl 

valour manifested, 

craft and courage, 

as to him was natural : 

he heeded not the head, 

but the hand bum'd 

of the bold man, 

that he might his kinsman help ; 

then he the hostile guest 

somewhat lower struck, 

the warrior in arms, 

so that the sword div'd 

blood-stain'd and ornate, 

so that the fire began 

afterwards to abate ; 

then again the king himself 

got command of his senses, 

drew his deadly knife, 

bitter and battle-sharp, 

that he on his bjrmie bore : 

the Weders' protector scor'd 

the worm in the middle, 

fell'd the foe, 

avenged his deadly ardour, 

and they him then both 

had destroy'd, 

the kindred princes : 

such should a warrior be, 

a thane at need. 



5383. The word andlongne is very doubtful; but see Glossary v. 
aolang. 

53S7. i. e. the head of the dragon. 

5390. MS. haer he his msegenes healp. 5391- ^^S. ^aet. 

5392. i. e. than the head. 5405- ^^3. gefyldan. 



BEOWULF. 



183 



pact 8am jjeodne wses 
si6es sige-hwil, 

sylfes dsedum, 
worlde geweorces. 
— - Da sio wund ongon, 
\>e him se eor^-draca 
aer geworhte 
swelan and swellan. 
He ))aet sona onfand 
)>8et him on breostum 
bealo-ni6 weoU, 
attor on-innan : 
Sa se aeSeling gong, 
))8et he bi wealle, 
wis-hycgende, 
gesset on sesse ; 
seah on enta geweorc, 
hu Sa stan-bogan, 
stapulum fseste, 
ece eor3-reced 
innan healde. 
Hyne \>a, mid handa 
heoro-dreorigne 
)»e6den mEeme, 
jjegn ungemete till, 
wine-dnhten his, 
waetere gelafede, 
hilde saedne, 
and his h^lp onspeon. 



5420 



; ; I Beowulf majjelode, 
he ofer benne sprsec, 

5413. MS. si'Sas sige hwile. 

5440. MS. helo, 
R 2 



That to the prince was 
a victorious moment of his en- 
terprise, 
by his own deeds, ^j • 

of his woridly work. \^ * ,^ 
Then the wound began, ^ 
that him the earth-drake 
erst had wrought, 
to burn and swell. 
He soon found 
that in his breast 
baleful harm boil'd, 
venom, within : 
then the prince went, 
so that he by the mound, 
wisely thinking, 
sat on a seat ; 
look'd on the giants' work, 
how the stone arches, 
5430 on pillars fast, 

the eternal earth-house 

held within. 

Him then with his hand 

the battle- gory 

great prince, 

the thane infinitely good, 

his liege lord, 

with water lav'd, 

him with conflict sated, 

and his health allur'd. 

Beowulf spake, 

of his wound he said, 



5440 



/ 



5424. MS. giong. 



184 



BEOWULF. 



wunde wsel-bleate ; 

wisse he gearwe, 

])aet he da?g-hwila 

gedrogen haefde, 

eorSan wynne ; 

Sa wses eall sceacen 

dogor-gerimes, 

dea6 ungemete neah : 

Ic nu suna minum 

syllan wolde 

gu6-gew£edu, 

))aer me gifetSe swa 

ffinig yrfe-weard 

sefter wurde, 

lice gelenge. 

Ic 6as leode heold 

fiftig wintra ; 

nses se folc-cyning 

ymb-sittendra, 

senig 5ara, 

]>e mec gu5-winnum 

gretan dorste, 

egesan Fenian. 

Ic on earde bad 

DQcel-gesceafta ; 

heold mm tela, 

ne sohte searo-niSas, 

ne ne swor fela 

aj)a on unriht. 

Ic jjaes ealles maeg, 



his wound deadly livid ; 

he knew well, 

that he his day-moments 

had pass'd through, 

his ]oy of earth; 

then was departed all 

of his days' number, 
5450 death immediately nigh : 

" I to my son now 

would give 

my war-weeds, 

if so granted me 

any heir 

were after me, 

belonging to my body. 

I have this people rul'd 

fifty winters ; 
5460 there has been no nation's 

of those surrounding, 

?iot any of them, 

who me in martial strifes 

durst greet, 

with terror serve. 

In 7ny land I have sustain'( 

vicissitudes ; 

held my own well, 

sought no treacheries, 
5470 nor swore many 

oaths unrighteously. 

I for all this may. 



king 



5463. MS. winum. 

5465. I\IS. '5eon, of no meaning here, and the correction is far 
from certain. 

5467. Translation purely conjecturaL 547°- ^^- °^ ™^' 



BEOWULF. 



18j 



U-° 



feorh-bennnm seoc, 

gefean habban ; 

forSam me witan ne 6earf 

Waldend fira 

mor^or-bealo maga, 

))onne mm sceaceS 

lif of lice. 

Nu 3u langre gong 5480 

hord sceawian 

mider harne stan, 

Wiglaf leofa ; 

nu se wyrm ligeS, 

swefe^ sare wund, 

since bereafod : 

bio nu on ofoste, 

))3et ic ccr-welan, 

gold-aeht ongite, 

gearo sceawige 5490 

sigel searo-gimmas, 

j)aet ic 8y seft maege, 

aefter maSSum-welan, 

min alaetan, 

lif and leodscipe, 

t^one ic longe heold. 



sick with mortal wounds, 

have joy ; 

because upbraid me need not 

the Ruler of men 

with the deadly bale of kinsmen, 

when shall depart my 

life from its body. 

Now go thou quickly 

the hoard to view 

under the hoar stone, 

Wiglaf dear ; 

now the worm hes, 

sleeps sorely wounded, 

of his treasure bereft : 

be now in haste, 

that I the ancient wealth, 

the gold-treasure, may perceive, 

well behold 

the jewels, curious gems, 

that I the softer may, 

after the treasure-wealth; 

resign my 

life and people, 

that I loner have held." 



XXXVIII. 



pa ic snude gefraegn 
sunu Wihstanes, 
aefter word-cwydum, 
wundum dryhtne 5; 

hyran heaSo-siocum, 
hring-net beran, 

5480. MS. geong. 



Then heard I that quickly 
Wihstan's son, 
after these verbal sayings, 
his woimded lord 
obeyed, mortally sick ; 
bore his ringed net, 



5 49 1. MS. swegle. 



R3 



186 



BEOWULF. 



brogdne beadu-sercean, 
under beorges hrof. 
Geseali 8a sige-hre^ig, 
))a he bi sesse gong, 
mago-))egn modig, 
ma^^um-sigla fela, 
gold glitinian, 
grunde getenge, 5510 

wundur on â– svealle, 
and J>aes wyrmes denn, 
ealdes uht-flogan, 
orcas stondan, 
fyrn-manna fatu, 
feormenlease, 
hyrstum behrorene : 
jjser wses helm monig 
eald and omig, 
earm-beaga fela 5520 

searwum gesaeled : 
sine eaSe mseg, 
gold on grunde, 
gum-cynnes gehwone 
oferhigian, 
hyde se 8e wylle : 
swylce he siomian geseah 
segn eall gylden 
heah ofer horde, 
hond-wundra msest, 5530 
gelocen leoSo-craeftum, 
of 6am leoma st5d, 



his twisted war-sark, 
imder the mount's roof. 
Saw then in victory exulting, 
as he went by the seat, 
the bold kindred thane, 
treasure-jewels many, 
gold glittering, 
heavy on the ground, 
wonders in the mound, 
and the worm's den, 
the old twiUght flyer's, 
^shes standing, 
vessels of men of yore, 
foodless, 

their ornaments faU'n oflF: 
there was many a helm 
old and rusty, 
armlets many 
cunningly fasten'd : 
(treasure easily may, 
gold in the earth, 
every one of human race 
despise, 

hide it who will :) 
he also saw hang heavily 
an ensign aU golden 
high o'er the hoard, 
of hand-wonders greatest, 
lock'd by arts of song, 
from which there stood a rav. 



5506. MS. geong. SS08. MS. fealo. 

5516. MS. feormendlease. 

5522. treasure is here the nominative. The sense is obscure. 

5532. MS. leoman. 



BEOWULF. 



187 



jjaet he J)one grund-wong 
ongitan meahte, 
•wrsete geond-wlitan. 
Naes Sses wyrmes jjser 
onsyn aenig, 
ac hyne ecg fornam. 
Da ic on hlcewe gefrsegn 
hord reafian, 5540 

eald enta geweorc, 
anne mannan, 
him on bearm hladan 
bunan and discas, 
sylfes dome ; 
segn eac genom, 
beacna beorhtost, 
bill cer-gescod, 
ecg wses iren ; 
eald-hlafordes, 5550 

J>e 6ara maSma 
mundbora wses 
longe hwile ; 
lig-egesan wseg 
hatne for horde, 
hioro-weallendne, 
middel-nihtum, 
o8J)aet he morSre swealt. 
Ar wses on ofoste, 
eft-siSes geom, 5560 

frsetwum gefyrSred : 
hyne fyrwet brsec, 
hwaeSer collen-fer8 
cwicne gemette 



so that he the ground-surface 

might perceive, 

the wonder over-scan. 

Not of the worm was there 

appearance any, 

for him had the edge destroy'd. 

Then heard I that in the mound 

the hoard had robb'd, 

the old giants' work, 

one man, 

in his bosom loaded 

cups and dishes, 

at his own will ; 

an ensign also took, 

of signs brightest, 

a falchion brass- shod, 

the edge was iron ; 

the old lord's, 

who of those treasures ; ^,.^ 

had been the guardian ^ 

a long while ; 

fire-dread he bore 

hot before the hoard, 

fiercely boiling, 

at midnights, 

until he by murder died. 

The messenger was in haste, 

desirous of return, 

by the ornaments accelerated : 

him curiosity brake, 

whether the bold warrior 

he should Uving find 



5535. MS. wraece. Qu. wrsetta? 
5549. Seel. 3070. sssi. MS. H. 



5543. MS. hlodon. 
5556. MS. weallende. 



188 



BEOWULF. 



in Sam wong-stede, 
Wedra J)e6den, 
ellen-siocne, 
J)3er he hine ser forlet. 
He 6a mid 8am maSmum 
mserne ]>e6den, 557c 

dryhten sinne^ 
dri5rigne fand, 
ealdres set ende : 
he hine eft ongon 
wsetere weorpan, 
oSJjset wordes ord 
breost-hord ]jurh-brsec. 



fS 



omel on giohSe 
gold sceawode : 
Ic ^ara fraetwa 5580 

Frean ealles Jjanc, 
Wuldur-cyninge, 
wordum secge, 
ecum DryhtnCj 
]>e ic her on-starie ; 
jjses Se ic moste, 
mmum leodum, 
aer swylt-dsege, 
swylc gestrynan : 
nu ic on maSma hord 5590 
minne bebohte 
frode feorh-leg : 
fremma6 ge nii 
leoda jjearfe : 
ne mseg ic her leng wesan ; 



on the field, 

the Weders' prince, 

valour-sick, 

where he before had left him. 

He with the treasures then 

the great prince, 

his lord, 

found gory, 

at life's end : 

he again began him 

with water to sprinkle, 

until the word's point 

brake through the treasure of 

his breast. 
The aged man in sorrow 
the gold beheld : 
" I, for those ornaments, 
thanks to the Lord for all, 
the Glory-king, 
in words say, 
the Lord eternal, 
which I here gaze on ; 
because I have been able, 
for my people, 
ere my death- day, 
such to acquire : 
now I for the treasures' hoard 
have prudently sold 
my life-flame : 
perform ye now 
the people's need : 
I may here no longer be ; 



55 75- MS. wseteres. 



SS78. MS.giogo«e. 
SS93. MS. na. 



5592. MS. lege. 



BEOWULF. 



189 



liata^ heaSo-mcere 

hlsew gewyrcean 

beorhtne aefter bsele, 

â– <vt brimes nosan, 

se sceal to gemyndum 5600 

ininum le5dum 

heah hlifian 

on Hrones-niEesse ; 

jjaet hit Scc'-liSend 

sy6San hatan 

Biowulfes biorh, 

Sa Se brentingas 

ofer fioda genipu 

feorran drifaS. 

Dyde him of healse 5610 

bring gyldenne 

])i6den jjristhydig, 

Jjegne gesealde, 

geongum gar-wigan, 

gold-fiihne helm, 

beah and byrnan ; 

het bine brucan well : 

pii eart ende-laf 

usses cynnes, 

Waegmundinga ; 5620 

ealle wyrd forsweop 

mine magas 

to Metodsceafte, 

eorlas on elne : 

ic him sefter sceal. 

pset wses ))am gomelan 

gingeste word, 



command the warlike brave 

a mound to make 

bright after the pile, 

at the sea's naze, 

which shall for a remembrance 

to my people 

tower on high 

on Hrones-naes ; 

that it sea-farers 

afterwards may call 

Beowulf's mount, 

those who their foamy barks 

over the mists of floods 

drive from afar." 

Doff'd then from his neck 

a golden ring 

the bold-hearted prince, 

to his thane gave it, 

to the young javelin-warrior, 

his gold-hued helm, 

his ring and byrnie ; 

bade him use them well : 

" Thou art the last remnant 

of our race, 

of the Waegmundings ; 

fate has swept away all 

my kinsmen 

to the Godhead, 

earls in their valour : 

I shall follow them." 

That was the aged chieftain's 

latest word. 



5600, MS. seel. 5621. MS. forsweof. 5627. MS. gingaeste. 



190 



BEOWULF. 



breost-gehygdum, 
ser he bgel cure, 
hate heaSo-wylmas : 
him of hreSre gewat 
sawol secean 
\ s66faestra dom. 



from his breast's thoughts, 
ere he chose the pile, 
5630 hot intense flames : 

from his bosom departed 
his soul, to seek 
the doom of the just. 



XXXIX. 



pa W3es gegongen 
gumum unfrodum 
eaifoSlice, 

Jjaet he on eorSan geseah 
Jjone leofestan 
lifes set ende 
bleatne gebeeran ; 
bona swv'lce laeg, 
egeslic eorS-draca, 
ealdre bereafod, 
bealwe gebaeded ; 
beah-hordum leng 
wyrm woh-bogen 
wealdan ne moste ; 
ac him irenne 
ecga fornamon. 






Then it befel 
the youthful man 
sorely, 

that on the earth he saw 
his dearest /r/enrf 
at life's end 
640 livid appearing ; 

his slayer in Uke manner lay, 

the formidable earth-drake, 

of life bereft, 

by bale compel'd; 

his ring-hoards longer 

the crook -bent worm 

might not command ; 

for from him iron 

edges had taken them away. 



hearde heaSo-scearpe, 5650 hard, war-sharp, 

homera lafa ; the hammer's legacies ; 

)>aet se wid-floga so that the wide-flyer 

wundum stille with wounds still 

hreas on hriisan, had fall'n on the earth, 

hord-seme neah ; nigh to the hoard-house. 



5631. MS. hwae^re. 
5650. MS. scearede. 



5640. MS. bleate. 5648. MS. irenna. 
5651. MS. lafe. 



BEOWULF. 



191 



nalles aefter lyfte 
lacende hwearf 
middel-nihtum ; 
maSm-aehta wlonc, 
ansyn ywde ; 5660 

ac he eorSan gefeoll 
for tJses hild-fruman 
hond-geweorce. 
Huru J)am on lande 
lyt^i^ma Sah 
va^fki agendra, 
mine gefraege, 
J)eah 8e he daeda gehwaes 
dyrstig wsere, 
)>aet he wi^ attor-scea- 
?an 5670 

oreSe gereesde, 
o^e hring-sele 
hondum styrede, 
gif he wseccendne 
weard onfunde 
buan on beorge. 
Biowulfe wearS 
dryht-maSma dsel 
deaSe forgolden ; 
h«efde seghwseSrum 5680 
ende gefered 
Isenan lifes. 
Nses 6a lang to jjon, 
Jjset 6a hild-latan 
holt ofgeafon. 



not along the air 
sporting went he 
at midnights ; 
of his treasures proud, 
showed his countenance ; 
but to earth he fell 
before the war-chief's 
handiwork. 
Yet in the land 
few men have thriven 
possessing might, 
as I have heard, 
although he in every deed 
were daring, 

if he against a venomous de- 
stroyer's 
breath rush'd, 
or his ring-hall 
with hands disturb 'd, 
if he waking 
found the guardian 
dwelhug in the mount. 
By Beowulf was 
his share of noble treasures 
with death paid for ; 
he had to each 
an end brought 
of this transitory life. 
'Twas then not long until, 
that the battle-tardy ones 
left the holt. 



5664. MS. l>8et. 5674. MS. wseccende. 5676. MS. buon. 
5680. MS. aeghwsetSre. he, L e. death, referring to Beowtdf and the 
dragon. 5685. MS. ofgefan. 



192 



BEOWULF. 



tydre treow-logan, 
tyne setsomne, 
5a ne dorston Eer 
dareSum lacan, 
onhyraman-dryhtnes 5690 
(miclanf ]?earfe ; 
ac hy scamiende 
scyldas bceron, 
guS-gewsedu, 
))3er se gomela Iseg, 
wlitan on "Wiglaf. 
He gewergad saet, 
feSe cempa, 
frean eaxlum neah, 
wehte hine wsetre ; 5700 
him wiht ne speow, 
ne meahte he on eor6an, 
5eah he u6e welan, 
on 6am frum-gare 
feorh gehealdan, 
ne )>aes Wealdendes 
willan oncirran ; 
wolde dom Godes 
dgedum raedan 
gumena gehwylcum, 5710 
swa he nu gen deS. 
pa waes set 6am geongum 
grim andswaru 
e6 begete 
J)am 6e ser his elne for- 

leas. 
Wiglaf maSelode, 

5693. MS. bseran. 5696. 

5 703. MS. wel. 



dastardly faith-breakers, 
ten together, 
who durst not before 
with javelins play, ^^i-''-' 
at their liege lord's 
great need ; 
but they ashamed 
bare their shields, 
their war- weeds, 
to where the aged warrior lay 
looking on Wiglaf. 
He wearied sat, ,ai**a^^M. 

the active champion, 
near his lord's shoulders, 
quicken'd him with water ; 
he no whit succeeded, ': ^'-' 
he might not on earth, 
though he had given wealth, 
in the chieftain 
life retain, 
nor the Almighty's 
will avert; 

the doom of God would 
in deeds rule 
over every man, 
as it now yet does. 
Then was from the youth 
a fierce answer 
easily gotten 

for him who had before his cou- 
rage lost. 
Wiglaf spake, 

MS. Wilaf. 5701. MS. speop. 
5707. MS. wiht. 



â– ^ 
^ 



BEOWULF. 



193 



Weohstanes sunu, 

secg sarig-ferS 

seah on unleofe : 

paet la mseg secgan 5720 

se ^e wyle s6t5 sprecan, 

))aet se mon-dryhten, 

se eow ^a magmas geaf, 

eored-geatwe, 

pe ge \>xr on-standa^ ; 

))onne he on ealu-bence 

oft gesealde 

heal-sittendum 

helm and byman, 

jjeoden his J?egnum 5730 

swylce he jjry^licost 

ohwser feor o^^e neah 

findan meahte, 

J)3et he gegnunga 

gu^-gewsdu 

wra^e forwurpe, 

))a hyne wig begeat. 

Nealles folc-cyning 

fyrd-gesteallum 

gylpan )jorfte ; 5740 

hwse^re him God u^e, 

sigora Waldend, 



Weohstan's son, 

the warrior sorrowful in soul 

look'd on the odious cowards : 

" Lo, that may say 

who truth will speak, 

that the liege lord, 

who to you those treasures gave, 

the martial gear, 

in which ye there stand ; 

(when he on the ale-bench 

often gave 

to the hall-sitters 

helm and bymie, 

the prince to his thanes, 

such as he most valiant 

anywhere far or near 

might find;) 

that he totally 

those war-weeds, 

his defence, cast away, 

when him war should overtake. 

The people's king 

of his comrades in arms 

needed not to boast ; 

yet did God grant him, 

the Ruler of victories. 



\>ddt he hyne sylfne gewrsec that he himself avenged 



ana mid ecge, 
jja him waes elnes Jjearf. 
Ic him lif-wra^e 
lytle meahte 
setgifan aet gu^e, 

5718. MS. sec. 5731. 
5734. MS. genunga. 



alone with edge, 

when he had need of valour. 

I to him hfe-support 

could Uttle 

give in the conflict, 

MS. hrydlicost, 5732. MS. ower. 
5737. MS. beget. 



194 



BEOWULF. 



and ongan swa-|)eali 

ofer min gemet 5750 

mseges helpan : 

symle wses ])f ssemra, 

jjonne ic sweorde drep 

ferh^-genvSlan, 

fyr ran swi^or 

weoU of gewitte : 

wergendra to lyt 

Jjrong ymbe ]je5den, 

J)a hyne sio Jjreag becwom. 

Nu sceal smc-])ego 5760 

and sweord-gifu, 

call e^el-wyn, 

eowrum cynne 

leofum alicgean : 

lond-rihtes mot 

Jjffire mEeg-burge 

raonna seghwylc 

idel bweorfan, 

sy^^an seSelingas 

feorran gefricgean 5770 

fleam eowerne, 

domleasan dged. 

Dea'S biS sella 

eorla gebwylcum 

Jjonne edwit-lif. 



and yet / undertook 
above my means 
to help viy kinsman : 
ever was / the worse, 
when with my sword I struck 
the deadly foe, 
the fire ran stronger, 
boil'd from his entrails : 
defenders too few 
throng'd round their prince, 
when the calamity came on him. 
Now shall the partaking of trea- 
sure 
and gift of swords, 
aU joy of country, 
to your beloved 
kindred fail : 
of land-right must 
of the tribe 
every man 
wander void, 
after nobles 
from afar shall hear of 
your flight, 
your inglorious deed. 
Death is better 
for every man 
than a life of reproach." 



XL. 



Heht ^a Jjaet hea^o-weorc 
to hagan biodan. 



He bade then the mighty work 
at the enclosure be announced. 



5755. MS. iyran. 
5760. MS. Hu. 



S7S7- MS. fergendra. 5759. 
5764. MS. lufena licgean. 



MS. J>rag. 



BEOWULF. 



195 



up ofer eg-clif, up on the ocean's shore, 

))aer jjJEt eorl-werod, where the warrior band, 

morgen-longne daeg, 5780 the livelong day, 



mod-giomor sset, 
bord-hsebbende, 
bega on wenum, 
ende dogores, 
and eft-cymes 
leofes monnes. 
Lyt swigode 
niwra spella 
se ^e njes gerad ; 
ac he so^lice 
ssegde ofer ealle : 
Nu is wil-geofa 
Wedra leoda, 
dryhten Geata, 
dea^-bedde fsest : 
wuna^ wsel-raeste, 
wyrmes dsedum ; 
him on efn hge^ 
ealdor-gewinna, 
seax-bennum seoc : 
sweorde ne meahte 
on ^am aglcccean 
senige J>inga 
wunde gewyrcean. 
Wiglaf site^ 
ofer Biowulfe, 
byre Wihstanes, 
€orl ofer o^rum 
unlifigendum ; 
healde^ hige me^um 



5778. MS. ecg. 5800 



sad of mood, sat, 
shield-bearers, 
of both in expectation, 
of the day's end, 
and of ihe return 
of the dear man. 
Little was he silent 
of the new intelligence 
who to the ness rode ; 
5790 but he truly 
said of all : 

" Now is the kind giver 
of the Weders' people, 
the Goths' lord, 
on his death-bed fast : 
he rests on his fatal couch, 
through the worm's deeds ; 
by him lies 
his deadly adversary, 
with knife- wounds sick : 
with his sword he could not 
on the fell being 
by any means 
cause a wound. 
Wiglaf sits 
over Beowulf, 
Wihstan's son, 
one warrior over another 
lifeless one ; 
holds with weary spirit 
MS. siex. 5810. MS. mse^um. 

S 2 



5800 



â– ;8io 



196 



BEOWULF. 



heafod-wearde 

leofes and la6es. 

Nu is leodum wen 

orleg-hwile, 

sySSan under [begen] 

Froncum and Frysum 

fyll cyninges 

wide weor^e^. 

Wags sio wroht sceapen 

heard wi§ Hugas, 5820 

sy^Â¥an Hygelac cwom 

faran flot-herge 

on Fresna land, 

pxr hyne Hetware 

hilde gehnsegdon, 

elne geeodon 

mid ofer-msegene, 

))8et se byrn-wiga 

bugan sceolde ; 

feoU on fe^an : 5830 

nalles frsetwe geaf 

ealdor dugu^e. 

Us wses a sy^^an 

Mere-Wioinga 

milts migyfeSe. 

Ne ic t5 Sweo-^eode 

sibbe o^^e treowe 

wihte ne wene ; 

ac wses wide cu^ 

)>8ette OngenSeow 5840 

ealdre besny^ede 



chief ward 

over friend and foe. 

Now to the people is expectation 

of a time of war, 

after among [both] 

Franks and Frisians 

the king's fall 

becomes ^'idely known. 

The quarrel was form'd 

fierce against the Hugas, 

after Hygelac came 

faring with a naval force 

to Friesland, 

where him the Hetwaras 

in war vanquish'd, 

boldly went 

with over-might, 

so that the mail'd warrior 

must bow ; 

he fell in his host, 

no martial gear gave 

th£ prince to his warriors. 

To us has been ever since 

the Mere-Wioings* 

mercy denied. 

Nor do I with <Ae Swedish people 

0/ peace or faith 

aught expect ; 

for it was widely known 

that Ongentheow 

had of life depriv'd 



5815. begen added from conjecture, the line being defective. 
5819. MS. scepen. 5834. MS. Wioingas. 5836. MS. te. 
5840. MS. Ongen>io. 



BEOWULF. 



197 



Hse^cyn Hre})ling, 
wis Hrefna-wudu, 
)>a for onmedlan, 
serest gesohton 
Geata leode 
gu^-Scylfingas. 
Sona him se froda 
faeder Ohtheres 
eald and egesfull, 
bond- sly ht ageaf ; 
abre5t brim-wisan 
bryda heorde, 
gomela io meowlan 

golde berofene, 

Onelan modor, 

and Ohtheres ; 

and Sa folgode 

feorh-geniSlan, 

otJtSaet hj oS-eodon 

earfo^ce 

in Hrefnes-holt, 

hlafordlease. 

Besset ¥a scip-here 

sweorda lafe. 



Hsethcyn, Hrethel's son, 

by Hrefna-wood, 

when in their pride 

first sought 

the Goths' people 

the warlike Scylfings. 

Forthwith him the venerable 

father of Ohthere, 
5850 old and terrific, 

a hand-blow gave ; ' 

the sea-leader bore away 

from the bridal hearth, 

the old warrior, long since, the 
f-"^- maid 

with gold adorn'd, 

Onela's mother, 

and Ohthere's ; 

and then pursued 

his deadly enemies, 
5860 until they escap'd 

with difficulty 

into Hrefnes-holt, 

lordless. 

Beset then the naval force 

the sword's leaving. 



5842. MS. HseScen. 5849. L e. Ongen>e6w. 

5850, 585 1. Here the alliteration is defective ; but see 11. 5898, 5899. 

5852. abrsed brim-wisa ? 

5853. bryd-beorSe? The text of this and the preceding line is, I 
fear, hopelessly corrapt. My version is founded on the conjectural 
readings. The meaning seems to be, that many years had passed 
since the old sea-leader (Ongentheow) bore away his bride from 
Heethcyn, the maiden, who became his queen, and was mother of his 
sons, Onela and Ohthere. 

5855. gehrodene? 5864. MS. sin herge. 

83 



/,->&+-*-«[ 



198 



BEOWULF. 



wundum werge : 

wean oft gehet 

earmre teohhe, â– - â– â– x*^oMj^ 

andlonge niht ; 

cwae^ he on mergenne, 5870 

meces ecgum 

gretan wolde, 

sume on galg-treowu, 

[fuglum] to gamene. 

Frofor eft gelamp 

sarig-modum, 

somod ser dsege, 

sy86an hie Hygelaces 

horn and byman 

galan ongeaton, 5880 

)>a se goda com, 

leoda dugu^e, 

on last faran. 



with wounds weary : 

woe he oft promis'd 

to the miserable progeny, 

the livelong night ; 

said that he them at morn, 

with falchion's edges 

would greet, 

some hang on gallows-trees, 

[to the birds] for sport. 

Comfort cifter wards came to 

the sad of mood, 

together ere day, 

when they Hygelac's 

horns and trumpets 

sounding perceiv'd, 

when the good king came, 

with the flower of his people, 

marching on their track. 



XLI. 



Waes si5 swat-swa%u 
Sweona and Geata, 
wael-raes wera, 
wide gesyne ; 
hu ^a folc mid him 
fseh^e to-wehton. 
Gewat him ^a se goda 
mid his gaedelingum, 

5869. MS. ondlonge. 
5874. fuglum inserted 
(Anal. A. S. p. 150.) 
5880. MS. gealdor. 
s886. MS. weora. 



5890 



Was the bloody trace 

of Swedes and Goths, 

the deadly rush of men, 

widely seen; 

how the people with them 

enmity excited. 

Departed then the good kincf 

with his associates, ^v**. - latiiitWc 
1 d 



5872. MS. getan. 5873. MS. sum. 
from conjecture. " fuglum to frofre." Judith 

5885. MS. Swona. 
5890. i. e. Hygelac. 



BEOWULF. 



199 



frod fela-ge5mor, 

fsesten secean. 

Eorl Ongen|)e6w 

ufor oncirde ; 

haefde Higelaces 

hilde gefrunen, 

wlonces wig-craeft ; 

wi^res ne tniwode 

J)aet he sse-mannum 5900 

onsacan mihte, 

hea^o-lvSendum 

hord forstandan, 

beam and bryde. 

Beali eft )7onan 

eald under eorS-weall. 

Da wses seht boden 
Sweona leodum, 
segn Higelaces, 
freo^o-wong ))one. 5910 
Ford ofer-eodon, 
sjrSSan Hre^lingas 






sage and much sad, 
the fastness to seek. 
The warrior Ongentheow 
had proceeded higher ; 
he of Hygelac's 
warfare had heard, 
the proud chief's war- craft ; 
yet behev'd not 
that he the seameh 
could repel, ' ^'cUM-^,!l 

from the traversers of the deep 
his hoard defend, 
his children and bride. 
Withdrew again thence 
the aged chief under the earth 

wall. 
Then was wealth announced 
to the Swedes' people, 
the banner of Hygelac, 
the peaceful plain. 
The ford they went over, 
after the Hrethhngs 



5893. In Hrefnes-holt, where it would seem the remnant of the 
Groths had entrenched themselves. 

5894. MS. OngenHo. 

5899. wi^res. This I take to be an error, possibly for hwsej're, yet. 
I have so rendered it ; as instances are not wanting of an aspirated 
syllable alUterating with one unaspirated. See 11. 5850 and 5851, 
also 5936, 5937. 

5900. he, i. e. Higelac. 

5906. eor'S-weall, i. e. the entrenchment above mentioned, where 
Ongentheow was attacked and slain by the HrethUngs (Goths) under 
Eofor and Wulf. 

5909. MS. Higelace. This was part of the spoil promised by Ongen- 
theow to his Swedes. 



200 



BEOWULF. 



5920 



to hagan Jirungon. 

Daer wear^ Ongen^eow, 
ecgum sweorda, 
blonden-fexa, 
on beado wrecen, 
J>aet se ))e6d-cyning 
^afian sceolde 
Eofores anne dom. 
Hyne yrringa 
Wulf Wonreding 
wsepne geraehte, 
JjBet him for swenge 
swat sedrum sprong, 
forS under fexe : 
nses he forht swa-'Seh, 
gomela Scylfing, 
ac forgeald hra^e, 
wyrsan wrixle, 5930 

wael-hlem ])one, 
sy^^an ^e5d-cyning 
})yder oncirde ; 
ne meahte se snella 
sunu Wonredes 
ealdum eorle 
hond-slyht gifan, 
ac he him on heafde 
helm jer gescaer, 
})8et he blode fah 5940 

bugan sceolde ; 



had to the entrenchment 

throng'd. 
There was Ongentheow, ' 
with swords' edges, 
the grizzly-hair' d, 
in that conflict punish'd, 
so that the great king 
must submit to 
Eofer's sole doom. 
Him angrily 

Wolf, Wonred's son^ - « S^'- 
with his weapon reach 'd, 
so that, for the blow, his 
blood sprang from the veins, 
forth under his locks : 
yet was he not afraid, 
the aged Scylfing, 
but requited quickly, 
with a worse exchange, 
that deadly onslaught, 
when the great king 
tum'd thitherward ; 
nor could the swift 
son of Wonred 
to the old warrior 
a hand-stroke give ; 
for he on his head 
the helm clave previously, 
so that he blood-stain'd 
must bow ; 



S914. MS. OngenSio. S9i7- ^IS. bid. 

5920. MS. eafores. He fell by the hand of Eofor. See 11. 5953-5. 
and 4965, sqq. 

5936. MS. ceorle. 593/. MS. giofan. 5939. MS. gescer. 



BEOWULF. 



201 



feoll on foldan, 
naes he fsege j'a-gyt ; 
ac he hyne gewyrpte, 
\>eah ^e him wund hrine. 

Let se hearda 

Higelaces )>egn 

bradne mece, 

}>a his broSor laeg, 

eald sweord eotonisc, 5950 

entiscne helm 

brecan ofer bord-weal : 

^a gebeah [se] cyning, 

folces hyrde, 

waes him feorh drepen. 

Da wseron monige 

Jje his maeg wriSon, 

ricone arserdon, 

%a him gerymed wearS, 

)>aet hie wsel-stowe 5960 

wealdan moston, 

jjenden reafode 

rinc o^erne. 

Namon Ongen^eowe 

iren byrnan, 

heard swyrd hilted, 

and his helm somod ; 

hares hyrste 

Higelace bseron. 5969 

[He ¥am] frsetwum feng, 



he fell on the earth, 
yet was he not doom'd ; 
but he recover'd himself, 
though the wound had touch'd 

him. 
Caus'd then the fierce 
thane of Hygelac 
his broad falchion, 
as his brother lay, 
his old eotenish sword, 
the giant helm 

to break o'er the shield-wall : 
then sank [the] king, 
the people's shepherd, 
his life was stricken. ?>t\f'<^' 
Then were many 
who his kinsman bound, 
quickly rais'd, 

when it was clear'd for them, 
so that they the slaughter-place 
might command, 
while stript 
o'.e warrior another. 
They took from Ongentheow 
his iron byrnie, 
his hilted hard sword, 
and his helm also ; 
the hoar ivarriors trapping 
they to Hygelac bore. 
[He the] war-gear receiv'd, 



5947. Eofor. 5948. MS. brade. 5953- se not in MS. 

5955. MS. in and dropen. 5957- i- e. his wounds. 

S964. MS. OngenJ>io. 5969- MS. baer. 

5970. He })am has perished from the MS. 



202 



BEOWULF. 



and him faegre gehet 

leana [on] leodum, 

and gelsste swa : 

geald ))one gu^-raes 

Geata dryhten, 

Hre^les eafora, 

\>a. he to ham becom, 

Eofere and Wulfe mid : 

ofer ma^mum sealde 

hi era gehwse^rum 5980 

hund jjusenda 

landes and locenra beaga : 

ne ^orfte him ^a lean crS- 

witan 
mon on middangearde, 
svg^an hie ^a mser^a ge- 

slogon ; 
and ^a Eofore forgeaf 
angan dohtor, 
ham-weor6unge, 
hyldo to wedde. 
Daet ys sio fffih^o 5990 
and se feondscipe, 
wael-nrS wera ; 
Saes ^e ic [wene] hafo 
))aet us secea^ to 
Sweona leode, 
sy^^an hie gefricgea^ 



and them promis'd fair 

rewards among the people, 

and so perform'd : 

requited the martial onslaught 

the Goths' lord, 

Hrethel's offspring, ^f^iXbJ^ 

when to his home he came, 

to Eofer and Wulf with him : 

he besides treasures gave, 

to each of them, 

a hundred thousand 

of land and closed rings : 

nor needed to reproach them 

for those rewards 
ant/ one on mid-earth, 
since they those honours had 

in battle won ; 
and then he to Eofer gave 
his only daughter, 
an honour to his home, 
as a pledge of favour. 
That is the feud 
and the enmity, 
the deadly hate of men ; 
whence I expect 
that us will seek 
the Swedes' people, 
when they shall learn 



5972. on has perished from the JIS. 5973- MS. gelaesta. 

5978. MS. lofore. The A. S. paraphrast has evidently here, and 
1. 5986 retained the orthography of his Scandinavian original. 

5979. MS. matSmam. 5986. MS. lofore. 
5993- wene is omitted in the MS. 

5994. MS. t'e. 5995- MS- leoda. 



BEOWULF. 



203 






frean userne 

ealdorleasne, 

j)one ^e ser geheold, 

wi^ hettendum, 6000 

hord and rice, 

aefter hsele^a hryre 

hwate Scyldingas ; 

folc-riht fremede, 

oS^e furt5ur gen 

eorlscipe efnde. 

Nu is ofost betost, 

))3et we Jjeod-cyning 

)>8er sceawian, 

and ]jone gebringan 6010 

J>e us beagas geaf 

on ad-fsere : 

ne sceal anes hwaet 

meltan mid ]>&m modigan ; 

ac J>ser is maSma hord, 

gold unrime, 

grimme gecea[po]d ; 

and nu set si6estan, 

sylfes feore, 

beagas [bolijte ; 6020 

)ja sceal brond fretan, 

aeled jjeccean, 

nalles eorl wegan 

mat56um to gemyndum, 

ne msegS scyne 



our lord is 

lifeless, 

who had before defended, 

against enemies, 

treasure and realm, 

and, after the fall of heroes, 

the bold Scyldings ; 

public right establish'd, 

or yet further, 

valorous deeds perform'd. 

Now is speed best, 

that we the great king 

there behold, 

and bring him 

who gave us rings 

on the way to the pile : 

there shall not aught of any one 

be consum'd with the bold king ; 

for there is a hord of treasures, 

gold without number, 

cruelly purchas'd ; 

and now at last, 

with his own hfe, 

he has bought rings ; 

these shall fire devour, 

flame cover, 

no warrior shall bear 

a treasure in remembrance, 

nor maiden fair 



6003. Hence it would appear tliat Beowulf, in consequence of the fall 
of Hrothgar's race, was called to rule also over the Danes (Scyldings). 

6004. MS. red. 6007. MS. me. 6013. MS. seel. 
6025. Perhaps a glee-maiden is meant, who, ha\ing lost her patron, 

is compelled to wander abroad. 



204 



BEOWULF. 



habban on healse 
hring-weorSunge ; 
ac sceal geomor-mod, 
golde bereafod, 
oft nalles sene, 
el-land tredan ; 
nu se here-wisa 
hleahtor alegde, 
gamen and gleo-dream ; 
forSon sceal gar wesan, 
monig morgen ceald, 
mundum ne wunden, 
hsefen on handa ; 
nalles hearpan sweg 
wigend weccean ; 
ac se wonna hrefh, 
fiis ofer fzegum 
fela reordian, 
eame secgan 
hu him set aete speow, 
|)enden he wi^ wulfe 
I wael reafode. 
Swa se secg hwata 
secgende waes 
laSra spella ; 
he ne leag fela 
wyrda ne worda. 
Weorod eall Eiras, 
eodon unbli6e 
under Eama-nses, 
weollon tearas. 



have on her neck 

a ring-honour ; 

but shall, sad of mood, 

of gold bereft, 
6030 often not once, 

a strange land tread ; 

now the martial leader 

has ceas'd from laughter, 

sport and joy of song ; 

therefore shall the javelin be, 

many a morning cold, 

not by hands brandish'd, 

nor rais'd in hand ; 

no sound of harp 
6040 shall the warrior raise ; 

but the dusk raven, 

eager o'er the fallen, 

much shall tell, 

shall to the eagle say 

how it with him at his food sped, 

while with the wolf he 

spoil'd the slain." 

Thus the bold warrior 

was speaking 
6050 unwelcome speeches ; 

he falsified not much 

of events or words. 

The band all arose, 

went unblithe 

under Eama-nges, 

(their tears bubbled forth) 



6037. MS. be wunden. 

6055. The Eagles' ness or promontory. 

6056. MS. wollen teare. 



BEOWULF. 



2(tr» 



wundur sceawian. 

Fundon M on sande 

sawulleasne, 

hlin-bed healdan, 6060 

|>one J>e him hringas geaf 

serran mEelum : 

)»a waes ende-daeg 

g^dum gegongen, 

J>aet se gu^-cyning, 

Wedra Jjeoden, 

wundor-dea^e swealt : 

ac hi J>ser gesegon 

syllicran wiht, 

wyrm on wonge, 6070 

wi^eiTEedne jjser, 

la^ne hcgean ; 

waes se leg-draca, 

grimlic gryre, 

gledum beswseled ; 

se waes fiftiges 

f5t-gemearces 

lang on legere ; 

lyft- Wynne heold 

nihtes hwilum, 6080 

ny^er eft gewat 

dennes niosian ; 

waes ^a dea^e faest ; 

haefde eorS-scrafa 

ende genyttod ; 

him big-stodon 

bunan and orcas ; 



the wonder to view. 

They then found on the sand 

soulless, 

holding his couch, 

him who had given them rings 

in earlier times : 

then was the end-day 

for the good chief gone, 

so that the war-king, 

the Weders' prince, 

a wondrous death should die 

but they there saw 

a stranger thing, 

the worm on the plain, 

the adverse one there, 

the hostile, lying ; 

the fire-drake was, 

the grim horror, 

with gleeds scorch'd ; 

he was fiftv 

feet of measure 

long on his bed : 

Tie the delight of air enjoy'd 

in the night's hours, 

again came down 

his den to visit ; 

he was then fast in death ; 

he had of his earth-dens 

the end enjoy'd ; 

by him stood 

cups and bowls ; 



6060. MS. hlim ; rightly corrected by Grimm, D. G. ii. 484. 
6068. MS. ser . . . . gesegan. 6071. MS. wiSer raehtes. 

6086. MS. stodan. 



206 



BEOWULF. 



■^ - *• discas lagon, 
7^' and dyre swyrd 
lUkA '- oraige jjurh-etene, 6090 
****"! swa hie wi^ eor^an fse^m 

jjusend wintra 

)>3er eardodon : 

))onne waes ])set yrfe 

eacen crseftig, 

iu-monna gold, 
Tâ„¢J galdre bewunden, 
J^^t-^*^'' ))set ^am hring-sele 



hrinan ne moste 



6100 



gumena senig, 
nefne God sylfa, 
sigora s6S Kyning, 
sealde ))am t5e he wolde. 
He is manna gehyld, 
tA/>/— herd openian, 

efne swa-hwylcum manna 
swa him gemet ^uhte. 



dishes lay there, 

and costly swords 

rusty, eaten through, 

as if they in the lap of earth 

a thousand winters 

had there continued : iiOK^LA•^,> - 

for that heritage was '"-" 

exceedingly strong, 

the gold of men of old, 

encircled by enchantment, 

so that that ring-hall 

might not touch 

any man, 

unless God himself, 

true King of victories, 

should give it to whom he would 

(He is the well-wilier of men) 

the hoard to open, 

just to whatever man 

as might to him seem meet. 



XLII. 



Da waes gesyne 

))aet se si^ ne Jjah 

|)am ^e unrihte 61 10 

inne gehydde 

wrsete under wealle. 

Weard ccr ofsloh 

feara sume, 

J)a sio i;Ch^ gewear^ 

gewrecen wra^lice. 

"Wundiu- hwaet ))onne 



Then was seen 
that fortune favour'd not 
him who unrighteously 
within had hidden 
treasure, under the mound. 
The guardian had before slain 
some of a few, 
then was the quarrel 
vsTothfully avenged. 
"What wonder when 



609c 



etone. 6112. MS. wrsece. 6117. MS. hwar. 



BEOWULF. 



207 



eorl ellen-rof 

ende gefere 

lif-gesceafta, 6120 

J>onne long ne maeg 

mon mid his magum 

medu-seld biian, 

Swa WEes Biowulfe ; 

j)a he biorges weard 

sohte searo-ni¥as, 

seolfa ne cu¥e 

J)urh hwaet his worulde 

gedal 
weorSan sceolde, 
swa hit 0^ d5mes dseg 6130 
dippe benemndon 
|)e5dnas nicere, 
))a jjset ^ser dydon, 
)>aet se secg wsere 
synuum scyldig, 
hergum gehea^erod, 
hell-bendum fsest, 
wommum gewitnad, 
96 jjone wong strade. 
Naes he gold-hwaete : 6140 
gearwor hsefde 
agendes est 
Eer geceapod. 
Wiglaf ma^elode, 
Wihstanes sunu : 
Oft sceal eorl monig. 



a brave renown'd warrior 

to the end journey 

of living creatures, 

when long may not 

a man with his kinsmen 

the mead-bench occupy ? 

So 'twas to Beowulf; 

when he the mount's guardian 

sought, his guileful hate, 

himself knew not 

through what his parting from 

the world 
should be, 

or how it tiU doomsday 
solemnly declar'd t^^^><^^ 

those great princes, -^-a^*^ 
who there that treasure put, 
that the man should be 
with sins guilty, 
with harryings hemm'd in, 
in hell -bonds fast, 
by terrors punish'd, 
who should that plain despoil. 
He was not covetous of gold : 
more readily had he 
the owner's favour 
previously purchas'd. 
Wiglaf spake, 
Wihstan's son : 
" Oft must a man many. 



61 2 1. MS. leng. 

6134. This is the usual malediction laid oa whoever should carry 
off a hidden treasure. 

6140. he, L e. Beowulf. 6143. MS. gesceawod. 

T a 



208 



BEOWULF. 



fines willan, 

wraeca dre5gan, 

swa us geworden is. 

Ne meahton we gelseran 

leofhe jjeoden, 6151 

rices hyrde, 

rsed Benigne, 

}j8et he ne grette 

gold-weard jjone ; 

lete hyne licgean 

})aer he longe wses, 

wicum wunian, 

o^ woruld-ende, 

healdan heah gesceap. 6160 

Hord ys gesceawod, 

grimme gegongen. 

Wses ))3et gife^e to swi^, 

J;e ^one j^yder ontyhte. 

Ic waes Jjasr-inne, 

and J>aet eall geond-seah, 

recedes geatwa, 

|)a me gerymed wses ; 

nealles swseslice 

si^ alyfed 6170 

inn under eor^-weall ; 

ic on ofoste gefeng 

micle mid mundum 

maegen-byrSenne 

hord-gestreona, 

hider ut aetbaer 

cyninge minum ; 

cwico waes })a-gena, 

6148. MS. dreoge'5. 



for the sake of one, 

hardships suffer, 

as has befallen us. 

We could not inculcate on 

our dear prince, 

the realm's guardian, 

any counsel, -- 

that he should not assail 

that gold-ward ; 

hut let him lie 

where he long had been, 

in his habitation continue, 

tUl the world's end, 

hold the high appointment. 

The hoard has been seen, 

cruelly acquir'd. 

Too powerful was that grant, 

which impel'd bim thither. 

I was therein, 

and it all look'd over, 

the house's furniture, 

when it was clear'd for me ; 

not pleasantly 

the way permitted 

in under the earth-mound ; 

I in haste seiz'd 

with viy hands a great 

mighty burthen 

of hoard-acquisitions, 

bare them out hither 

to my king ; 

he was yet living, 

6160. MS. heoldoa. 



U-^ 



1 



6164. '5one (him), i. e. Beowulf. 



BEOWULF. 



2()9 



â– WIS and gewittig ; 

worn call gespraec 6180 

gomol on geh^o, 

and eowic gretan het, 

baed jjaet ge geworhton, 

aefter wines dsedum, 

in b?el-stede, 

beorh J)one hean, 

micelne and mseme, 

swa he manna wses 

wigend weor^fullost 

wide geond eor^an, 6190 

))enden he burh-welan 

brucan moste. 

Uton nu efstan, 

oSre * * 

seon and secean 

searo-gejjraec, 

wundur under wealle : 

ic eow wisige, 

})aet ge genoge 

ne onsceawia^ 6200 

beagas and brad gold. 

Sie sio bser gearo, 

sedre geaefned, 

})onne we ut cymen, 

and ))onne geferian 

frean userne, 

leofne mannan, 

j>aer he longe sceal 

on ^aes Waldendes 

waere ge})olian. 6210 

Het ?a gebeodan 

bvre Wihstanes, 



wise and sensible ; 
very many things said 
the aged prince in sadness, 
and bade me greet you, 
pray'd that ye would make, 
befitting our friend's deeds, 
in the pile's stead, 
a lofty mount, 
great and glorious, 
as he of all men was 
the worthiest warrior 
widely throughout the earth, 
while he the wealth of cities 
might enjoy. _^ 

Let us now hasten, / I ,A / 

other * * 
to see and seek 
the curious mass, 
the wonders beneath the mound. 
I will guide you, 
so that enough ye 
will not gaze on 
rings and broad gold. 
Let the bier be ready, 
quickly made, 
when we come out, 
and then bear 
our lord, 
the dear man 
to where he long shall 
in the All-powerful's 
care endure." — ""' 

Bade then command 
Wihstan's son, 
T3 



V 



210 



BEOWULF. 



haele-hilde-deor, 
haele^a monegum 
bold-agendra, 
jjaet hie bsel-wudu 
feorran feredon, 
folc agende 
g5dum to-geanes : 
Nu sceal gled fretan, 
^wyrdan wonna leg, 
wigena strengel, 
J)one ^e oft gebad 
isern scures ; 
]jonne strsela storm, 
strengum gebsded, 
scoc ofer scyld-weall, 
sceaft-nytte heold, 
t'e^er-geanvum fus, 

flana 4^yll eode. 
Huru se snotra 
sunu Wibstanes 
acigde of cor¥re 
cyninges J)egnas 
sj-fone [to-som]ne 
]>a. selestan, 
code eahta sum 
under inwit-hr5f ; 
hilde rinc sum 
on handa baer 
aeled-leoman, 
se Se on orde gong. 

6219. MS. togenes. 
6224. MS. scure. 
6230. MS. flane full. 



the human war-beast, 

many men, 

house-owning, 

that they pile-wood 

from afar should convey, 

folk-owning, 

towards the good prince : 
6220 " Now shall the gleed devour. 

the dusky flame destroy, 

the prince of warriors, 

him who oft awaited 

the iron shower ; 

who when the storm of shaft?. 

from strings impel'd, 

pass'd o'er the shield-wall, 

the shaft-notch held, 

when, prompt with its feather- 
gear, 
6230 the fall of arrows went" 

Forthwith the prudent 

son of Wihstan 

call'd from the band 

king's thanes 

seven together 

the choicest, 

went himself the eighth 

under the treacherous roof ; 

a warrior 
6240 in his hand bare 

a fire-brand, 

who went at the head. 

6221. MS. weaxan. 6222. J^engel r 

6229. MS. fseder. garum? 
6231. Sona? 6242. MS. geong. 



BEOWULF. 



211 



P 



Naes t5a onhlytme 
hwa \>xt Lord strude, 
sy%^an or-wearde 
aenigne dsel 
secgas gesegon 
on sele wunian, 
Isene licgan ; 
lyt senig mearn, 
}>aet hie ofostlice 
lit geferedon 
dyre magmas ; 
dracan eac scufon, 
wyrm ofer weall-clif, 
leton wseg niman, 
flod fseSmian, 
frsetwa hyrde : 
jjfer waes wunden gold 
on ween hladen, 
ajghwees unrim ; 
fe))eling geboren, 
har hilde-[rmc] 
to Hrones-nsesse. 



It was not then without lot 

who should the hoard despoil 

when without a guard 

some deal 

the men saw 

in the hall remaining, 

thinly scatter'd lying ; 

6250 little regretted any, 

that with all speed they 

might convey out 

the precious treasures ; 

the dragon eke they shov'd, 

the worm, o'er the wall-cliff, 

let the wave take, 

the flood embrace, 

the treasure's guardian : 

there was twisted gold 

6260 on the wain laden, 

of every kind numberless ; 
and the prince borne, 
the hoar warrior, 
to Hrones-naes. 



XLIII. 



Him ^a gegiredon 
Geata leode 
ad on eor^an 
unwaclicne, 
helm-behongen, 
hilde-bordura. 



For him then prepar'd 
the Goths' people 
a pile on the earth, 
a mighty one, 
with helmets hung, 
war-boards, 



6254. MS. ec scufun. 6259. MS. i>xt. 

6262. I\IS. selSelinge boren. conj. K. 

6263. rinc supplied from conjecture. 



212 



BEOWULF. 



beorhtum byrnum, 
swa he bena wses. 
Alegdon ^a to-middes 
mgeme Jjeoden 
haeieS hiofende, 
hlaford leofne : 
ongunnon J>a on beorge 
bsel-fyra msest 
) wi^ end weccan : 
wudu-rec astah 6280 

sweart of Swio-6ole, 
swogende leg, 
w5pe bewunden, 
wind-blond gelseg, 
o^))aet he ])aet ban-bus 
gebrocen hsfde, 
hat on hre^re. 
Higum unrote 
mod-ceare meendon 



A 



bright byrnies, 

as he had requested. 

Laid then in the midst 

the great prince 

the warriors lamenting, 

their beloved lord : 

began then on the mount, 

of bale-fires the greatest 

the warriors to kindle : 

the wood-reek ascended 

swart from the Swedish pine, 

the roaring flame, 

with weeping mingled, 

(the wind-blending ceas'd) 

until it the bone-house 

had broken, 

hot on the breast. 

Sad in spirits 

they with mind-care bewail'd 



TOon-dryhtnescwealm; 6290 their liege lord's death; 



swylce geomor-gyd 

* * under 
heorde * * 
sorg-cearig SEelde 

* * neah, 
|)8et hio hyre * 

* * gas hearde 

* ode wa * ylla won 

* * * 

* egcsan 
■)(.•)(. ^ 

heofon rece swealg. 
6a8i. MS. swic. 



as if a mournful lay 

sorrowing bound 

* * * 

* * * 



heaven swell'd with smoke. 
6285. MS. )>a. 



6282. MS. let. 
6292. MS. sealg. 



p 



BEOWULF. 



213 



k 



Geworhton ^a 

Wedra leode 

hlsew on hli^e ; 

se waes heah and brad, 

w£eg-li3endum 

wide to-syne ; 

and betimbredon 

on tyn dagum 

beadu-rofes beacn 



bronda be * â–  ^-'^ 
^.^ wealle beworhton, 
swa hit weorSlicost 



f* 



fore-snotre men 
findan mihton. 
Hi on beorg dydon 
beagas and siglu, 
eall swylce hyrsta, 
swylce on horde ser 
ni^-hydige men 
genumen hsefdon. 
Forleton eorla gestreon 
eor^an healdan, 
gold on greote, 
\>XT hit nu gen lifaS 
[yldum] swa unnyt 
swa hit [ser] waes. 
pa ymbe hlsw ridon 
hilde deor * 
seSehng * 
ealra twelfa 
woldon * * 
cyning msenan, 

6295. MS. lide. 
6319. MS. riodan. 



cwiSan 



Wrought then 
the Weders' people 
a mound on the hill ; 
it was high and broad, 
by wave-farers 
widely to be seen ; 
and constructed 
6300 in ten days 

the renown'd warrior's beacon, 

* * * 

with a wall surrounded it, 
as it most honourable 
highly sagacious men 
might find. 

In the mound they placed . 
rings and jewels, " '"'â– ' ' 
also ornaments, 
such as before in the hoard 
hostile men 
had taken. 

They left the treasure of earls 
to the earth to hold, 
gold in the dust, 
where it now yet remains 
[to men] as useless 
as it [ere] was. 
Then round the mound rode 
war-beasts * * 
nobles * * 
of all the twelve 
would * * speak 
their king bewail, 

6308. MS. beg. 



6310 



6320 



,^ (K^^U- 



6297. MS. et liSendum. 
6320. MS. deore 



214 



BEOWULF. 



word-gyd wrecan, 
and worn sprecan ; 
eahtodon eorlscipe, 
and his ellen-weorc 

* * * 
dugu^um demdon, 6330 
swa hit ge[defe] bi^, 

))set mon his wine-dryhten 
wordum herge, 
ferh^um freoge, 
})onne he for^ scyle 
of lic-haman, 

* * weor)jan. 
Swa begnornodon 
Geata leode 

hlafordes [hryre], 6340 
heor^-geneatas ; 
cwaedon jjset he wsere 
woruld-cyninga, 
manna mildust, 
[and mon-]})W£erost, 
leodum IrSost, 
/ and 16f-geornost. 6347 

6326. MS. ymb se. 



a verbal lay recite, 
and many things say ; 
esteem'd his bravery, 
and his valiant works 

* * * 
nobly judged, 

as it is fitting, 

that a man his liege lord 

with his words praise, 

in his soul love, i-vei^yOL- 

when he shall go forth 

from the body, 

* * become. 
Thus deplor'd 

the Goths' people 

their lord's fall, 

his hearth- enjoyers ; 

said that he was 

of world-kings, 

of men, mildest, 

and kindest, 

to his people gentlest, 

and of praise most desirou?. 

6335. MS. scile. 



THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE, 



AND 



THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 



I 



. > 

V 



THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



Widsi¥ ma^elode, 
word-hord onleac, 
se \)e msest maegSa 
[mette] ofer eorjjan, 
folca g-eond-ferde : 
oft he flette ge))ah 
mynelicne ma})))um. 
Hine from Myrgingum 
aejjele onwocon ; 
he mid Ealhhilde, 
fcclre freo^u-webban, 
forman si]je, 
HreS-cvninges 
ham ges5hte, 
eastan of Ongle, 



Widsith spake, 

his word-hoard unlock'd, 

he who a vast many tribes 

had met on earth, 

travel'd through many nations 

oft he had in court receiv'd 

a memorable present. 

From him to the Myrgings 

nobles sprang ; 

he with Ealhhild, 

faithful peace-weaver, 

at the first time, 

the Hreth-king's 

home had sought, 

east of Angeln, 



1. WidsiS is the name assigned to the gleeman, in allusion to his 
erratic calling ; analogous to GangraSr, assumed by Odin in his cha- 
racter of a wanderer ; Gangleri, Farvid, etc. 

I. MS. ma'Solade. 

3. IMS. maeriSa. K., with great probability, suggests msegSa. 

4. mette supplied from conjecture. There is no hiatus in the MS. 
8. For Hine from I would substitute Him from, the prep, after its 

case, as I am not aware that onwacan is used actively. At I. 106 tlio 
poet speaks of his offspring. 

U 



218 



THE SCOP 



Eormanrices, 



wra})es Wcerlogan. 

Ongon )>a worn sprecan : 20 

Fela ic monna gefi'aegn 

maegjjum wealdan : 

sceal J)e6dna gehwylc 

])eawum lifgan, 

eorl sefter ojjrum 

e'Sle Tcedan, 

se ])e his Jieoden-stol 

gej)e5n wile. 

para wses Hwala 

hwile selest, 30 

and Alexandreas 

ealra ricost 

monna cynnes ; 

and lie msest gejjah 

])ara Ipe ic ofer foldan 

gefrsegen hsebbe. 

^tla weold Hunum, 

Eormanric Gotum, 

Becca Baningum, 

Burgendum Gifica ; 40 

Casere weold Creacum, 

and Gaelic Finnum, 



Eormanric's, 

* * :•: 

* * * 

hostile faith-breaker. 
Began then much to say : 
Of many men I have heard 
ruling over tribes : 
(every prince should 
live fittingly, 
chief after other 
rule o'er the country, 
who his princely throne 
desires should flourish). 
Of these was Hwala 
a while the best, 
and Alexander 
of all most powerful 
of mankind ; 
and he most prosper'd 
of those whom I on earth 
have heard of. 
Attila rul'd the Huns 
Eormanric the Goths, 
Becca the Brondings 
the Burgundians Gifica ; 
Caesar rul'd the Greeks 
and Gaelic the Fins 



16. Here some lines are evidently wanting, although there is no 
hiatus in the MS., as the words wraj^es wsrlogan cannot apply to 
Eormanric, the object of the poet's praise (see 11. 175 sqq.). The lost 
lines would no doubt have informed us who the persons were before 
whom the tale was recited or sung. 

23. H. )>eoda. K., with great probability suggests I'eodna, which I 
adopt. 

19. MS. Wala. 30. MS. selast. 



OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



219 



Hagena Holmrycum, 
and Henden Glommum ; 
Witta weold Swiefum, 
Wada Haelsingum, 
Meaca Myrgingum, 
Mearchealf Hundingum ; 
Deodric weold Froncum, 
Dyle Rondingum, 50 

Breoca Brondingum, 
Billing Wernam ; 
Oswine weold Eowum, 
and Ytum Gefwulf ; 
Fin Folcwalding 
Fresna cynne ; 
Sigehere lengest 
Sse-Denum weold ; 
Hnsef Hocingum, 
Helm Wulfingum, 60 

Wald Woingum, 
Wod Dyringum, 
SseferS Sycgum, 
Sweora Ongendjjeow ; 
Sceafthere Ymbrum, 
Sceafa Longbeardum, 
Hun Hsetwerum, 
and Helen Wrosnum, 
Hringweald wses haten 
Here-farena cyning ; 70 
Offa weold Ongle, 
Alewih Denum, 
se wges ])ara manna 
modgast ealra, 
no hwce})re he ofer Offan 
eorlscipe fremede ; 



Hagena the Holmrycs, 
and Henden the Gloms ; 
Witta rul'd the Swsefs, 
Wada the Helsings, 
Meaca the Myrgings, 
Mearchealf the Huudings ; 
Theodric rul'd the Franks, 
Thyle the Rondings, 
Breoca the Brondings, 
Billing the Werns ; 
Oswine rul'd the Eows, 
and the Yts Gefwulf; 
Fin Folcwalding 
the Frisians' race ; 
Sigehere longest 
rul'd the Sea-Danes ; 
Hnaef the Hokings, 
Helm the Wulfings, 
Wald the Woings, 
Wod the Thyrings, 
Saeferth the Sycs, 
the Swedes Ongendtheow ; 
Sceafthere the Ymbers, 
Sceafa the Longbeards, 
Hun the Hsetweras, 
and Holen the Wrosns, 
Hringweald waes hight 
the Herefaras king; 
Offa rul'd Angeln, 
Alewih the Danes, 
who of those men was 
of all proudest, 
yet not over Offa he 
supremacy effected; 
U 2 



220 



THE SCOP 



ac Offa geslog, 

ajrest monna, 

cniht wesende, 

cyne-rica msest, 80 

nsenig sefen-eald him 

eorlscipe maran 

on-orette, 

ane sweorde ; 

merce getncerde 

wi8 Myrgingum, 

bi Fifel-dore. 

Heoldon for6-si)j))an, 

Engle and Sweefe, 

swa hit Offa geslog. 90 

Hrojjwulf and Hr68gar 

heoldon lengest 

sibbe setsomne, 

suhtor-faedran, 

si|))>an hy forwrsecon 

wicinga cynn, 

and Ingeldes 

ord forbigdan, 

forheowan aet Heorote 

HeaSo-beardna ))rym. 100 

Swa ic geoud-ferde fela 

fremdra londa, 

geond ginne grund ; 

godes and vfles 

})3er ic cunnade, 

cnosle bidteled, 

freo-magum feor, 

folgade wide ; 

for])on ic mseg singan, 

107. MS. 



for Offa won in battle, 

earliest of men, 

when still a boy, 

kingdoms most, 

none of like age with him 

dominion greater 

in contest gain'd, 

by his single sword ; 

his march he enlarged 

towards the Myrgings, 

by Fifel-dor. 

Continued thenceforth 

Angles and Swaefs, 

as Offa it had won. 

Hrothwulf and Hrothgar 

longest held 

peace together, 

the paternal-cousins, 

after they had expel'd 

the race of vikings, 

and Ingeld's 

point had bent, 

slaughter' d at Heorot 

the host of Heathobeard-s. 

Thus I travers'd many 

foreign lands 

over the spacious earth ; 

good and evil 

there I prov'd, 

of mij offspring depriv'd, 

from my dear kindred far, 

I foUow'd widely ; 

therefore I can sing, 

freo-maegum. 



OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



221 



and secgan spell, no 

msenan fore mengo, 
in meodu-healle, 
hu me cyne-gode 
cystum dohton. 
Ic waes mid Hunum, 
and mid HreS-Gotum, 
mid Sweom and mid 

Gefitum, 
and mid SiiS-Denum ; 
mid Wenlum ic waes and 

raid Waernum, 
and mid wicingum ; 120 
mid GefSum ic waes and 

mid Wined um, 
and mid Gefflegum ; 
mid Englum ic wses and 

mid Sweefum^ 
and mid ^nenum ; 
mid Seaxum ic waes and 

mid Sycgum, 
and mid Sweord-werum ; 
mid Hronum ic waes and 

mid Deanum, 
and mid Hea))o-Reamum ; 
mid Dyringum ic waes, 
and mid Drowendum, 130 
and mid Burgendum ; 
Jjaer ic beag ge))ali ; 
me \>xr GiiShere forgeaf 
glaedlicne ma|)]5um, 
songes to leane : 
naes |>aet saene cyning. 

114 



and a tale recite, 

recount before the many, 

in the mead-hall, 

how me the noble of race 

bounteously treated. 

I was with the Huns, 

and with the Hreth-Goths, 

with the Swedes and with the 

Geats, 
and with the South Danes ; 
with the Wenlas I was and with 

the Waernas, 
and with the vikings ; 
with the Gefthas I was and with 

the Winedas, 
and with the Gefflegas ; 
with the Angles I was and with 

the Swaefs, 
and with the ^Enenas ; 
with the Saxons I was and with 

the Sycgs, 
and with the Sweord-weras ; 
with the Hrons I was and with 

the Deans, 
and with the Heatho-Reamas ; 
with the Thyrings I was, 
and with the Tlirowends, 
and with the Burgundians ; 
there I a ring receiv'd ; 
there me Guthhere gave 
a welcome present, 
in reward of song : 
that was no sluggish king. 
MS. dohten. 

^3 



222 



THE SCOP 



Mid Froncum ic waes and 

mid Frysum, 
and mid Frumtingum ; 
mid Rugum ic wses and 

mid Glommum, 
and mid Rum-Walum ; 140 
swylce ic wses on Eatnle, 
mid ^Ifwine, 
se hsefde mon-cynnes, 
mine gefrsege, 
leohteste hond 
lofes to wyrcenne, 
heortan unhneaweste 
hringa gedales ; 
beorhtra beaga, 
beam Eadwines. 150 

Mid Sercingum ic waes, 
and mid Seringum ; 
mid Creacum ic waes and 

mid Finnum, 
and mid Casere, 
se J)e win-burga 
geweald ahte, 
Wiolane and Wilna, 
and Wala rices. 
Mid Scottum ic waes and 

mid Peohtum, 
andmidScride-Finnum; 160 
mid Lid-wicingum ic waes 

and mid Leonura, 
and mid Long-beardum ; 
mid Hse'Snum ic wses and 

mid Haelejjum, 
and mid Hundingum ; 



With the Franks I was and with 

the Frisians, 
and with the Frumtings ; 
with the Rugs I was and with 

the Gloms, 
and with the Rum -Wealhs ; 
also I was in Italy, 
with ^Ifwine, 
who had of all mankind, 
as I have heard, 
the readiest hand 
praise to call forth, 
the most liberal heart 
in the distribution of rings ; 
bright collars, 
the son of Eadwine. 
With the Serkings I was, 
and with the Serings ; 
with the Greeks I was and 

with the Fins, 
and with Csesar, 
who o'er the joyous cities 
had sway, ' 

Wiolane and Wilna, 
and of the Walas' realm. 
With the Scots I was and with 

the Picts, 
and with the Scrid-Fins ; 
with tfie Lid-vikings I was and 

with the Leons, 
and with the Lombards ; 
with Hsethens I was and with 

Hseleths, 
and with the Hundings ; 



OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



223 



mid Israhelum ic wses, 
and mid Ex-Syringum ; 
mid Ebreum and mid In- 

deum, 
and mid Egyptum ; 
mid Moidum ic wa's and 

mid Persum, 
and mid Myrgingum, 170 
and Mofdingum, 
and ongend Myrgingum, 
and mid Amothingum ; 
mid East- Dyringum icwses 

and mid Eolum, 
and mid Istum, 
and Idumingum ; 
and ic wses midEormanrice; 
ealle Jjrage 

jjser me Gotena cyning 
g5de dohte, 180 

se me beiig forgeaf, 
burg-warena fruma, 
on ))am siex hund waes 
smsetes goldes 
gescyred sceatta, 
scilling-rime, 
))one ic Eadgilse 
on seht sealde, 
minum hleo-dryhtne, 
]ja ic to ham bicwom, 190 
leofum to leaae, 
J)3es \>e he me lend forgeaf, 
mines fseder-ejjel, 
frea Myrginga ; 
and me ])a Ealhhild 



with the Israelites I was, 
and with the Ex-Syrings ; 
with the Hebrews and with the 

Indians, 
and with the Egyptians ; 
with the Medes I was and with 

the Persians, 
and with the Myrgings, 
and the Mofdings, 
and again with the Myrgings, 
and with the Amothings ; 
with the East Thyrings I was 

and with the Eols, 
and with the Istas, 
and the Idumingas ; 
and I was with Eormanric ; 
all which time 
there me the Goths' king 
well treated, 
he me a collar gave, 
the chieftain of his citizens, 
on which six hundred were 
of beaten gold 
sceats scor'd, 
in skillings reck on' d, 
which I to Eadgils 
in possession gave^ 
my patron lord, 
when to ?ny home I came, 
in requital to mi/ friend, 
because he had given me land, 
my paternal heritage, 
the Myrgings' prince ; 
and to me then Ealhhild 



224 



THE SCOP 



ojjerne forgeaf, 
dryht-cwen dugu^e, 
dohtor Eadwines : 
hyre lof lengde 
geond Ion da fela, 200 

jjonne ic be songe 
secgan sceolde 
hwser ic under swegle 
selest wisse 
gold-hrodene cwen 
giefa bryttian. 
Donne wit Scilling, 
sciran reorde, 
for uncrum sige-dryhtne 
song ahofan, 210 

hlude bi hearpan 
bleojjor swinsade, 
))onne monige men, 
modum wlonce, 
wordum sprecan, 
]ja ]je wel cu}jan, 
|jaet hi nsefre song 
sellan ne hyrdon. 
Donan ic ealne geond- 

hwearf 
ej)el Gotena. 220 

Sohte ic a sijja 
)ja selestan ; 
j?Eet waes inn-weorud 
Eormanrices. 



another gave, 

noble queen of chieftains, 

Eadwine's daughter : 

/ her praise extended 

over many lands, 

when I by song 

had to say 

where I under heaven 

knew a most excellent 

gold-adom'd queen 

gifts dispensing. 

When I and SkiUing, 

with clear voice, 

for our victorious lord 

rais'd the song, 

loud to the harp 

our voice resounded, 

then many men, 

haught)^ of mood, 

said in words, 

those who well knew, 

that they never song 

better had heard. 

Thence I travers'd all 

the country of the Goths. 
Of courses I ever sought 
the best ; 

that was the household band 
of Eorraanric. 



196. o)>erne, i. e. eSel. 203. MS. swegl. 

204. MS. selast. 206. MS. giefe. 

207. For this construction see note on Beowulf, 4009. 
224. MS. Earmanrices. 



OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



•225 



Ile^can s5hte ic and Bea- 

decan, 
and Herelingas ; 
Emercan sohte ic and 

Fridlan, 
and East-Gotan, 
frodne and godne, 
feeder Unwenes ; 230 

Seccan sohte ic and Beccan, 
Seafolan and Deodric, 
Heajjoric and Sifecan, 
Hlijje and IncgenJ>e6w ; 
Eadwine sohte ic andElsan' 
^-Egelmund and Hungar, 
and )>a wloncan gedryht 
WiS-Mvrginga ; 
Wulfhere sohte ic and 

Wyrmhere : 
ful oft ]>XT wig ne alaeg, 240 
))onne Hrseda here, 
heardum sweordum, 
ymb Wistla-wudu, 
wergan sceoldon 
ealdne ejjel-stol 
^"Etlan leodum. 
Rsedhere sohte ic and 

Rondhere, 
Rumstan and Gislhere, 
Wijjergield and Freo]>eric, 
Wudgan and Haman : 250 
ne wseron \>set gesijja 
]ja ssemestan ; 
J>eah )je ic hy a nyhst 
nemnan sceolde. 
Fal oft of )?ain heape 



Hethca I sought and Beadeca, 

and the Herehngs ; 

Emerca I sought and Fridla, 

and the East Goth, 

sage and good, 

the father of Unwen ; 

Secca I sought and Becca, 

Seafola and Theodric, 

Heathoric and Sifeca, 

Hlithe and Incgentheow ; 

Eadwine I sought and Elsa, 

^gelmund and Hungar, 

and the proud bands 

of the With-Myrgiugs ; 

Wulfhere I sought and Wyrm- 
here : 

full oft there war ceas'd not, 

when the Hrced's army, 

with hard swords, 

about Vistula- wood, 

had to defend 

their ancient native seat 

from the folks of Attila. 

Rsedhere I sought and Rond- 
here, 

Rumstan and Gislhere, 

Withergield and Freotheric, 

Wudga and Hama : 

thev were of comrades not 

the worst ; 

though I them ever last 

should name. 

Full oft from that band 



226 



THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 



hwinende fleag 
gieUende gar 
on grome ))e6de, 
wrseccan pxr weoldan 
wundnan golde 260 

werum and wifum, 
Wudga and Hama. 
Swa ic jjset symle onfond, 
on ]?3ere feringe, 
))aet se bij) leofast 
lond buendum, 
se J)e him God syle6 
gumena rice 
to gehealdenne, 
))enden he her leofa6. 270 
Swa scrij)ende, 
gesceapum hweorfaS 
gleomen gumena 
geond grunda fela, 
|>earfe secga6, 
J)onc-word sprecaS, 
simle su6 ojjjje norS 
sumne gemeta^ 
gydda gleawne, 
geofum unhneawne, 280 
se ]>e fore duguj)e wile 
d5ra arseran, 
eorlscipe aefnan, 
oJ)J)8et eal scaceS 
leoht and lif somod. 
Lof se gewyrceS, 
hafaS under heofonum 
heah-faestne dom. 



whining flew 

the yelHng shaft 

on the fierce nation, 

where would avenge 

the chiefs gold-adorn'd 

their men and women, 

Wudga and Hama. 

Thus have I ever found, 

in that journeying, 

that he is dearest 

to the land-dwellers, 

to whom God gives 

empire over men 

to hold, 

while he here lives. 

Thus roving, 

with their devices wander 

the gleemen of men 

through many lands, 

their need express, 

words of thanks utter, 

ever south or north 

find one 

knowing in songs, 

liberal of gifts, 

who before his court desires 

his grandeur to exalt, 

valorous deeds achieve, 

until all departs 

light and life together. 

He who works praise, 

has under heaven 

exalted glory. 






THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 

A FRAGMENT^. 



* * * 

* nas bymaS nsefre. 
Hleojjrode ]>a, 
heajjo-geong cyning : 
Ne 6is ne dagaS eastan, 
ne her draca ne fleogeS, 
ne her J)isse healle 
horn naes ne byrna'S ; 

ac her forS bernS ; 
fugelas singaS, 
gylleS grseg-hama, 
gu3-wudu hlynneS, 
scyld scefte oncwytJ. 
Nu scyneS 6es mona 
wajjol under wolcnum, 
nu arisaS wea-dseda, 
5e 8isne folces ni6 



* never burn. 
Cried aloud then 
the warUke young king : 
" This dawns not from the east, 
nor flies a dragon here, 
nor of this hall here 
are the cressets burning ; 
but here it burns forth ; 
the birds sing, 
the cricket chirps, 
the war-wood resounds, 
shield to shaft responds. 
Now shines the moon 
wandering amid clouds, 
now arise woful deeds, 
that this hatred of the people 



» The fragment, as far as I can judge, begins with a speech of 
Fin, the Frisian prince, on seeing a glare of light in his palace, which 
has been fired by the Danish invaders, in an attack by night. 

3. Hickes hearo. 4. this, i. e. this light. 

5. A fiery one. For these light-bearing dragons see North. Mjrth. 
ii. p. 31. and iii. p. 155. 

7. H. homas ne. 8. beralS. 

9. believing it to be daylight. 10. on seeing the fire-light. 

1 1 . the spear. 



228 



THE FIGHT 



fremman willaS. 

Ac onwacnigeaS nu, 

wigend mine, 

habba^ eowre land, 20 

hicgea^ on ellen, 

winna^ on orde, 

wesa^ anmode. 

* * * 
Da aras monig 
gold-hroden Jjegn, 
gyrde hine his swurde ; 
pa to dura eodon 
drihtlice cempan, 
Sigefer^ and Eaha, 30 
hyra sweord getugon ; 
and set o^rum durum, 
Ordlaf and Gu61af, 
and Hengest svlf, 
hwearf him on laste. 
Da gyt Garulf 
Gu^ere styrode, 
Jjaet he swa freolic-feorh 
forman si^e 

to ^aere healle durum 40 
hyrsta ne bsere 
nu hie ni^a heard 
animan wolde ; 
ac he frsegn ofer eal 
undeaminga, 



will promote. 
But wake up now, 
my warriors ! 
preserve your lands, 
be mindful of valour, 
fight in front, 
be unanimous." 

Then arose many 

a gold- decorated thane, 

girded him with his sword : 

then to the door went 

the noble warriors, 

Sigeferth and Eaha, 

they drew their swords ; 

and at the other doors, 

Ordlaf and Guthlaf, 

and Hengest himself, 

tum'd on their track. 

Then yet Garulf 

Guthere reproach'd, 

that he a soul so joyous, 

at the first moment, 

to the hall's doors 

bore not arms, 

now them a fierce enemy 

would take. 

But he, above all, inquir'd 

openly, 

H. on mode. 



10. H. lands. 22. H. winda^. 23. 

24. The line alliterating with this is wanting. 

26. H. hladen. 

38-43. These lines are particularly obscore. 41. H. baeran. 

42. H. hyt. 43. H. any man. 44. H. fragn. 



AT FINNESBURG. 



229 



de6r-m5d haele^, 
hwa ¥a duru heolde. 
Sigefer^ is mm nama, 

cwae?; he, 
ic eom Secgena leod, 
wrecca wide cu^ ; 50 

fela ic weana gebad, 
heardra hilda ; 
^e is gyt her witod 
swaejjer ^u sylf to me 
secean wylle. 
Da wses on healle 
wsel-slihta gehlyn, 
sceolde nalaes bor3 
genumen handa, 
ban-helm berstan ; 60 

buruh-6elu dynede, 
o5 aet {)£ere gu^e 
Garulf gecrang, 
ealra ferest 
eor6-buendra, 
Gu^lafes sunu ; 
ymb hyne godra fela hwearf 
la^ra hraew ; 
hraefen wandrode, 
sweart and sealo-brfn ; 70 
swurd-leoma stod, 
swvlce eal Finns buruh 



the fierce warrior, 

who the door held ? 

Sigeferth is my name, quoth 

he. 
I am the Secgas' lord, 
a warrior widely known ; 
many woes have I sustain'd, 
hard battles ; 

for thee is yet here decreed 
whichever thou thyself from me 
wilt seek. 

Then was in the hall 
the din of slaughter, 
the shield might not 
be in hand taken, 
the bone-helm they lack'd ; 
the burgh -floor resounded, 
until in the conflict 
Garulf fell, 
earliest of all 
those earth-dwellers, 
Guthlaf's son, 

surrounded him of many good 
foes the corpses ; 
the raven wander'd, 
swart and sallow-brown ; 
the sword-gleam stood, 
as if all Fin's castle 



50. H. wrecten. 54. swse \>er. 

58. H. celses bor^\ So great was the hurry and confusion conse- 
quent on the surprise, that the Frisians had no time to take their 
shields. 

59. H. genumon. 60. bone-^lm, i. e. shield. 
68. H. lacra hrser. 



230 



THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 



fyrenu wsere. 


were on fire. 


Ne gefraegn ic nsefre wurS- 


Never have I heard more wor- 


licor. 


thily. 


aet wera hilde, 


in a conflict of men. 


sixtig sige-beorna 


sixty conquering heroes 


sel gebjeran. 


better behave, 


ne nsefre sang ne hwitne 


nor ever song or bright mead 


medu 




sel forgyldan. 


better requite. 


))onne Hnsefe guidon 80 


than to Hnsef requited 


his haegstealdas. 


his young warriors. 


Hig fuhton fif dagas, 


They fought five days. 


swa hyra nan ne feol 


so that none of them fell 


driht-gesiSa ; 


of the associates ; 


ac hig ta duru heoldon. 


but they the door held. 


Da gewat him wund haeleS 


Then the hero wounded went 


on weg gangan. 


walking away. 


ssede )>aet his byme 


he said that his bymie 


abrocen wgere. 


was broken, 


here-sceorp unhror, 90 


his war-garb weak, 


and eac wses his helm 


and also that his helm was 


«yrl. 


pierced. 


Da hine sona fraegn 


Then him quickly ask'd 


folces hyrde, 


the people's guardian. 


hu Sa -wigend hyra 


how the warriors their 


wunda genseson. 


wounds had recovered from ? 


oS^e hwaejjer ))3era hyssa 


or whether of the young men 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


* * * 


78. H. swa noc. By song and mead are meant the joys of Hnsef s 


hall. 




86. heelers, i. e. Hnsef. 


87. H. on wseg. 


90. H. sceorpum hror. 


93. Hengest, 



GLOSSARY AND INDICES. 



X 2 



I 



GLOSSARY. 



Note. Compound words are arranged in the order of iheir last com- 
ponent. The first components will be found explained in their alpha- 
betic order. 



A, ever, always. 1562. awa, 

id. 19 14. 
ac, but, for, Lat. nam, enim. 

270, 1484. 
ad(m),p27e.2 2 24,2 233,62 67. 
adl(f),c?«s6'a5e.3476,353o,etc. 
sedre, edre (f), vein. 1489, 

5925- 
sedre, soon, quickly. 1 54, 714, 

etc. 
sefen (m), evening. 831, etc. 
aefre, ever, ^66, etc. 
aefter, after, according to, 

along. 24, 170, 1892, etc. 

seglsec. See aglsec. 

seht. See agan. 

ge-aehtian I ^ , .. 

° > See eantian. 

ge-sehtle J 

^\, a prefix, signifying foreign, 

more usually el, which see. 

di\,for eal, all. 



aeled (m), fire. 6022, 6241. 

O. Sax. eld. O. Nor. elldr. 

Dan. ild. 
aenig, any. 
senile. See an. 
seppel (m), apple. 4336. 
ser (n), brass. 5548. 
ser, ere, before, prime. 253, 

260; Eerest, first. 1236. 

As a prefix to an adjective 

it corresponds to primely. 

1982, etc. 
aerend, aerende (n), errand. 

546, 696, etc. 
sem (n), house, room. Comp. 

hecd-sern. 156 ; hord-se. 

4548, 5655 ; medo-se. 

138; -win-ae. 1 3 1 2 ; ))ryt5- 

ae. 1318. 
ses (n?), carrion. 2668. Dan. 

aadsel. 

^3 



234 



GLOSSARY. 



sesc (f), ash, spear (because 
made of ash), 665, 3548. 

set, at, from. 89, 1263. 

set. See etan. 

pettren. See attor. 

sejjele, noble. 398, 531, etc. 
S. T. 9. agjjeling, prince, 
noble. 5, etc. Comp. sib-se. 
5409. sejjelu (f), nobility. 
•J go, 1826, etc. 

£e5m (m), breath, breathing. 
5180. O. Sax. athom. 

agan, to own, possess. 979, 
1049, etc. Comp. blaed- 
agende. 2031 ; bold-a. 
62i5;folc-a.62r8. seht(f), 
possession, domain. 1 03 7 ; 
Comp. gold-ae. 5489 ; 
ma))m-Be. 3230, 5659. 

aglsec, miserable. 2522; aglse- 
ca, aeglseca, ahlreca, mise- 
rable being. 3 20, 854, 871, 
1 1 16, 1 188, 1297, 1468, 
1482, 1636, etc. 

ahsian, axian, to ask, seek, 
hearsay. 851, S70, 2417. 

aht, aught. 4618. 

aldor, ealdor (n), life. 1024, 
T080, 1327, 1364, 1648, 
etc. vitals? 28^^. ealdor- 
leas. 5998. O. Sax. aldar. 
aldor. See eald. 
an, one, only. 201 ; ana, alone, 
only. 292, 855, etc.; aen. 



alone. gi; senga,anga,on/y, 

sole, 755, 2529, 3098; 

anunga, id. 1272; senlic, 

singular, unique, fair. 507, 

3887. Ohg. einlih. 
an, i. q. on, in. 1358, etc. 
an. See unnan. 
ancer, oncer (m) , anchor. 611, 

3770, 3840. 
anda, envy, hate, rancour, 

1421,4617. Ohg. anado, 

anto. Mhg. ande. 
andgit (m), understanding. 

2122. 
andswarian, to answer. 522, 

etc. 
andweard, present ? 2579. 
andlang? 5383. anlang cem- 

pa, miles ordinarius, gre- 

garius, Cott. 136. Lye. 

See lang. 
ansyn. See seon. 
anunga. See an. 
ar (m), messenger. 677, 933, 

etc. 
ar (f), honour, benefit, pity, 

piety. 34, 639,920, 2379, 

2549. 4745' 5205' etc. 
(arna gen. pi. occurs usu- 
ally for ara.) arfsest, true, 
honourable. 2340. arian, 
to have mercy on. 1201; 
arum, piously, honourably. 
597, 2202, 2368. 



GLOSSARY. 



235 



am and its compounds. See 
yman. 

atol, atelic, dire, foul, fell, 
horrid. 320, 332, n88, 
1 196, 1468, etc. 

attor, ater (n), poison, venom. 
2923, 5423. Ohg. eitar; 
O. Nor. eitr. aettren, ve- 
nomous. 3238 ; aettred, en- 
venomed, hattres (hat- 
tredes ?) 5039. O. Sax. 
hettar. 

axe, ashes. 2238. 

a^ (m), oath. 169, etc. 

B. 

Bad {{), pledge. Comp. nyd- 
b. forced pledge. 1200. 

baed. See biddan. 

bzedan, gebzedan, to compel, 
impel, urge. 5153, 5644, 
6226; to address? 4040. 

bsl (n) pile {funeral), confla- 
gration. 2223, 2237,4259, 
4606, 4633, etc. O. Nor. 
bal. 

baer. See beran. 

ge-baeran, to bear, conduct 
(oneself), appear. 2029, 
5640. F.F. 77. 

baernan, forbaernan. See byr- 
nan. 

baetan, to bit (a horse). 2803 . 

bae^ (m), bath. 3727. 



baldor, bealdor (ra), prince, 

lord. 4848, 5127. 
balw. See bealu. 
ban (m), bone. 1488, 1640^ 

2236, 5149, 5377. 
bana, bona, slayer, bane. 319, 

2209, 3491, etc. Comp. 

ecg-b. 2528, 5006 ; gast- 

b.356; hand-b. 925, 2665; 

mu8-b. 4165. 
ge-bannan, to proclaim. 149. 
bat (m), boat. 427. Comp. 

sse-b. 1270, 1795. 
beacen {n) , beacon, sign. 1 144, 

5547' 6301. beacnian, to 

beckon, indicate. 283. 
beado, beadu (f), war, battle, 

1006, 1 108, 1423, 1984, 

etc. 
beah, beag (m), ring, collar, 

diadem. 69, i6i, 1050, etc. 

Comp. earm-b. 5520 ; 

heals-b. 2395, 435° J ^O" 

cen-b. 5982. 
beald, bald, hold. Comp. cy- 

ning-b. 3273. 
bealdian, to thrive, flourish. 

4360. O. Sax. beldian, 

fortem, audacem reddere, 

animare, corroborare. 
bealdor. See baldor. 
bealu, balw (m), bale, injury. 

567, 1450, 1822, 1958, 

5644. Comp. aldor-b. 



236 



GLOSSARY. 



3356; cwealm-b. 3884; 
feorh-b. 314, 4160, 4492, 
5067 ; hreJ3er-b. 2690 ; 
le5d-b. 3448,3896; morS- 
b. 272; mor5or-b. 2162, 
5477; niht-b. 3 89 ; sweord- 
b. 2298; wig-b. 4098. 
O. Sax. balo (n). 

beam (m), beam, tree. Ger. 
baum, Goth, bagms, Ohg. 
poum. Comp. fyrgen-b. 
2833 ; gleo-b. musical in- 
strument, harp. 4518. 

bearhtm. See beorht. 

bearm (m), hosom. ^2,'/ o, etc. 
O. Sax. barm. 

beam (n), child, Scot, bairn. 
117, etc. O. Nor. Dan. 
bam. Comp. dryht-b. a 
princely or noble child. 
4076; yldo-b. 140. O. 
Sax. eldi-b- 

beam (m), grove. Comp. 
hrinde-b. 2731. 

beatan, to beat. 4522, 4707. 

bed (n), bed. 282, etc. Comp. 
dea^-b. 5795 ; hlin-b. 
6060 ; so hlin-rseced. Cod. 
Exon. 257. 6; mor])or-b. 
4864; wEel-b. 1932; ge- 
bedda. 1334; heals-ge- 
bedda. 126, bedfellow. 

begen, both. 1 07 7, 1 543, 209 1 . 

belgan, abelgan, gebelgan, to 



irritate. 1 4^21, 1451, 3083, 
4450; bolgen, gebolgen, 
angry. 1422, 2866, 3083, 
etc. 

ben (f), prayer. 861, 4558; 
bena, suppliant. 710, 734, 
6272. 

ben (f), wound. 2246, 5442 ; 
Comp. feorh-b. 5473 ; 
seax-b. 5800. 

bene (f), bench, seat. 659, 
976, etc. Comp. ealo-b. 
2062, 5726 ; medo-b. 
1556, 2108, etc. O. Selx. 
benki, benk (n). 

bend {va.i.) ,band, bond. 1958, 
3222. Comp. fyr-b. 1448; 
hell-b. 6137 ; hyge-b. 
3761 ; iren-b. 1553, 2001 ; 
oncer-b. 3840 ; searo-b. 
4179; wael-b. 3876. bin- 
dan, to bind. 438, 845, etc. 
Comp. is-gebind (n), icy 
bond. 2270 ; heoru-bun- 
den, strongly bound. 2574; 
dido-gebunden, 4229. 

beod (m), table. 691, 3431. 
O. Sax. biod. 

beodan, abeodan, gebeodan, 
to offer, bid, announce, com- 
mand. 776, 786, 1 210, 
131 1, 6211; bebeodan, 
to command. 808, etc. ; 
bebod ( n ) mandate ; 



GLOSSARY. 



237 



Comp. wom-wundor-b. 

3498- 

beogan, bigan, bugan, to 
bow, bend. 659, 1385, 
3085, 5190, etc.; abeo- 
gan, to incline from. 1555. 
Comp. woh-bogen. 5646. 
forbigan. S.T. 98; bebu- 
gan, to encircle. 1 87, 245 1 . 
boga, bote, arch. Comp. 
flan-b. 2870, 3492. hom- 
b. 4866; stan-b. 5083, 
5429. hring-b. ringed 
dragon. 5115. 

heor (n), beer. 234,965,2192, 
2485, 4088. 

beorh (m), charge, safe keep- 
ing ? beorgan, bebeorgan, 
gebeorgan, burgan, to de- 
fend, secure. 543, 2590, 
2895, 301 1, 3101, 3497, 
3520,5134,5191. Comp. 
heafod-beorh. 2065. 

beorh, beorg (m), mountain, 
mount. 427, 450, 5504, 
5606, 6 1 86. Comp. stan- 
b. 4432. 

beorht, byrht, bright. 186, 
318, 858, 1 144, etc. 
Comp. here-byrht, glori- 
ously bright. 2402 ; sadol- 
b. 4356 ; beorhtian, to 
brighten, to become loud. 
2325. bearhtm (m), /«;«■«- 



klitig, instant. 2867, 

3537- 
beom (m), warrior, hero. 

428, etc. Comp. folc-b. 
4445; gu8-b. 634; sige- 
b. F. F. 76. 

beot (n), promise, threat. 160, 
1 05 I . gebeotian, to pro- 
mise, threaten. 964, 1076. 

beran, to bear, convey. g6, 
432, etc. setheran, to bear 
away.^^, 1043, 3x27, etc. 
forberan, to restrain, re- 
press, ^y^f^; for6-beran. 
588; in-beran. 43 1 o ; on- 
beran ? 1985; oS-beran, 
to bear away. 1 163, 4557- 
helm-berend. 5027, 5277; 
sawl-berende.2013; mund- 
bora, guardian, protector. 
2964, 5552 ; rsed-b. coun- 
sellor. 2655; W36g-b. wave- 
borne. 2884 ; baer (f), bier. 
6202 ; byrjjen (f), burthen. 
Comp. maegen-b. 3254, 
6174. 

berian, to lay bare. 2482. 

on-berian. See byrgian. 

berstan, to burst, give way, 

fail, lack, Lat. deficere. 

1525, 1640, etc. F. F. 60. 

Comp. for-b. to fy in shi- 

^-^fS' 5354- 
ge-betan. See bot. 



238 



GLOSSARY. 



bicgan, gebicgan (pret. 

bohte), to buy. 1951, etc. 

be-bycgan, to sell. 5591; 

Caedm. 301. 5. on gold 

bebycgean, ^Ifr. Beda, 

II. 12. 
bidan, gebidan, abidan, on- 

bidaiij to await, expect. 14, 

164,533,608, 800, 1863, 

1959. 4594. 4605. 

biddan, to bid, pray, beg. 58, 
etc. Hence Engl. bead. 

bigan, forbigan. Seebeogan. 

bil (n), bill, falchion. 79, etc. 
Comp. guS-b. 1610,5162; 
hilde-b. 1118,3337; ^S' 
b. 3218, 

bindan. See bend. 

bior. See beor. 

bisig, busy, active; also bysig, 
bisig (n), occupation, la- 
bour, s^i' 349O' 5^53 ; 

Comp. lif-b. struggling for 

life. 1936. 
bitan, to bite. 1488^ 2913, 

etc. on-bitan, to bite into ? 

1985 ; bit (f), bite. 4126, 

4511. Comp. Ia3-b. 2248; 

biter, bitter. 2866, 3496, 

5377,5401; \i\\x&, bitterly. 

4651. 
blac, black. 3606, etc. O. 

Nor. blek, Dan. blaek, ink. 
blac, pale. 3038, 4969 ; 



whence Engl, to bleach. 
Ohg. bleih, O. Sax. blec, 
O. Nor. bleikr. 

blsed (m), prosperity, glory. 
36, 2253, 2602, etc. blaed- 
agende, possessing prospe- 
rity. 2031. 

blanca, blonca, horse. 1716 : 
strictly, perhaps, a white 
one, horse being under- 
stood. Kings and princes 
usually rode on white 
horses ; warriors on dun 
or dapple-grey. See A. 
and E. p. 165. 

bleat, livid. 5640. Ohg. plez, 
from pleizza, livor. Comp. 
wael-b. 5443. 

blendan, to blend, mix. blond, 
gebland, geblond (n), mix' 
ture, confusion. Comp. 
sund-g. 2904 ; wind-b. 
6284; f^-g. 2750, 3190, 
3244. blonden, mixed, 
grizzly {hair). 3193, 3586, 
3750,- 5916. 

blican, to glitter, shine. 449. 

blfSe, blithe. 877, etc. un- 
bU^e, sad. 261, 6054. 

blod (n), blood. 977, etc. 
bl5dig, bloody. 900, 1984, 
etc. geblodigian, to ensan- 
guine. 5378. 

blonden. See blendan. 



GLOSSARY. 



239 



boga. See beogan. 

bolca, bulwark (of a ship ?)• 
467. Ohg. plur. balkun, 
agiavia, loca per qua ad 
remiges acceditur. Graff, 
iii. p. 108. 

bold (n), dwelling. 1 998, 3 854, 
6215. C01np.fold-b.1550. 

bolgen. See belgan. 

bolster (n), bolster. 1381, 
2484. 

bona. See ban a. 

bor^. See beran. 

bord (n), board, shield (of 
board). 4412, 4510, 5041, 
5782. Comp. hilde-b. 799, 
6270; wig-b. 4667. bord- 
hsebbende, warrior. 5782. 

bom, gebom. See byrnan. 

hot (f), amends, atonement. 
318, 567, etc. gebetan, 
to make amends. 1665, 
3987,4922. heXViC, excel- 
lent. 3854; betera, better, 

943- 

botm (m), bottom. 3017. 

brad, broad. 3096, 5948, 
6201 ; abradwian, to send 
abroad, drive into exile. 

5232- 

brand. See brond. 

brecan, abrecan, gebrecan, to 
break, burst. 470, 6286, 
etc. F. F. 89. to-b. to 



break in pieces. 1 5 65 , 1 999 . 
gebrsec (n), crash. 4510; 
brec^a, broken {in spirit). 

344- 

bredan, abredan, gebredan, 
bregdan, to braid, draw, 
drag; also to brandish, vi- 
brate. 4341; 14 1 9, 1593, 
3082, 3133, 3333, 51 18; 
1033. Comp. up-abredan, 
to brandish on high. 5144. 
onbredan, to undraw. 1450. 
geond-breeded, drawn over, 
overspread. 2483. part, 
broden, brogden. i 108, 
2891, 3100, 3236, 3338, 
5503, etc. 

brego (m), prince, king. 858, 
1222, 3855,3913- 

breme, renowned. 35. 

brenting. See bront. 

breost (f), breast. 91 1, 11 09, 
etc. used usually in the 
plur. 

breotan, abreotan, to break, 
destroy. 2601,3203,3430, 
5408, 5852? 

brim (n), ocean. 56, etc. 

bringan, to bring. 331 1, 
6010. 

br5ga,/ear, terror. 92 8, 1 170, 
2587, etc. 

brond (m), brand, sword. 
2912. O. Nor. brandr. 



240 



GLOSSARY. 



It. fire, conflagration. 4258, 
4633,6021. 

bront, surgy, foamy. 482, 
1 140. Ger. brandung, 
surge; O. Nor. at brana, 
audacter mere, brenting-, 
(m) ship, poet. 5607. 

brosnian, to moulder, rot. 
4512. 

br6}jor (m), brother. 1178, 
etc. gebr6])ra, brethren. 
2387. 

brucan, to enjoy. 1793) etc. 

brun, brown. 3096, ^149- 
Often applied to a sword 
or helmet of copper or 
bronze. Comp. sealo-b. 
F. F. 70. 

bryd (f), bride. 1846, 4067, 

5853. 5904. 

bryne. See byrnan. 

brytnian, bryttian, to distri- 
bute, dispense. 3457, 4756, 
S. T. 206. brytta, dis- 
penser, distributor. 69, etc. 

buan, to inhabit, cultivate, 
235, etc. Comp. ceaster- 
buende. 1540 ; eor^-b. 
F. F. 65 ; feor-b. 5 1 4, etc. ; 
fold-b. 624, 2714, 4541; 
grund-b. 2016; land-b. 
191, 2694. 

bugan. See beogan. 

bune (f), cup. 5J44, 6087. 



bur (m), bower, chamber. 282, 

2624,4902. Comp. bryd- 

b. 1846. 
burgan. See beorh. 
burh (f), burgh, city. 105, 

1050, 2402. Comp. freo- 

b. free (or loved P) city. 

1390; freoSo-b. 1048; 

beah-b. 2258; hleo-b. 

1828,3467; hord-b. 938; 

leod-b. 4933 ; maeg-b. 

kin, tribe, family. 5766 ; 

win-b. S. T. 155. 
burne (f), bourn, brook. 5086. 
buton, save, except. 1 46, 1 3 1 9, 

etc. 
byldan, to adorn, decorate 

with imagery. 2193. 
byme (f), trumpet. 5879. 

bymian, to sound a trum- 
pet. 4507. 
byran. See beran. 
ge-byrd (n.?), order, succes- 
sion. 2153. 
ge-byrdo (f) (child) -bearing. 

Comp. bearn-g. 1 896. 
bjrre (m), son. 2381, 4040, 

4882, etc. both sing, and 

plur. 
byrel (m), cup-bearer, skinker. 

2327. 
b)Tgean, to taste, partake of, 

feast on. 901 . See Csedm. 

33. 12. on-b. id. 1985. 



GLOSSARY. 



241 



byrht. See beorht. 

byrnan, gebyrnan, to burn, 
V. n. 3764, 5111, 5131, 
5388; F.F. 7. forbyrnan, 
to be burnt up. 3236, 

3338' 52,3'^- W^^e (m). 
burning. 4642. baernan, 
forbcernan, to burn. v. a. 
2236, 4258, 4615. 
byrne (f), corselet, coat of 
mail. 79, 481, etc. O. 
Engl. Scot, byrnie, Goth, 
brunjo, Ohg. brunja, O. 
Sax. brunjo, O. Nor. bry- 
nia, Dan. brj'nie, Sw. bry- 
nia. Comp. gu^-b. 648 ; 
hea{)0-b. 3108; here-b. 
2890, 4313; bringed-b. 

249J- 
byrfjen. See beran. 

bysig. See bisig. 

C. 

Camp (m), conflict. 5003. 
Ohg. champh. cempa, 
champion, soldier. 406, 
2629, 3092, etc. Ohg. 
kamfo. O. Nor. kempa. 

candel (n), candle, lamp.'^ 150. 
Comp.woruld-c.5M«.3935. 

ceald, cold. 1097, etc. 

ceap (n), chattel, bargain. 
4822, 4957; geceapian, 
gecypan, to cheapen, buy. 



4986, 6017, 6143. Goth. 

kaupon, Ohg. kaufon, O. 

Sax. capon, capan, O.Nor. 

kaupa, O. Fris. kapia, Dan. 

kjobe, Sw. kjopa, Netherl. 

koopen,Ger.kaufen. Conf. 

Gr. KanrjKos, Lat. caupo. 
cearu (f), care. 380, 569. 

Comp. aldor-c. 1 8 1 7; guS- 

c. 2520; mod-c. 3560, 

3989, 6289. cearig, an- 
xious, solicitous ; Comp. 

sorh-c. 4901. cearian, ^0 

care. 3077. 
ceaster (f), city, town. 1540. 
cempa. See carap. 
cene, valiant, freen.418,1541. 

Ger. kiihn. Comp. daed- 

c. 3294; gar-c. 3921; 

cen^u (f), valour. 5385. 

cenan, to animate, make 

bold. 2442. 
cennan, acennan, to give birth 

to, procreate. 24, 1891, 

2717. 
ceol (m), keel, skip. 76, 482, 

3617, 3829. 
ceorfan, to cut, lit. carve. 

beceorfan, to amputate. 

3185, 4283. 
ceorl (m) free man (not no- 
ble), lit. churl. 407, 837, 

1821, 3187. 
ceosan, geceosan (pret. ceiis, 

Y 



242 



GLOSSARY. 



2. cure, part, gecoren), to 
choose. 417, 4742, 493c, 
5629. This verb is used 
in many cases denoting 
deaths as geceas ecne rsed. 
2407 ; bcel ceosan, 5629. 
cyst (f), the choicest, best. 
1350, 1609. 1738, 1850, 
etc. Ohg. O. Sax. cust, 
electio, optio, cEstimatio, 
etc. Comp. gum-cyst, 
bounty. 2976,3450,5079; 
cystum, bountifully. S. T. 
114. 

cigan, acigan^ to call. 6233. 

cirran, to turn ; oncirran, id., 
/oarers 5707,5895,5933. 

clam, clom (m), bond, clutch. 
193 I. 2675, 3008. 

clif, cleof (n), cliff, shore. 
3826. Comp. brim-c. 449 
eg-c. ocean-shore, 5778 
holm-c. 465, 2846, 3274 
stan-cleofu. 5073 ; weall- 
c. 6255. 

clom. See clam. 

ge-cnawan. to know. 410 1 ; 
oncnawan, to recognise. 
5102. 

cniht (m), boy, youth. 750, 
etc. 

cnosl (n ?), offspring. S. T. 
106. 

cnvsian,/o bruise, crush. 2660. 



c5fa, chamber. Comp. ban- 

c. carcase. 2894. 
col, cool. 570, 4139. 
collen-ferh^. See ferh^. 
ge-coren. See ce5san. 
corner (n), company, train. 

2310,6233. Ohg.kortar, 

herd. 
costian, to prove, try, tempt. 

4ns- 

crseft (m. f.), strength, art, 
craft. 1402, 1969, 2571, 
4369. Comp. gu3-c. 254; 
leoSo-c. enchantment.^^;} i ; 
meegen-c. 765 ; nearo-c. 
44795 wig-c. 5898. crsef- 
tig, crafty, knowing. 2936. 
lagu-c. 423; wig-c. 3626. 

cringan, gecringan, to die, 
fall (in battle), lit. to 
cringe. 1275, 2231, 2423, 
2679, etc. 

cuman, becuman, to come. 
46, 231, 2513. 5098. 
Comp. feorran-cumen, one 
come from afar, stranger. 
3594.3642. cuma, p'we^^ 
stranger. 3616. Comp. 
c\vealm-c.i588; wil-c.782, 
794. cyme (m), coming, 
advent. 520. Comp. eft-c. 
5785. ofercuraan. 1403, 
1694. etc. wilcume (0, 
welcome. 782, 3792. 



GLOSSARY. 



243 



cumbol, cumbor (n), banner, 
ensign. ,5004, 2048. 

cunnan, to know, joo, etc. 
cuS, known. 303, etc. 
oncu^, oncy^, unknown, 
strange, portentous ? lit. 
uncouth. 558, etc. Cornp. 
wid-cu^. 2c88, 2516, etc. 
cu^lic, open, public. 493. 
cyjjan, gecyjjan, to make 
known. 704, 1323. 

cunnian, to prove, tempt, ex- 
perience. 1021, 2857, etc. 
S. T. 105. 

cwealm. See cwellan. 

cweccan, to shake, brandish, 
lit. quake. 476. 

cwellan, acwellan, to slay. 
21 14, 2673, etc. cwealm 
(m), death, pestilence. 215, 
1588, etc. Comp. bealu- 
cwealm. 4823, 6290 ; 
dea6-c. 3344, 3428 ; gar- 
c. 4092. 

cwen (f), woman, queen. 1 24, 
1230, etc. O. Nor. kvendi, 
Dan.kvinde,?<;oman. Comp. 
folc-c. 1286; dryht-c. S. 
T. 197. cwenlic,/effli«j«e. 
3885. 

cwe^an, acwe^an, to speak, 
say. 184, 1313, etc. ge- 
cwe¥an, to agree together. 
1074. cwide (m), saying, 



speech. Comp. gegen-c. 

739; gilp-c. 1284; lileo- 

J)or-c.3962; word-c. 3686, 

3694, 5499. oncweSan, 

to respond. F. F. 12. 
cwic, cwico, quick, living. I ^"j, 

1589, etc. 
cwide. See cweSan. 
cyme. See cuman. 
cymlic, comely, handsome, 75. 
cyn (n), kind, kin, race. 196, 

214, 846, etc. Comp. 

eormen-c. 3918; feorh-c. 

4524; fifel-c. 209 ; frum- 

c.509; gum-c. 525,1892, 

5524; man-c. 221, etc.; 

wyi:m-c. 2855. gecynde, 

natural. 4401, 5386. 
cvnin^ (m), king. 22, etc. 

Comp. beorn-c. 4302 ; 

eor^-c. 2315 ; folc-c. 

5460, 5738; gu6-c. 401, 

4660, 51 19; leod-c. 107; 

Scc-c. 4754 ; woruld-c. 

3373 ; wuldur-c. 5582 ; 

))e6d-c. 4294, 5 151. etc. 

cynedom. 4741. 
ge-cyssan, to kiss. 3744. 
cyst (m ?) body (of troops) . 

5189. See Csedm. 67. 25; 

Battle of Brunanburh ap. 

Warton, H. E. P. i. Ixxiii. 

edit. 1840. Cod. Exon. 

220. 25, 358. 27; Inv. 
Y 2 



•244 



GLOSSARY. 



Cross (Vercelli Poetry). 

70. 
cyst. See cedsan. 
cy]jan. See cunnan. 
cy^])u (f), country. 1664. 

Comp. feor-c. 3681. 



D. 

Dad (f), deed. ^6^, 393, etc. 
Comp. ellen-d. 1 756,1804, 
etc.; fyren-d. 2006, 3343; 
lof-d. 48 ; wea-d. F. F. 
15. fordcedla, fordoer, 
destroyer. 1130. 

daeg (m), day. 396, etc. 
Comp. ser-d. ere-day, early 
day. 253, etc. ; aldor-d. 
1440,1518; dea6-d. 376, 
etc.; ende-d. 1279; fyrn- 
d. 2907 ; gear-d. d. of 
^ore. 2, 2712, 4458 ; Isen- 
d. 4672, 5 1 75; Kf-d. 1590, 
3248; swylt-d. 5588; 
win-d. 2128. dagian^ to 
dawn. F. F. 4. dseges, by 
day. 4530 ; an-daeges, 
daily? 3874. 

dael (m), part. 1247, 2304, 
3469. bedselan, to deprive. 
1446, ?554. S. T. 106, 
gedtelan, to deal, part, dis- 
tribute. 143, 161, etc. 
gedal (n), separation, dis- 



tribution. S.T. 1^8. Comp- 
aldor-g.1615; lif-g-i687: 
woruld-g. 6128. 

dagian. See daeg. 

dareS (m), dart. 5689. O. 
Nor. dorr. 

deal, proud, eanilting. 992, 
See Cod. Exon. 216. 10, 
332. 21, 404. 22 ; A. and 
E. 126. 

dear, (fare. 1059,1373,2763. 
2929. dyrstig, daring. 
5669. 

deagan (pret. deog), to dye. 
1704. 

un-dearninga. See dyrne. 

dea^ (m), death. 322, etc. i 
Comp. gu3-d. 4491; wael- 
d. 1395; wundor-d. 6067 ; 
dead, dead. 939, etc. 

ge-defe, fitting, gentle. 1 1 27, 
etc. ungedefelice, unbe- 
comingly. 4862. 

deman, to deertiy judge. 1378, 
6330. ^emendi, judge. 2,6^, 
dom (m), doom, judgment, 
glory, authority, power. 
886, 1775, 1794, 1913, 
etc. domleas, inglorious. 

denn (n), den. 5512, 6082. 
deofol (m. n.), devil. 1516. 

3364, etc. 
deog. See deagan. 



GLOSSARY. 



24.'i 



deogol, dygel, secret, dark. 

555. 2719- 

deop, deep. 1023, 3812. 
diope, deeply. 6 1 3 1 . 

deor, dior (n), beast, lit. deer. 
3902, 4186. Ger. Thier, 
Dan. Dyr. This word ap- 
plied to a warrior does 
not, as in modern usage, 
imply reproach, as heajjo- 
d. 1380, 1548 ; hilde-d. 
629, 1672, etc. (Thus 
men are named Wulf, 
Biorn, Bear; Hengest, 
Stallion,etc.) Comp.mere- 
d. 1120; sse-d. 3025. wil- 
deor. 2864. 

deor, dear, precious. 980, etc. 

deorc, dark. 322, etc. 

ge-digan, to escape from. 606, 
1 161, 1327, 3315, etc. 

disc (m), dish. 5544, 6088. 

dogor (m), day. 176, 444, 
1215, 1650, 2184, etc. 
Strictly the half of a na- 
tural day, or space of 12 
hours. O. Nor. daegur. 

dohtor, daughter. 2157, etc. 

dol, dollic,/oo/2sA, rash. 962, 
1022, 5285. 

dolh (m), wound. Comp. syn- 
d. 1638. 

dom. See deman, 

den, gedon, to do, put, place. 



88, 2293, 4379. 6133, 
of don, to doff. 1346. 

dor (n }), door, gate, S.T. 87. 

draca, dragon, drake, serpent. 
1789, 4183, 4429, 4570, 
etc. Comp. eor^-d. 541 7, 
5462; fyr-d. 5371; lig-d. 
4655,6073; nrS-d.4538; 
sse-d. 2856. 

on-drsedan, to dread. 3353. 
4684. 

ge-draeg (n), pack, noisy 
crew. 1 5 16. See A. and 
E. p. 95. 

draepan, to s/nAe.3495,5753. 
5955. O. Nor. at drepa, 
Dan. at drsebe. drep (f), 
stroke, blow. 3183. 

dreah. See dreogan. 

dream (m), joy. lyy, 199, 
etc. Comp. gleo-d. 6034; 
gum-d.4929;man-d.2533, 
3435; medu-d.4036; sele- 
d. 4496. dreama-leas. 

1705. 3445- 
drefan, to trouble, agitate. 

2838, 3475. 3812. 

dre5gan, to undergo, act, en- 
joy. 29, 263, 849, 1 182, 
1 60 1, 1667, 4364, etc. 

dreor, drior (m), gore, clotted 
6/00^.898, 974, etc. Comp. 
heoru-d.978,1703. sawul- 
d. 5379; wsel-d. 3267. 



246 



GLOSSARY. 



dreorig, ^ory. 2838. heo- 
ru-d. 1875, 3565, etc. 

dre5san, gedreosan, to fall, 
sJnA:. 35 13, _53 25. drusian, 
to run, or trickle down. 
3265. 

drifan, to drive. 5609. to- 
drifan, to drive asunder. 
1095. 

driht, gedriht, gedryht (f.n.), 
company, band. 198, 237, 
720, etc. S.T. 237. Comp. 
mago-d. 134; sibbe-ged. 
779, 1462. drihtea (m), 
lord, prince. 216, etc. 
Comp. frea-d. 1596, etc.; 
freo-d. 2343 ; gum-d. 
3289; hleo-d. S.T. 189; 
man (mon)-d. 876, 2463, 
2503, 3961, etc. ; sige-d. 
788, S. T. 209 ; wine-d. 
726, 1728, 3213, etc. 
dribtlic, noble, princely. 
i788,F.F.29. dryhtscipe, 
deed of valour. 2944. 

drincan, to drink. 1489, etc. 
druncen, drunk. g6^, 2938. 
Comp. heoro-d. sword- 
drunk, i. e. mortally wound- 
ed. 4706. 

drohtian, to hold converse, 
associate, drohto'5 (m), 
condition, sojourn. 151 7. 
drusian. See dreosan. 



dryht, dryhten. See driht. 
dryrmian, to grow sad or 
gloomy. 2 J Ki^. SeeCsedm. 
180.5. 

an-drysne, ondrysne (f?), 
awe. 3596 ; also awful, 
terrific. 3869. 

ge-dufan,^orfa'e.5394. Comp. 
))urh-d. 3243. gedyfan, 
id. 5091. This word ap- 
pears to signify both a 
downward and upward 
motion in the water. 

dugan, to be good, fit for. 
avail. 1057, 1151, 1 1 83, 
etc. S.T. 1 14, 180. dugu^ 
(f); virtue, valour; also 
the court, nobility, body of 
senators or councillors, opp. 
to geogu^, youth. 323, 
1246, etc. dugujjum, no- 
bly. 6330. 

duru (f), door, gate. 1447. 
F. F. 28, 32, etc. 

dygel. See deogol. 

dvnian, to resound. 1538, etc. 
F. F. 61. Hence Engl. 
din. 

dyr. See deor. 

dyrne, dearne, dark, secret. 
548, 2718, etc. undyrne, 
manifest. 255, etc. un- 
dearninga, openly, without 
concealment. 4004, F. F. 



GLOSSARY. 



•247 



45. undyrn, morning, 
2860. 
dyrstig. See dear. 

E. 

Ea (f), water. 454, 4657. 

O. Sax. aha. O. Nor. a. 
eacan, to increase, eke. eacen, 

increased, great. ^gS, 3 246, 

3330, 4286, etc. 
eadig, happy , prosperous,rich. 

2454, etc. Comp. sige-e. 

3 1 19; sigor-e. 2626,4693; 

tir-e.4384. eadiglice,^<7/?- 

pily. 200. 
eafera, eafora, offspring, son. 

23. 37. 756, etc. 
eafo^. See earfo^. 
cage (n), eye. 1457, 3537, 

3567- 

eagor, egor, eg- (n), sea, 
ocean. 488, 1030, 1158, 
5778. Lat. Bequor; O. 
Nor. oegir. Also a nar- 
row frith surrounded by 
rocks. See North. Myth, 
i. 27. 67. 199. 

eahtian, ehtian^ to devise, 
esteem. 347, 2449, 2819, 
6327, gcEehtian, to prize. 
3774. gQ^hX\Q,estimation. 

743- 
eal, a//. 143, 1307, etc. ealles, 
altogether. 2004. 



eald, old. 144, etc. Comp. 
*fen-e. S. T. 81. yldra, 
elder. 940, 2653 ; yldest, 
eldest, chief. 521, 731. 
yldo, eldo (f). age. 43, 
3466, 3536, etc. ealdor, 
aldor (ra), senior, elder, 
prince, iii, 697, etc. al- 
dorleas. 30. 

ealgian, to defend. 1597,2413, 

5304. 5329- 

ealu (f), ale. 966, 995, i J42, 
2062, 3894, 4047. 

earn (m), uncle. J766. 

card (m), country, home. 1 1 1, 
209, etc. eardian, to in- 
habit, occupy. 335, 6093. 

earfo^, eafo^ (n), difficulty, 
labour, also energy, vigour. 
572, 1072, 1208, 1808, 
etc. Ger. arbeit ; Ohg. 
arabeit ; O. Nor. erfi^i ; 
Goth, arbaijjs. earfo^- 
hce, difficultly. 173, 3276, 
etc. 

earg, sluggish, cowardly, base. 
5076. 

earm (m), arm. 1031, 1503, 
etc. 

earm, earmhc, poor, misera- 
ble. 1 159, etc. yrmSu (f), 
misery. 2523,4014. 

earn (m), eagle. 6044. O. 
Nor. Dan. orn. 



248 



GLOSSARY. 



east, east ; eastan, from the 
east. I [43, F. F. 4. 

eatol (m), giant. 4154. O. 
Nor. iotul, i. q. iotun and 
A. S. eoten. See Faye, 
p. 7, Hallager and Aasen, 
sub voce ; North. Myth. ii. 
Alvismal,Stroph.3 6, Edda, 
Finn Magnusen, i. p. 78. 

eawan, eowan, to show, dis- 
P^ay. 557, 3480. 

eaxl (f), shoulder. 722, 1637, 
etc. Ohg. ahsala, Ger. 
achsel. 

ea6, y6, easy. 276, 462, etc. 
eaSe, easily. 961, 1365, 
etc. ySelice, id. 3116. 

ece, eternal. 216, 2407, etc. 

ecg (f), edge, sword. 971, 
1 196, 1613, 2216, 2340, 
etc. Comp. bnin-e. 3096; 
heard-e. 2581 ; styl-e. 
3070. 

edre. See aedre. 

efn, even, on efn, on a level, 
alongside. 5798. 

efnan. See sefnan. 

efne, lo .' behold ! just, even. 
1890, 2188, etc. 

efstan, to hasten. 2990, 6193. 
ofost (f), haste. 518, 777, 
2588, etc. ofostlic. 6251. 

eft, again, back, in turn. 44, 
112, 247. 



eftsona, soon, e/tsoons. 3529. 

eg. See eagor. 

ege, egesa (m), terror, dread. 
557'! 5 72, etc. Ohg.ekiso, 
O. Sax. egiso. Comp. 
gled-e.5293; lig-e. 5544; 
wseter-e. 2524. egsian, /o 
inspire with terror. 1 1 . 
egesful, egeslic, dreadful, 
terrific. 3302, 4608, 5642, 

5850- 

egle, terrific, pernicious. igy^. 
Goth, aglus. 

ehtan, to pursue, persecute. 
321, 3028. 

ehtian. See eahtian. 

el, a prefix signifying/or«^n, 
as in el])e6dig. 678, etc. 
eometimes incorrectly 
written ael, which see. 
ellor, belonging to another 
place, strange, foreign, 
Lat. alio, no, 1509,1619, 
2702, etc. elxa, compar.? 
1509. 

eldo. See eald. 

ellen (n), vigour, energy, va- 
lour. 6, 172, 695, etc. 
Goth, aljan, O. Sax. ellan, 
O. Nor. eUan. Comp. ferh- 
e. 5406; msegen-e, 1323. 
elne, vigorously, boldly, 
stoutly. 1 791, 2198, etc. 
ellenlice, id. 4250. 



GLOSSARY. 



249 



elles, else. 5034. ellesh\va?r, 
elleshwergen, elsewhere. 

277.5173- 

ellor. See el. 

ende (ra), end. 453, 487, etc. 
on ende, i. q. on endebyrd- 
nesse, in order. 4046 ; ge- 
endian, to end. 4612. 

eng, narrow. 2824. 

ent (m), giant. 3362, 5428, 
5541. entisc, giantlike, 
appertaining to a giant. 

595^' 

coder (m), hedge, fence, en- 
closure, &g. protector. 860, 
1330, 2078, 2092. 

eofer, eofor (m), boar, the 
favourite ornament of the 
helmet. 612, 2228, 2660, 
2879, 431 !• eofor-lic, 
likeness of a boar. 612. 

eorcnan-stan. See stan. 

eored, eorod (m ?), troop, 
Lat. legio, turma. 

eorl (m), man, warrior, lit. 
earl. 1 1 , etc. eorlic, noble, 
worthy of an eorl. 1278; 
eorlscipe, valour. 3458, 
4272, etc. 

eormen-, a prefix of doubtful 
meaning, but used as a 
mere intensitive, and in 
the formation of some 
proper names, as Eorman- 



ric, etc. The royal line of 
Kent was much attached 
to names with this prefix, 
as Eormenric, Eorraen- 
burh, Eormenred, Eor- 
mengyth. In certain cases 
it seems to signify earth, 
world, as O. Nor. iormun- 
gandr, the serpent that en- 
circles the earth ; iormun- 
grund. 1722,3918; eor- 
men-laf. 4460. Ohg. O. 
Sax. irmin. See D. M. 
104, sqq., 325,327, 759; 
North. Myth. i. pp. 31, 
49, etc. 

eorre. See yrre. 

eorSe (f), earth. 185, etc. 

eoten (m), giant. 224, 846, 
1 341, 1526. O. Nor. io- 
tim. eotenisc, fabricated 
or used by eotens or giants 
(a sword). 3120, 5225, 

595°- 
eowan. See eawan. 

est (m), love, favour. 1921, 
4337, 6142. este, gra- 
cious. i8g^; estnm , kindly , 
graciously. 2392, 4304, 
4745. Goth, ansts. 

etan, to eat. 892, 902. jjurh- 
e. 6090. set (m), food, 
2543. 6045. 

e6. See ea^. 



250 



GLOSSARY. 



ejjel (m), native country. 824, 
1045, etc. Comp. eard-e. 
4402; fseder-e. S. T. 26, 
193- 



Facn (n), treachery, guile. 
2041. uniseceu, guileless. 

4143- 

faec (n), space of time. 4472. 

fseder (m), father. 378, etc. 
Comp. ar-f. 5238; suhter- 
gefseder, paternal cousin. 
2332; suhtor-faedera, S.T. 
94, Cod. Exon. 321. 15. 
faedrunga (faedrunge }), 
parent. 4262. Ohg. fata- 
rungo. faederen,/)a^er«fl/. 

2530- 
{^ge, fated, Lat. moribundus. 

1696, 2486, 3058, etc. 

Ohg. O. Nor. feigi, un- 

fsege, undoomed. 1150, 

4571. Comp. dea6-f. 1704. 
faegen, glad, joyous, fain. 

2033, 3270. 
faeger, fair, beautiful. 1048, 

etc. ; gefaeger, grateful ? 

1834; unfaeger, 1459; 

faegere, fairly, kindly. 

3581, 3974. 
faehS. See fah. 
fsel, faithful. S.T. 11. 
faelsian, gefaelsian, to cleanse. 



purify, expiate. 869, 1654. 

2357. 3245. 4900. etc. 

faemne, damsel, woman. 4074. 

fsr (ro), danger. 1160, 2 141, 
2930, 4022. Ohg. fara, 
O. Nor. far, Ger. gefahr. 
f aer (adj . ) , perilous, sudden . 
350. 956, 1480, 3036. 
fieringa, suddenly. 2832, 
3980. 

faer. See faran, 

faest, fast, firm. 275, etc. 
Comp. ar-f. honourable, 
true. 2340; blaed-f. 2602 
gin-f. ample, abundant 
2546, 4370; handa-f, 
2584; heah-f. S.T. 288 
tir-f. 1S48; wis-f. 1256 
faesten (n), fastness, for 
tress. 2c8, 4656, 5893 
faestraeden, firm, steadfast 
1225. faeste, /rw/y. 1 1 13 
befaestan, to commit. 2235 

faet (n), vessel, vat, case 
5315- Ohg. faz, O. Nor 
fat, Ger. fass, Lat. vas 
Comp. ban-f. carcase 
2236 ; drinc-f. 4500, 
4601 ; ma^))um-f. 4801 
sinc-f. 1248, 2404, 4589 
wundor-f. 2328. 

faet, fat, rich, stout P 672, 
2190, 3504, 3846, 4210, 
4484. Ohg. feizt, O. Nor. 



GLOSSARY. 



2J1 



feitr. faeted, fatted, en- 

riched,ornamented,overlaid. 

2076,4499,4553.5395; 

faettum, richly.' ii\^6. 
faeSm (m), bosom, embrace. 

372, 378, 1367, etc. O. 

Sax. fathm, O.Nor. faSmr, 

Mt./uthom, i. e. as much as 

can be embraced. faeSmian, 

to embrace. 5298, 6257. 

Comp. sid-faeSmed, wide- 

bosomed (ship). 610, 3839. 
fah, fag {m),foe. 1627 ; also 

hostile. I iy6, etc. Comp. 

nearo-f. 4624. faeh6 (f), 

hostility, feud, quarrel. 218, 

274, 308, 923, 944, etc. 

faehSo.'' 5990. Comp.wael- 

f. 4061. 
fiih, fag, variegated, coloured, 

stained. 615, 844, 898, etc. 

Ohg. veh. Comp. ban-f. 
1564; bl6d-f. 4127; brun- 

f. 5223; dreor-f. 974; 

gold-f. 621, 1993, etc.; 

gryre-f. 5146; searo-f. 
2892; sinc-f. 336; stan- 

f. 645 ; swat-f. 2226, 
2576; wael-f. 2260; wvrm- 

f. 3400. 
fiimig, /oamy. 441, 3822. 
ge-fandian, to tempt, try, 
tamper with. 4592. O. 
Sax. fandon. 



fangan. See f5n. 

faran, gefaran, to go, fare. 
249, etc. fara, /arer, tra- 
veller. Comp. mere-f. 
1008. faer (n.''), ship, ve- 
hicle. 66. faer (m), fare, 
course. Journey ; f5r (n), 
id. Comp. ad-f, 6012. 
feran, geferan, to go. 53, 
513, 2785, 4515, etc. 
Comp. geond-f. S. T. 5, 
1 01. ferian, geferian, to 
convey, bear. 671, 2313, 
6205, 6217; to achieve. 
2446. aet-f.,of-f.^o bear off. 
3 17 r, 3342. oS-f., ^0 con- 
vey away. 4288. fering 
(f), travel, journeying. S.T. 
264. 

faro6 (m), shore. 56, 1164, 
3836. See waro6. 

fea./ew. 2167, 2828. 

gefea.yoy. 1129, 5474. ge- 
fean, to rejoice. 218, 1 659, 
etc. 

feald, fold. Comp. anfeald, 
simple, single. 517. 

feallan, to fall. 1549, etc. 
befeallan, to fall off, also 
to be bereft of by falling 
{in battle). 2256, 4504. 
fyUan, gefyllan, to fell, 

s%- 5303. 5405- fyl (0. 

fall, slaughter, death. 2670^ 



252 



GLOSSARY. 



5817, etc. shower (of ar- 
rows. 6230. Comp. hra-f. 
559; wael-f. 250, 3427. 

fealo, fallow, dun, yellow. 
1735' 1837, 2068, 3904. 
Comp. seppel-f. dapple 
grey. 4336. Ohg. aphal- 
gra ; O. Nor. apal-grar ; 
Dan. abildgraa. 

feasceaft, poor, destitute. 13, 

195O' 4559. 4775' etc. 
feax, fex (n), head of hair. 

3298, etc. Ohg. fahs ; 

O. Nor. fax, mane. Comp. 

blonden-f. grizzly haired. 

3193,3586,3750; gamol-f. 

1 220, etc. â– wunden-f.2804. 
fedan, afedan^ to bring forth, 

give birth to, rear. T391. 

O. Nor. at fseda ; Dan. at 

fode. 
fela, much, many. 72, 821, 

etc. Ger. viel ; Goth, filu ; 

O. Nor. fiol. 
fel {n),fell, skin. 4183. 
fen (n),fen, mud. 208, 1532, 

1645, etc. 
fengel (m), prince, king. 280^, 

2954, 43 1 8, 4680. From 

fangan ? 
feoh (n), cattle, money. 41, 

3^5' 945. etc. Goth. 

faihu ; Ohg. fihu ; Ger. 

vieh ; Dan. fae, cattle. 



Engl. fee. feohleas, not to 
be atoned for with money. 

4873- 

feohtan, to fight, gefeohtan, 
to gain by fight. 2 1 7 1 . 
fyht (m), gefeoht (n), 
fight. 918, 4 1 03 , etc. ; 
feohte (f), id. 1 157, 1922. 

feond (m),/oe. 203, 289, etc. 
Goth, fijands; Ohg. fiant; 
O. Sax. fiond; O. Nor. 
fiand ; Engl, fiend. Like 
freond, this word was ori- 
ginally a participle. 

feor, far. 73, 84, 219, etc. 
Goth, fairra, Ohg. fer ; 
Ger. fern, gefeor .'' 2684. 
iyr, farther. 288, 510, etc. 
feorran, from afar. 183, 
728, 865, etc. ; also feor- 
ran, to remove to a dis- 
tance, withdraw. 314. Ohg. 
firrjan ; O. Sax. ferrian. 

feorh (m), life, soul. 147, 
314, 883, etc. Comp. 
freolic-f. F. F. 38; geo- 
^ go«-f. 1078, 5321; t6 
widan feore, throughout 
all time. 187 i, 4033. 

feorm {i),food, Yii.farm. or- " 
feorme, without sustenance, 
destitute ? 4759 ; formen- 
leas,/oorf/es5.55 16; gefeor- 
mian, to eat up, feed. 1493. 



GLOSSARY. 



2o:i 



feran, geferan, geferian. See 
far an. 

ferh, ferh5, ferS (m), mind, 
heart, spirit, life. 6 1 6, 1 5 1 2 , 
2295. ^336. 6334, etc. 
Comp. collen-f. bold of spi- 
rit. (The first component 
of this word is of unknown 
derivation) ; sarig-f. sad- 
minded. 5718; swiS-f . ener- 
getic. 348,990, 1656, etc.; 
wide-f. widely (both as to 
time and place),/ro»i afar, 
a;<'rwjore.i4o8,i879,2448. 

fetel (m ?), belt, sword-knot ? 
3130. O. Nor. fetill. 

fetian,gefetian,^o/efc^.2625, 

4387- 

fe6a, body of men, Lat. turma. 
2659. 2853. 4987, etc. 
Comp. gum-f. 2807 ; fe^e, 
on foot. 1944, 3956, 5688, 
active, agile? 3092, 5698. 

feSer (f), feather. 6229. 

fifel (n), monster, sprite. 209, 
S. T. 87. So Cod. Exon. 
321. 8 and p. 517. fifel-. 
dor, the Eider ; Inv. of 
cross (Verc. Poet.), 1. 473, 
fifel-wseg. See A. and E. 
p. 147. Boet. Metres, edit. 
Fox, p. 113, fifel-stream. 
In Spec. Glossarii Finn 
Magnusen explains fifl by 



monstrum, deemon infestus. 
See Edda iii. p. 220. In 
the V6lu-sp4 it is said : 

KJ611 ferr austan, 

koma munu Muspells 

um log ly^ir ; 

en Loki styrir : 

fara./?/f-megir 

meS freka allir ; 

beim er brAiSir 

Byleists i for. 

A ship fares from the east, 
come will Muspell's 
people over the sea ; 
but Loki will steer : 
the monster kin will go 
all with the wolf; 
with them is the brother 
of Byleist on their course. 

Fifel seems connected with 
the O. Nor. fimbul, a word 
of doubtful signification, 
but evidently denoting 
something vast or famous. 
Comp. O. Nor. fimm,/t«?, 
with A. S. fif. 

filhan, to commit, deposit, 
though in Beow. it seems 
to signify to fall in, Lat. 
incidere, rush in. 2405, 
2567. Goth, filhan, Ohg. 
felhan, O. Sax. bifelhan, 
O. Nor. fela, to hide, bury. 
setfilhan, to fall on, assail'? 
1941. 

findan, to Jind. 13, etc. on- 



254 



GLOSSARY. 



iindan, to discover, find out. 
1 1 94, etc. Comp.ea^-finde, 
easily to be found. 276. 

finger. See fon. 

fir. See fyr. 

firen. See fyren. 

first. See fyrst, 

fisc (m),fish. Comp. hrcn- 
f. 1085 ; mere-f. 1 102. 

fltpsc (n), flesh. 4840. 

flan (f), arrow. 2870, 3492, 
4868, 6230. 

fleam. See fleogan. 

fleogan, fleon, befleon, to fly, 
/ee.15 15,1644, 4539, etc. 
S. T. 256. Comp. ofer- 
fleon, to fly over. 5043. 
&6ga, flier. Comp. gu^-f. 
5049; lyft-f. 4619; uht- 
^•55 13; wid-f.4681.5652. 
fleam (m), flight. 2007, 
etc. geflyman, to put to 
flight. 1696; fliht (m.?), 

flight- 3535- 
fleotan, to float. 1089, 3822. 

flota, ship. 426, 441, 594, 

608. Comp. waeg-f. 3818. 
flet (n),coMr^/ia//.957,2o54, 

2077, 2176, etc. S. T. 6. 

Ohg. flazzi, O. Sax. fletti, 

O. Nor. flet. 
fiitan, to contend. 1 836. Ohg. 

flizan. geflit (n), contest. 

1734. Comp.sund-f.1019; 



ofer-flitan, to overcome. 
1039; unflitme, without 
contention. 2198, 2262. 

flod (n), flood, river. 83, etc. 

floga. See fleogan. 

flor (m), floor. 1454, 2636. 

flota. See fleotan. 

folc (n), people, folk. 146, etc. 
selfylc, a strange people. 
4731 ; sige-f. 1292. 

folde (f), earth. 193, etc. 

folgian, to follow, as a vassal 
his lord. 2209, S. T. 108. 

folm (f), hand. 319, etc. 
Comp. beadu-f. 1984 ; 
gearo-f. 4176. 

fon, gefon, fangan, to take, 
seize. 882, 3078, etc. be- 
fon, to seize, surround, en- 
velope. 2594, 2906, etc. ; 
on-f. to receive. 104, 1381 , 
etc.; wiS-f. <o seise. 1524; 
ymb-f. to clasp round. 
5376 ; ])urh-f. to pene- 
trate. 3013. feng (m): 
clasp, clutch. 1 1 60, 3532. 
Comp. inwit-f. 2898; fser- 
befongen.4022. finger (m), 
/ffl^er. 1525, 1534, 3015. 

fondian. See fundian. 

for. See faran. 

foran, beforan, before. 1973, 
2829, 2920. 

ford {m),ford. 1140, 5911- 



GLOSSARY. 



fore, for, on account of, Lat. 
prje, 273, 918 ; as a pre- 
fix, greatly, pre-. 1943. 

forht, fearful. 15 12, 5927. 
unforht. fearless. 579,892. 

forma,/r5^ 1 485,4562,5 1 40. 

5244- 
forst (m), frost. 3222. 
forS, forth. 90, 588, etc. 

furpar, further. 513, 1527, 

6005. 
forjjan, because. 1362. 
fot (m), foot. 1004, 1494, 

4567, etc. 
fracod, bad, useless. 3155. 

O. Nor. fracki, res rejecta- 

nea : de gladio. 
ge-frsege. See frinan. 
fraetu (f), ornament, treasure, 

martial equipment. 74, 434, 

1797, etc. fraetwian, ge- 

frsetwian, to adorn. 152, 

T92, 1988. 
fram, from./rom. 221, etc. 
frea, lord. 54, 547, 587, etc. 

Goth, frauja, Ohg. fro, 

O. Sax. froho. Comp. 

agend-f. 3770 ; lif-f. 32 ; 

sin-f. 3873. 
free, frecn, daring, audacious, 

perilous. 1782, 2213, 2722, 

2760, etc. freca, daring 

warrior. 3131. Comp. 

ferhS-f. 2296; guS-f.4819; 



hilde-(hild-)f.44i6, 4721; 

scyld-f. 207 1; sweord-f. 

2940; wig-f. 2428, 4985. 

frecne, boldly, audaciously. 

1923, 2069, etc. 
frefrian, gefrefrian. Seefrofer. 
fremde./ore/j'w, strange.^ 387, 

S. T. 102. Ohg. framadi ; 

O. Sax. fremithi. 
fremian, fremman, gefrem- 

man, to perform, effect, be 

expedient. 6, 202,27 1,333, 

357' 4890^ etc. 
fremu ? 3868. 
freogan, freon, to love. 1900, 

6334. Goth, frijon. freod 

(f), love, peace ? 3418, 

4946. freond (m), loving, 

friend; {reondMc, friendly. 

2058. freo, beloved. 2343. 
freolic, joyous, free, liberal. 

1234, 1286, F. F. 38. 
freond. See freogan. 
freo^o (f ), peace, asylum. 379, 

1048, 2196, 5105, etc. 

Comp. fen-f. 1706. 
fretan, to devour. 3 1 67, 602 1 , 

6220. Ger. fressen. 
frinan, frignan, to hear of, 

ask. 4, 141, 148, 390, etc. 

gefrsege, heard of. 109, 

etc. ; mine gefraege, as I 

have heard, friclan, to ask, 

demand. 5105. 
Z 2 



2:)6 



GLOSSARY. 



fr(3d, strickefi in years, sage, 
experienced. 563, 2617, 
2737, 3452, etc. infrod, 
aged, feeble. 3752, 4889; 
unfrod, young. 5635. 

frofer (f), comfort. 14, 27, 
373,1 260, etc. gefrefrian, 
to comfort. 2670. 

from, strenuous, resolute. 41, 
etc. Comp. si^-f. 3630 ; 
unfrom. 4382. 

from, forth. 5106. O. Nor. 
framm ; Dan. frem. 

fruma, beginning, chief 4608, 
S. T. 182. Comp. dced-f. 
4 1 86 ; gu^-f. martial lead- 
er, ^g; hilde-f.3360,5291, 
5662; land-f. 61; leod-f. 
42665 ord-f, 53 I ; wig-f. 
^332. 4514- ffumsceaft, 
beginjiing, origin. 89, 
182. 

fugol (m), bird, fowl. 442, 
5874, F.F. 9. 

ful (n),CMjo.i235, 1261,2034, 
2054, etc. O. Sax. ful, 
Comp. medo-f.i 253,2034; 
sele-f. 1242. 

fullj/«?Z. 2509, 4816. fyllan, 
afyllan, to fill. 2040. fyl 
(f), glut. 1 1 28, etc. Comp. 
wist-f. 1472. 

fuUisstan. See Icestan. 

fultum (jn), aid, support. 1400, 



2550, etc. Comp. msegeii- 
f. 2915. 

fundian, gefundian, fondian, 
to tend (towards), hasten, 
desire. 2279, 3643. O. 
Sax. fundon. 

fur))um, fur))on, just, first, 
even. 652, 934, 2852, 
3418, 4023. 

furj)ur. See forS. 

fus, eager, prompt, ready, has- 
tening. 2486, 2955, 3614, 
3836, etc. Comp. hin-f. 
1514; ut-f. 65 ; wsel-f. 
483 I . fuslic, ready, de- 
parting. 469, 2852, 5229. 
gefysian, to hasten, excite. 
1265, 4607, 5116. 

fyl, fyllan. See full. 

fyl. See feallan. 

sel-fylc. See folc. 

fyr, fir (m), 7nan. 182, 4007, 

4561. 5476- 
fyr (n),fire. 372, etc. Comp. 

bgel-f . 6278; hea))u-f . 5037, 

5087; wsel-f. 2243,5157. 

fyren, on fire. F. F. 73. 
fyrd (f), army. 469, 2637, 

3012,3058,5229,5739. 
fyren, firen (f). crime, sin. 

28, 203, 274, etc. Goth. 

fairina ; Ohg., O. Sax. 

firina. fyrenum, wickedly. 

3493. 4874- 



GLOSSARY. 



25/ 



fyrgen (n), mountain. 2723, 
etc. Goth, fairguni. 

tyrn,o/o/rf.2907, 4252, 55 15. 

fyrst (m), space of time. 153, 
269, etc, O. Nor. frest, 
frestr. 

fyrwit. See witan. 

fyr})rian, gefyrj>rian, to fur- 
ther, accelerate. 5561. 

ge-fysian. See fus. 



Gad (m), lack. 1325, 1903. 
Goth, gaidv. See A. and 
E. p. 160. 

gaedehng (m), companion. 
5227, 5891. Ohg. kadu- 
linc ; O. Sax. gaduHng. 

set-gseder e, together. d^^y, etc.; 
to-g. id. 5253 ; geador, 
ongeador, id. 987, 1675, 

3195- 
gselan. See galan. 
gijest, gest, giest, gist, gyst 

(m), guest, stranger. 204, 

1992, etc. Comp, ellen-g. 

172, 2280, 3209, etc., 

ellor-g. stranger - guest . 

1619, 2702, etc. ; feSe- 

S- 3956; gifre-g. 5113; 

inwit-g. 5333 ; nr6-g. 

5391; sele-g. 3094; wsel- 

g. 2666, 3994. 
galan, agalan, gselan, to sing. 



1576, 2868, 4912, 5880, 
etc. Hence the last syllable 
in nightingale, galdor(m), 
song; sound, enchantment. 
6097. 
galga, gallows. 2558, 48S3, 

5873- 
gamen, gomen (n), mirth, 

joke, game. 1713, 2325, 
etc. Ohg. kaman; O.Sax. 
gaman. Comp. heal-g. 
2136. 

gamol, gamel, gomel, old. 
«I5. 535. etc. O. Nor. 
garaall, Dan. gammel, O. 
Sax. gamalon, senescere. 

gan, gangan, to go. 633, etc.; 
gegan, id., also to gain, ac- 
quire, happen. 1791, 2559, 
2929, 3075, 3696, 4823, 
5065,6162. agan. 2473 ; 
in-gan. 778; ofer-g. 2820, 
5911; o^-g. 5860; ymb- 
g. 1 244. Besides the usual 
preterite, code, we find in 
Beowulf gong and gang, 
also the less usual one, 
gengde. 2806, 2829. gang 
(m), course. 1940, 2787, 
2812. begong, bigong, 
begang (m), course, haunt'? 
729, 1724, 2999, etc. in- 
gang. 3103. u6-genge, 
perishable, Lat. caducus. 

23 



258 



GLOSSARY. 



4253. angenga, solitary 
(being). 332, 902; in-g. 
3557; SEe-g. ship. 3769, 
3821 ; sceadu-g. 141 o. 
ganot (m), gannet,fulica ma- 
rina. 3727. 
gar (m), javelin, dart. 626, 
etc. Ohg. ker, O. Sax. 
g6r, 0. Nor. geir. Comp. 
bon-g. 4066 ; frum-g. 
prince, chief. 5704. As a 
prefix, gar signifies u-ar- 
like, as in Gar-Dene. i. 
garsecg (m), ocean. 97, 1034, 

1079, etc. 
gast (m), ghost, sprite. 266, 
356, 2536, etc. Comp. 
ellor-g. 1619, 2702. 
geador. See setgaedere. 
on-gean. See gegen. 
geap, curved, arched. 1677, 
3604. Corap. horn-g. 164; 
s«-g. 3797. 
gear (n), year, yore. 2272, 
etc. geara, of yore. 5322 
ungeara, recently? i868. 
geard (m), inclosure, court 
house, yard. 25,535,2272 
2280, etc. Goth, gards 
Ohg. gart, O. Sax. gard 
O. Nor. garSr, Dan. gaard 
Corap. middan-g. u-orld 
151, 1013. 
gearo, geara, ready, prepared. 



1 55' 243, etc. gegyn^-an, 
gyrian, to prepare. 76, 
mo, 1 99 2 . ungeara, un- 
expectedly. 1209. gearu 
(i), gear, provision. Comp. 
fe6er-g. 6229. gearwe, 
geare, readily, well. 536, 
1761, 4131. 

geit{n), gate, aperture. Corap. 
ben-g. 2246. 

geatolic. See geata. 

geatu, getaw (f), apparatus, 
military equipment. I353> 
4713,6167. Comp. eored- 

g- 5724; ^"^"^^-S- 65.5: 
gu^-geataw ? 796 ; gu¥- 
getaw. 5265 ; wig getaw. 
741. ge&\.oY\c, ornate, ele- 
gant ? 435, 621, 2806, 
3128, 4314. 

gegen, against, opposite. 739 ; 
gegnum, towards, against. 
633 ; gegnum-for. 2813 ; 
ongean, against. 1367 ; to- 
geanes, id. 1336, 3006, 
3089. 

gegnunga, wholly, totally. 

5734- 
geh'80, gioh^oi (f), affliction. 

4527. 5578, 6181. See 
A. and E p. 97. 
gen, gena, yet, s/i7/. -4146, 
4305. 57 ".etc. >a-gena, 
id. 167, 1473, 6178, etc. 



GLOSSARY. 



250 



geo. See gio. 

ge5c (f), succour. 357, 1221, 

3^>72, 5342. 
geoc, strong. 1535. 
geofa. See gifan. 
geofon (n), ocea7i. 729, 1035, 

etc, O. Sax. geban. 
geogu¥ (f), youth. 133, etc. 
geolo, ye//ojt'. 880, 5213. 
geomor, sad. 98, etc. Comp. 

mod-g. 5781. geomorlic. 

4879. geomrian. 2240. 
geond, through, over. 151, 

1684, etc. 
geong, ging, young, recent. 

1 44, 5627. Comp. hea))0- 

g- F. F. 3. 
geom,desirous, diligent.^ 560. 

Comp. 16f-g. 6347. georne, 

readily, willingly. 132, etc. 
geosceaft .'' 2472, 2536. 
geotan, angeotan, begeotan, 

to pour, shed over, over- 
whelm. 2 141, 2297, 2587, 

3384, etc. 
gicel (m), drop. 3217, as icle 

in icicle, i. e. is-gicel. 
gid, gyd (n), song, recital, 

speech. 304, 1741, 2135, 

2240, 2324, etc. word-g. 

6325. gyddian, to sing, 

say, recite. 1264. 
giellan, g>^llan, to shriek, yell. 

S.T. 257; to chirp. T.Y. 10. 



gif, if. 550. 909, etc. 

gifan, gyfan, to give, i 29, etc. 
agifan, aetgifan, forgifan, 
id. 34, 716, 2044, 3043, 
5748. gifn, geofa {{), gift, 
grace. Comp. ma^})um-g. 
2606; sweord-g. 5761. 
gifa, donor. Comp. beag- 
g. 2208; gold-g. 5297; 
sinc-g. 2028, 2688, 461 1 ; 

'^â– il-g- 5792- gift {f), gift. 

Comp. feoh-g. 41, 2055. 

2182. gife¥e, ^/teAi. 604, 

etc.; ungife^e. 5835. of- 

gifan, to give up, leave. 

320J. 
gifre^ ravenojts, rapacious. 

2250,2558. Couip.heoru- 

g. 3000. 
gigant (m), giant. 2 26, 3 1 29, 

3385- 
gildan. See gyldan. 

gilp (m), boast, vaunt, pride.. 
1284, 1355, 1663, etc. 
Comp. dol-g. 1022; gilp- 
hlseden. 1740; gylpan, tu 
boast. 1 177, 41 16. 

gim (m), ^e/n. 415 I . Comp. 
searo-g. 2318, 5491. 

gin, ginfsest, spacious, ample. 
937, 3106, S.T. 103. 

ging. See geong. 

on-ginnan, to begin, under- 
take. 201, 822, etc. 



•260 



GLOSSARY. 



gi6,ge6,i6,m, formerly, of old 

2957. 5036. 491O' 5854- 

on-gitan, to understand, per- 
ceive. 28,622,2867,2972, 
etc. begitan, to beget, ac- 
quire. 4490. forgitau, to 
forget. 3506. andgit (n), 
understanding . 2122. 

glsed, glad. 116, 1730, etc.; 
glsedian, to gladden; glsed- 
lic, pleasing, acceptable. 
S.T. 134; glaedrae, ^/fld- 
ness, pleasure. 740. 

gleaw, skilful, clever. S. T. 
279. 

gled (m), gleed, fire. 4031, 
4614, 4659, etc. 

gleo (m), glee, mirth. 4216, 
4518, 6034. gleoman. 
2324. S.T. 273. 

glidan, to glide. 1034, 4152 ; 
toglidan, to glide or fall 
of. 4967. 

glitinian, to glitter, sparkle. 
5509. So Vercel. Poetry, 
p. 20 ; "he glitena^ swa 
steorra." 

glof (m), glove. 4177. O. 
Nor. glofi. 

gne^, avaricious, sparing. 
.3864. 

gnorn, gnjTn (m), sorrow, 
tribulation. 3554, 5310. 
gnornian, to grieve, mourn. 



2239; begnornian, to be- 
wail, 6338. 
God, God. 26, etc. Goth. 

Guth, Ohg. Got. 
god, good. Goth, goth, Ohg. 

got. Comp. £er-g. pre- 
eminently good, god (n), 

goodness. 2372. 
gold (n), gold, 614, etc. 

gylden, golden. 94, 2046, 

2227, etc. 
gombe (f), tribute. 21. O. 

Sax. gambra. 
gomel. See gamol. 
gomen. See gamen. 
grsedig, greedy. 242, 3002. 

Goth, gredags, hungry ; 

Ohg. gratag ; O. Sax. 

gradag ; O. Nor. gradugr. 

Comp. 3et-g. 2543. 
grseg, grey. 665, 673, etc. 
graeghama, cricket. F. F. 10. 
graes (n), grass. 3767. 
gram, grom, fierce, cruel, 

hostile. 1534, 1559, 2072, 

etc. gramum,_^erce/y.852. 

Comp. 8efen-g.4 1 54, where 

see note, 
grap. See gripan. 
greot (m), dust, grit. 6315. 

Ohg. grioz, O. Sax. O. 

Nor. griot. 
greotan, to weep. 2689. Scot. 

to greet, Goth, gretan. 



GLOSSARY 



•201 



O. Sax. griotan, O. Nor. 

grata, Dan. at grsede, Sw. 

at grata, 
gretan, to greet, touch, assail. 

339, 700, 1232, 1254, etc. 
grim, grim, fierce, cruel. 204. 

242, 3002, etc. grimlic, 

6074. Comp. hea|)o-g. 

1100. 5375; heoro-g. 

3132, 3698; nrS-g. 388; 

searo-g. 1192. grimme, 

fiercely, cruelly. 60 1 7,6 1 6 2 . 

grimman, to rage. 617, 

4506. 
grime (f), closed helmet. 674. 

O. Nor. grima, larva, cas- 
sis. Comp. bere-g. 797, 

4104, 5203. 
for-grindan, to grind to dust, 

crush, destroy. 852, 4659, 

5347- 
gripan, to gripe, grasp. 3006, 
5007. Comp. for-g. 4695; 
wit5-g. 5035. gripe (m), 
gripe, grasp. 1480, 2300, 
3534. 5033- Comp. faer- 
g. 3037; mund-g. 766, 
1510, etc.; nr5-g. 1956. 
grap (m), i. q. gripe. 88 [, 
I 1 14, etc. Comp. feond- 
g. 1276; hilde-g. 2896. 
grapiarij to grasp, clutch. 

3137. 4176. 
grom. See gram. 



grovvan, to grow. 3441. 
grund (m), ground, bottom, 

abyss, iiii, etc. Comp. 

eormen-g. 1722; mere-g. 

2902, 4207 ; sse-g. 1 133. 
gryn, gym (n), gin, snare. 

1864, 4242. 
gryre (m), horror, terror. 6^^. 

773, etc. Comp. faer-g. 

350; wig-g. 2572. gryre- 

lic. 2886, 3048, 4278. 
guma, 7?ja«. 147, etc. Comp. 

driht-g. retainer, follower. 

198,2466, 2 78 1, 3301, etc. 
gu5 (f), war, battle. 39, 115, 

254, 401, etc. 
gyd. See gid. 
gyldan, agyldan, forgyldan, 

ongyldan, to pay, requite. 

21, 2507, 3087, etc. F. F. 

79, 8a. 
gyWen. See gold, 
gj'llan. See giellan. 
gyman, <o heed, care for. 2, S^^> 

3525' 4894- forgyman.fo 

neglect. 3506. 
gyrdan, to gird. 4078, 4162, 

F. F. 27. 
gyrian, gegyrwan, to prepare, 

adorn. 76, 400, etc. 
gv'stra, y ester- 2672. 
gyt, yet. 1893; Jja-gyt, id. 

2259. 2517. etc. 
gytsian, to covet. 3502. 



262 



GLOSSARY. 



H. 

Habban, hsebban, to have. 

159, etc. Comp. bord- 

hsebbende. 5782 ; lind-h. 

495,2808; rond-h.1726; 

searo-h. 480. forhabban, 

to hold, refrain. 2306, 

5211; wi^-h. to withstand. 

1548. 
had (m), state, condition, cha- 
racter, hood, as in childhood, 

etc. 2598, 2674, 4393. 
hador (m), sereneness. 832; 

serene. 998 ; hadre, se- 

renely. 3147. 
hceft (m), haft, handle. 2918. 
hsefta, thrall, captive. 1580. 
haegsteald (la), bachelor, young 

serving man. 3782,F.F.8i. 

Ohg. hagastalt, Ger. hage- 

stolz. 
hsel (n), omen. 414. O. Nor. 

heill. 
heel. See hal. 
be-hselan, to conceal. 833. 
hsele (m), man. 1442, 3296, 

3636, 6213. 
hsele^ (m), man, hero, ivar- 

rior. 103, 383, etc. Ohg. 

helid, O. Sax. heh=S. 
hgelo. See hal. 
hsest, hasty, vehement, ardent. 

2674. 



haetS (f), Aea/A. 2740. Goth. 

hai)>i. 
hcepen, heathen. 360, etc. 
hafela, heafola, poet, for 

heafod^ head. Gr. Ke(f>aXfj. 

896, 1348, 2245, 2658, 

2748, 2847, 2901, 3046, 

3232. 3275. 3564, 5352. 
5387. Cod. Exon. p. 3 I . 
33. leohte gefegun, \>e 
of Jjses hselendes heafelan 
lixte. in the light rejoiced, 
which from the Saviour's 
head gleam' a. lb. p. 178. 
14. )ja to J>am wage gesag, 
heafelan onhylde. [^Guth- 
/ac] then to the wall sank, 
his head inclined. The 
prose original of which is : 
he J)a his heafod to Ipara 
wage onhylde. (See Life 
of St. Guthlac, p. 86. edit. 
Goodwin). Cod. Exon. 
p. 238. 15. heafelan hxa6: 
their ^the blesseds'^ heads 
shall shine. Leg. St. And. 
2283, sq., A. and E. 11 43, 
and note, p. 127. woldon 
Eeninga ellen-rofe on |>ani 
hyse beorSre heafolan ge- 
scenan : would at once the 
ivar-fam'd on the bright 
youth's head do injury. I 
take beorSre to be an error 



GLOSSARY. 



263 



for beorhtan : the dat. 
seems used for the gen. 
gescenan =: gesce^jjan } In 
a MS. cited by K. (Beow, 
i. p. 252.) heofulan stands 
as a gloss over the word 
fronti. Ohg. hiufela, hie- 
fela, mala, gena. 

a-hafen. See hebban. 

hafenian, to raise. 3 151. 

hafoc (m), hawk. 4520. 

haga, hedge, enclosure, camp? 
5777' 5913- anhaga, a 
solitary. 4725. gehegan, 
to enclose, engage with (in 
an enclosed place).'' 855. 
The allusion is either to 
the enclosed space in which 
the public assembly (jjing) 
was held, or to the holm- 
gang, or duel, so called 
from the enclosed spot on 
which it was fought, ori- 
ginally on a holm, or small 
island, as that between Ed- 
mund Ironside and Cnut, 
in this country. So me|)el 
began. Leg. St. And. 524, 
etc. 

hal, whole, sound. 606, etc. 
haelo (f), health, safety. 
I 311. 2438, 4827, 5440. 
unhaelo. 241. halig. holy. 
768, etc. 



hals. See heals. 

ham, horn, hama (m), skin, 
covering. Comp. flaesc- 
homa. 314c; fyrd-hom. 
3012; graeg-hama, cricket. 
F. F. 10; hc-homa, car- 
case. 1628, 2018, 3512, 
etc.; &cir-\\^m, bright-clad, 

3794- 
ham (m), home. 248, 390, 

1439, etc. 
hamer, homer (m), hammer. 

2575. 5651- 
hand, bond (f), hand. 649, 

13 16, etc. idel-hende, 

empty-handed. 4169. 
hangan. See hon. 
har, hoar. 1779, 2618, 2834, 

etc. unhar, baM. 7 1 9, from 

hser, hair. 
hat, hot. 1702, etc., also hat 

(m), heat. 1799, 5204. 
hatan, gehatan, to command, 

joromzse. 13 7, 168, 352, etc. 
hatan, to call, to be called or 

named. 5605, etc. haten, 

called, hight. 205, 532, 

5197- 
hatian, to hate. 4627, 4924. 

hata, hater. Comp. daed- 

h. hater of (noble) deeds. 

552. See hettan. 
hattres. See attor. 
heaf (n), inland sea or lake. 



264 



GLOSSARY. 



4947 ; more especially 
such great waters as are 
connected with the sea, 
hke those of Pomerania. 
The term is particularly 
applicable to the Malar 
lake. Ger. hafF, Dan. hav, 
ocean, Sw. haf. See note 
on 1.49.37. 

heafod (n), head. 95, etc. 
Comp. eofor-h. 431 1. 

heah, high. 95, etc. 

heal, heall (f), hall. 136, 156, 
etc. Comp. gif-h. 1680; 
raeodu-h. 972, 1280, S.T. 
112. 

healdan, gehealdan, to hold, 
maintain, govern. 114, etc. 
behealdan, to behold, ob- 
serve. 640, 993, etc. for- 
healdan, to restrain, sub- 
due? ^-jz^i. 

healf (f), half, side. 1604, 

2195' 3355- 
heals (m), neck. 126, 2395, 

3133, ete. Comp. famig- 

h. 441,3822; wunden-h. 

601. healsian, to beseech, 

implore. 4270. 
hean. See hynan. 
heap (m), ti-oop, band, heap. 

675, 805, etc. Comp. wig- 

h. 958. 
heard, hard, bold, fierce, cruel. 



334, etc. Comp. bealo-h. 

2690; fyr-h. 615; iren- 

h. 2228; nitS-h. 4826; 

regn-h.657; scur-h. 2070. 

ahyrdan, to harden. 2924. 
hearg (m),fane, temple. 353, 

3531. Ohg.haruc,O.Nor. 

horgr. 
hearm (m), anger, ruggedness. 

1536, 3788. 
hearpe (f), harp. 178, etc. 
heawan, geheawan, to cut, 

hew 1368, 1605. forhea- 

wan, to heiv down,slaughter. 

S.T.99. 
ge-heaj)erian, to confine, strait- 
en. 6136. 
heajjo, a prefix, apparently 

signifying war, but lapsing 

into a mere intensitive. 78, 

etc. 
heajju, heajjo (n), ocean, main. 

3600, 3729, 5902. 
hebban, ahebban, to raise, 

heave. 13 17, 2584, 6038. 

S.T. 210. ahafen, raise*/. 

257, 2220. 
hedan, gehedan, to heed. 

1014? 5387. 
ge-hegan. See haga. 
hel (f), hell, in the Christian 

sense, but originally the 

goddess of the dead. 203, 

328,361,610. See North. 



GLOSSARY. 



26' 



Myth. i. pp. II, 31, 
etc. 

helan, behelan, to conceal, 
cover. 833. helm (m), 
helm, protector, covering, 
helmet. 366, 689, 748, 81 2, 
etc. Comp. ban-h. shield. 
F. F. 60 ; grim-h. helm 
with a visor. 674 ; gu6- 
h. 4967 ; heajjo-steap h. 
4312; niht-h.3583; scadu- 
h. 1304. ofer-helmiarij to 
overshadow. 2733. 

helm. See helan. 

help (f), help. 1107, 3109, 
etc. helpan, to help. 4670, 

539°- 

heofen, heofon (m), heofene 
(f), heaven. 103, 366, etc. 

heolfer (n ?), clotted blood. 
1702, 2609, 2850,4282. 

heolster (n ?), cave, hiding- 
place. 15 15. 

heonan, hence. 510. 

heor (m), hinge. 2002. O. 
Nor. hiorr. 

heorde. See hyrde. 

heore, free from evil spirits, 
Ao/y. 2749. unhyre. 4247; 
unhiore. 4818,/erce, mon- 
strous. Ger. ungeheur, 
Ohg. ungahiuri. 

heorot, heort (m), hari. 2742. 

heorte (f), heart. 453 2, etc. 



Comp. bli8-h. 3608; grora- 
h. 3368; rum-h. 3602, 
4227 ; stearc-h. 4566, 

5097- 

heoru (m), sword. igyS. Used 
also as a prefix, signifying 
warlike, bloody, cruel, mon- 
strous, cic. 978, etc. Goth. 
hairus, Ohg. hiuri, O. Sax. 
heru, O. Nor. hiorr. 

heorS (m), hearth. ^28, 2 165, 
etc. 

heoS (m?), daisP 813. 

her, here. 757, etc. 

herge, here (m), army, armed 

force. 129, 6-5, 1358, 

2500, etc. Comp. flot-h. 

5822; scip-h. 491, 5864. 

herian, to praise. 367, etc. 

hetan, to hate. hetende, 
hating. 3660; hete (m), 
hate. 286, 955. Comp. 
ecg-h. 3480 ; mor]jor-h. 
2214; wig-h. 4246. hete- 
lic, hateful, malicious. 2538. 
hettende, enemies. 6000. 

hicgende, hige. See hyge. 

hild (f), war, conflict. 605, 
629, 799, etc. 

hilt (n), hilt. 77, 2048, 3152, 
3233, etc. This word usu- 
ally appears in the plural. 
Comp. fetel-h. 3130; hro- 
den-h. 2048. hiited.5963. 
A a 



•26f> 



GLOSSARY. 



hin- thither, away. Used ge- 
nerally as a prefix. 15 14. 

liindema, hindmost, Zost 41 05 , 
5028. 

hiofan, to lament, bewail. 
6275. 

un-hiore. See heore. 

hladan, to load. 1795, 3798, 
4259^ etc. Comp. gilp- 
hlceden,_;?//erf with vaunt or 
lofty themes. \ 740. hlsest 
(n), load, last. 104. 

hlaew (m), mound, harrow, 
viount. 2244, 4582, 4813. 
etc. Goth, hlaiw, Ohg. 
hleo, O. Sax. hlea, leia, 
O. Fris. hli ; Engl, low, as 
in Ludlow, Scot, law, as 
in Harlaw, Wardlaw, Ne- 
therl. loo, as in Beverloo, 
etc. 

hlaford (m), lord. 540. hla- 
fordleas. 5863. 

hleahtor. See ahlihhan. 

hleapan, to leap, run. 1733. 
Ger. laufen. ahleapan, to 
leap up. 2788. 

hleat. See hleotan. 

hlem (ni),^M»2M/^.44o8,469i, 
5081. from hlemman, to 
sound, make a noise. Comp. 
uht-hlem. 4019; wael-h. 

5931- 
hleo (m), shade, protection, 



refuge. 863, 1586, 1803, 
1828, etc. S.T. 189. 

hleonian, hlinian, to lean, re- 
cline, overhang. 2835. 

hleor (n), cheek. 613, 138I; 
2076. 

hleotan, to draw lots, on- 
hh'tme. 6243. 

hleoS, hli6 (n), retreat, moun- 
tain pass, lurking-place, hill. 
3789, 6294. Comp. fen- 
h. 1645; mist-h. 1425; 
nses-h. 2858; stan-h.2822; 
wulf-h. 2720. 

hleojjor (m), sound, voice. 
3962, S. T. 212. hleo- 
])rian, to cry aloud. F.F. 2. 

to-hlidanj to rend asunder. 
2002. 

hlifian, to rise, tower. 163, 
3603, 3801, 5602. 

a-hlihhan (pret. ahloh and 
ahlog), to laugh. 1465. 
hleahtor (m), laughter. 

1226, 6033. 
hlinian. See hleonian. 
hli¥. See hleo^. 

hlud, loud. 178. hliide, loudly. 

S.T. 211. 
lilutan, to bow doivn, sink, 

4760. 
hlyn, gehlyn (m), noise, din. 

1227, F.F. 57. hljTiian, 
hlynnan, hlynsian, to make 



GLOSSARY. 



267 



a noise, roar. 1545, 2244, 
5099, F. F. II. 

hnsegan, genhntegan, v. a. to 
bend, subdue, soothe. 2552, 
2641, 2882, 5825. Goth, 
hnaivjan ; formed from v. 
n. hnigan, to bow, incline 
(See Rask, pp. 112, 113); 
Goth, hneivan. Ohg. O. 
Sax. hnigan, O.Nor. hniga. 
hnah, hneaw, base, mean, 
inferior, niggardly. 1359, 
1909, 3863. unhneaw. 
S. T. 147, 280. Goth, 
hnaivs. gensegan, to hum- 
bIe,quell2SS2,^8ji,44.iS. 

hnitan, to strike {with the 
horn), but, rush against. 
2659, 5082. 

hoc'ihtfhooked. Comp.heoro- 
h. 2880. 

hof (ra), court, palace. 6^ 0, etc. 

be-hofan, to need. 5288. 

hogian. See hyge. 

on-hohsnian, to reproach 
with? 3892. This word 
is most probably an error 
of the scribe ; possibly it 
may be a derivation from 
hosp, or O. Sax. hose, 
contumely ? 

hold. See hyldan. 

holinga, vainly, without cause. 
2156. 



holm (m), sea. 96, 465, 485, 
etc. Comp. w£eg-h. 439. 

holt (n), holt, forest, icood, 
lignum. 2743, 4669, 5190, 
etc. Comp. sesc-h. 665; fyr- 
gen-h. 2791; gar-h.3673. 

hom. See ham. 

homer. See hamer. 

hon, hangan, v. a. to hang. 
behangan, to hang with. 
Comp. helm-behongen. 
6269. hangian, v. n. to 
hang. 2730, 3329, 4177, 
4886. 

bond. See hand. 

hopu (ra }), mound, heap. 
Ohg. hufo ; Netherl. hoop, 
agger. Comp. fen-h. 1532; 
mor-h. 904. This is the 
termination in such names 
of places, and thence of 
persons, as Wallop, i. e. 
WaU-hope, Trollope, i. e. 
Troll-hope; Stanhope, Le. 
Stan-hope ; Blenkinsop, 
i. e. Blenking's hope. It 
is still extant in the old 
phrase cock a hoop. 

hord (m), hoard, treasure. 
938, 1778, etc. Cornp. 
beah-h. 1 792, 1 847, 5645 ; 
bre5st-h.Aear^3442,5J77; 
word-h.524,S.T.2; w\Tm- 
h. 4447. 
A a 2 



268 



GLOSSARY. 



horn (n), horn, pinnacle, 
cresset? 164, 141 2, 2742, 
etc. F. F. 7. Comp. gu5- 
h. 2868 

hors (n), horse. 2803. 

hos (f), company, multitude. 
1853. Goth. Ohg. hansa ; 
hence Ger. hans, as in 
Engl. Hanstown ; anal, 
with goose and gans. 

ho^imaijcloudydarkness? ^goj. 
Cod. Exon. 3. 32. 

hra, hrea (n), hrsew (m), 
corpse. 559, 2432, 3 181, 
F. F. 68. Goth, hraiv; 
Ohg. O. Sax. hreo. 

hrsefen. See hrefn. 

hraegl (n), rail (as in night- 
rail), garment. 912, etc. 
Comp. beado-h. 1108; 
fyrd-h. 3058; mere-h. 
sail. 3815. 

hraew. See hra. 

hraS, quick i hra{>e, quickly. 
454, etc. Hence our com- 
par. railier. hra^dlice, id. 

717. 1930- 

hream (m), cry, exultation. 
2608, 4716. hremig, ex- 
ulting. 248, 3768, 41 14. 

hrefn, hraefn (m), rat-en. 3606, 
4887, 6041. F. F. 69. 

hremig. See hream. 

hreosan, to fall, 7~ush. 2153, 



2865, etc. behreosan, to 
lack by falling off, whence 
behroren. 5517. hryre 
(m), fall, ruin. 3364, etc. 
Comp. lecd-h. 4064,477 1 ; 
wig-h. 3242. hruse (f), 
earth. 1549, 4486, 4547, 
etc. 

hre5h, hreow, reow, rough, 
cruel, rugged, iioi, 2619. 
3132, etc. Comp. bl6d-h. 
3442; gu5-h. 115; wael- 
r. 1262. hreow (m), ca/a- 
mity. 4265. 

hreo^a, protection, defence ? 
a word of unknown deriva- 
tion and uncertain mean- 
ing. Comp. bord-h. 4412. 
It occurs also in the fol- 
lowing placeSj and always, 
as here, in combination 
with bord or scyld: Csedm. 
pp. 184. 26, [87. 30, 192. 
23; Cod. Exon. 42. 19 
(where it is written hrea- 
da) ; Leg. St. And. (Ver- 
celli Poetry) 256. See 
also Kemble's Beowulf, i. 
244, and A. and E. p. 1 00. 

on-hreran. See hror. 

hreS (m), fierceness. 5143. 
Comp. gu8-h. 1642. hreS, 
hreSig, fierce, proud. ^i^^, 
5160. Comp. sige-h. 188, 



GLOSSARY. 



269 



3198. 5505- rel^e, fierce. 

244. 1544. etc. 
hre})er (m), breast, bosom. 

984, 2306, 2690, etc. 
hrinan, to touch. 1449, 'Q^^' 

3035, etc. 
hrind (m), rind, bark. 2731. 
hring (tn), ring, collar. 650, 

2187, 30TI, 4513, etc. 

Comp. ban-h. vertebra. 

3138. hringan, to set in 

a ring or circle. 660. 

hringed, formed of or in 

rings. 
hroden, gehroden, adorned, 

beset P 614, 995, 2048, 

2307. Comp. beag-h. 

1251; gold-h. 1232,1285, 

3900, etc. S.T. 205. F. F. 

26. Apparently from a 

verb hreo^an no longer 

extant, 
hrof (ra), roof. 8ti, 1677^ 

Comp. inwit-r. 6238. 
hron (m), whale. 20, 1085. 
hror, strenuous, bold, active. 

53, 3262; unhror. F. F. 

90. onhreran, to excite. 

1 103, etc. 
hro)?er (m ?), comfort, solace, 

benefit. 4348, 4887. 
hruse. See hreosan. 
hrycg (m), back, ridge. 947. 
hryre. See hreosan. 



hrysian, to shake. 458. O. 

Sax. hrisian. 
hu, hoiv. 5, 333, etc. 
hund (m), dog, hound. 2741. 
huru, at least, however, but, 

Lat. saltern. 366, 1342, 

1728,2934. 
hus(n),AoM5e.232,etc. Comp. 

ban-h. carcnse. 5 009, 62 85 ; 

nicor-h. 2827. 
hilS (f), spoil, booty. 248. 
hwser, where, gehwser, every, 

everywhere. 49, 1 05 7, 4063 ; 

ohwser, anywhere. 34-jg, 

5732- 

hwset, an exclamatory parti- 
cle used at the beginning 
of sentences. Our nearest 
approximation to it is ay, 
lo! well! I, 1889. See 
D. G. iv. pp. 448 — 450. 

hwsete, hwate, bold, active, 
eager. 3206, 41 11, etc. 
Comp. fyrd-h. 3 2 86, 4945 ; 
gold-h. 6140. hwettan, to 
whet, sharpen. 413, 985. 

hwsejjer, whether. i ^2g,26-^2; 
ieghvfx\>er, both. ^80; ge- 
hwsejjer, either, each.i 1 73 , 
1633 ; hw8e})re, yet, Lat. 
tamen. 1784, etc. S.T. 75. 

hwanon, whence. 520. 

hwealf (m), vault, arch.i 156. 
4034. Ohg. geuuelbe ; 
Aa3 



270 



GLOSSARY. 



Ger. gewolbe ; O. Nor. 
hvolf. 
hwene, a little, somewhat. 
5392. hwon, id. lyt- 
liwon. id. 408. Lat. pa- 
rum. 

bweorfan, gehweorfan, hwyr- 
fan, to turn, go, wander. 
110, i97j etc. Comp. set- 
h. 4588; and-h. 1 100; 
geond-h. 4039, S.T. 219; 
ymbe-h. 4582, F. F. 67. 
edhwyrft (m), return, re- 
lapse. 2566. hwyrftura, 
from time to time. 329. 

hwettan. See lawsete. 

hwil (f), while, space of time. 
31,211,295,2995. Comp. 
dsg-h. 5445; orleg-h. 
4008, 4845, 5814; ge- 
sceap-h. fated time. 52 ; 
sige-h. 5413. hwilum, 
sometimes, at times. 352, 
997, 1732, 6080, etc. 

liwinan, to utter a shrill sound, 
whine. S. T. 256. 

hwit, white. 2900, F. F. 78. 

hwon. See hwene. 

hwyder, whither. 328. 

hwylc, which, some one. 1 890 ; 
seghwylc, every one. 1 7, etc. 
gehwylc, every. 16 14. 

hydan, gehydan, to hide. 896, 
2748, 4463, 5526, etc. 



hyge, hige (m), mind, dis- 
position, ^^g, etc. hogian, 
gehogian, to intend, re- 
solve. 1268, 3981, 4097. 
hicgean,fo be mindful. F.F. 
21; forhicgan, to disdain. 
874; oferhigian, oferho- 
gian,ic/.4679,5525. bealo- 
hycgen^Q, meditating harm , 
5123; heard-h. 793, 1602 ; 
swiS-h. 1842, 2036; wis- 
h. 5426 ; })anc-h. 4462. 
hygd, gehygd (m), mind, 
thought. 4096 ; breost-g. 
5628; mod-g. 47T; ofer- 
h. 3485, 3525; wonhyd 
(wonhygd). 872. O. Nor. 
vanhyggia, inconsiderantia. 
anhydig. 5327; bealo-h. 
1450; grom-h. 3502; ni6- 
h. 6311; ))rist-h. 5612. 
wonhydig. Cod. Exon. 95. 
14. Csedm. TOO. 2^. 

hyht (m), hope. 360. 

hyldan, to bend, incline. 1^80. 
gehyld, disposed, inclined. 
6104. hyldo (f), favour. 
1345. 4141. 5989- liold, 
well-disposed, faithful. ^^g, 
586, 758, etc. 

hynan, to injure, oppress. 
4627. hynjju (f), injury, 
disgrace. 334, 559, 954, 
J 190. hean (n .^), shame. 



GLOSSARY. 



271 



4373; hean, miser able,vile. 

2553. etc. 
hyran, gehyran, to hear, obey. 

20, 75, etc. 
a-hyrdan. See heard, 
hyrde, heorde (m), herd, as 

in shepherd, etc., guardian. 

1224, 1505, etc. 
un-hyre. See heore. 
hyrstian, to ornament. 1349, 

4503. Ohg.hrustjan,Ger. 

r listen, hyrst (f), orna- 
ment, munitio, machina. 

55^7' 5968, 6309, F. F. 

41. Ohg. garusti, instru- 

mentum, munitio. 
hyrtan, to hearten, animate, 

recruit. 5179. 
hyse, hysse (m), youth. 2438, 

' F. F. 96. 
hy^ {r),hithe,haven.62,3833. 

I. 

lege, eke, also ? 2 2 1 9. A very 
doubtful reading,most pro- 
bably an error. 

ides, woman, Zfirfy. 1 245, 2 15 j, 
etc. O. Sax. idis. 

in, inn (n), dwelling, lodging, 
inn. 2604, S. T. 223. 

in, inne, innan, in, within. 2, 
119, 1289, etc. innan- 
weard. 1987, 20C0. 

inne. 786 .'^ See gesellan. 



io, iu, of old, formerly . 4910, 
5854. See gio. 

inwit, inwid (n), guile, ini- 
quity. 1502, 1666, 2206, 
etc. Goth. inwinds,0. Sax. 
inuuid. 

iren, isem (n), iron. 666, 
^553' 2228, etc. Goth, 
eisarn, Ohg. isem, O. Sax. 
isarn, Ger. eisen. 

is (n), ice. 2270,3221. isig, 
icy. 65 . of a ship, no doubt 
literally, and equivalent to 
bihongen hrim-gicelum, 
hung about ivith icicles. 
Cod. Exon. 307. r. 

isern. See iren. 

L. 

La, lof indeed/ 3404, 5720. 

lac(n),^i/if,q^mn^.86,3i 72, 
3730. 374°- Comp. s^-1. 
3253. 3308. 

lacan, to sport, play. 5657, 
5689. Goth, laikan, to 
dance, leap. O. Nor. leika, 
Dan. at lege, lac, gelac, 
game, play. 2084, 2340. 
Comp. beadu-1. 3126; 
heaj)0-l. 1172, 3952. for- 
lacan, to play false, betray. 
1811. 

ladu, gelad and their com- 
pounds. See liSan. 



272 



GLOSSARY. 



laedan, gelEedan, to lead, con- 
duct. 74, etc. forlsedan, 
to mislead. 4084. 

Ifefan, to leave. 2361, 4620, 
493 1 . laf (f), relic, legacy, 
leaving, a poetic terra for a 
sword; an ancient sword 
forged by Weland, or by 
grants of old, being re- 
garded as a precious le- 
gacy or present. 913, 1595, 
etc. Comp. ende-1. 5618; 
eormen-1. 4460 ; wea-1. 
2172,2200; yrfe-l. 381c; 
fS-l. 1136. 

Isene, poor, transitory, vile, 
lit. lean. 3249, 4672. O. 
Sax. lehni. 

Iseran. See lar. 

laes, less. 85, etc. ))y-laes, the 
less. 979 ; laesest, least. 
4698. 

laestan, gelcestan, to perform, 
accomplish, avail. 47, 1053, 
1629, etc. fuUaestan, to 
aid, support. 5330. Cod. 
Exon. 407. I, 457. 3 T. 

Iset, slow, late. Comp. hilde- 
lata, one slow to fight, 
coward. 5684. 

Isetan, alsetan, to let, leave, 
abate. 96, 1733. 5175. 
5323, etc, forlaetan, to 
leave, forsake. I ^8g, 1945 ; 



oflaetan, to leave. 23 7 t, 
3248; onlsetan, to relax, 
let go. 3223. 

laf. See Isefan. 

ge-lafian, to lave. 5438. 

lagu (m), tvater. 423, 483, 
599.3265. Obg. O. Sax. 
lagu, O. Nor. logr, Lat. 
lacus. 

lah. See lihan. 

land (n), land. 61, 448, etc. 
Comp. ea-1. 4657; el-1. 
foreign land, as in el})e6dig. 
603 T. 

lang, long, long. 31, etc. 
Comp. andlang, andlong, 
livelong, lasting? 4237, 
5383.5869; gelang, long, 
as in the old phrase, it was 
long of thee, i. e. it vras 
through, or because of, 
thee. 2757,4306. geleuge, 
appertaining. 5457. lan- 
gian. to long for J langa^ 
(m), longing. 2,'/6^. lengan, 
to prolong, extend. S.T. 1 99; 
lenge, long (time). 167 ; 
it, leng compar. longer. 
269,907,1952; longsum, 
long, tedious. 268, 386, etc. 
Comp. niht-long. 1060 ; 
morgen-1. 578c. 

lar (f), doctrine, instruction, 
lore. 544, 2444, 3905. 



GLOSSARY. 



273 



Comp.fre5nd-l.4744. he- 
ran, gelseran, to teach, arf- 
fise. 834,562,3449,6150. 

last (m), track, footstep. 264, 
1686, etc. Comp. feorh- 
1. 1697; fe^e-1. 3269; fot- 
1. 4567 ; wrjec-1. 2709. 

la^, hostile, hateful, lit. loath. 
166, etc.; foe. 884, 1026, 
1686, etc.; labile. 3172. 

lapu (f), invitation. Comp. 
freond-l. 2389; ne5d-l. 
2644; from la))ian, to in- 
vite. Goth, lajjon, Ohg. 
ladon, O. Sax. lajjian, O. 
Nor. lada. 

leaf (n), leqf. 194. 

ge-leafa, belief, faith, geleaf- 
nes ({), faith, credence. ^g6. 
alyfan, gelyfan, to trust, 
rely. 885, 1221, 1259, etc. 

a-leah. See leogan. 

leahtor (m), crime, sin. or- 
leahtre, sinless, blameless. 
3776. 

lean. 3 sing. Ij^h^, pret. log, 
to blame. 408,1729, 2101, 
3627. belean, id. 1027. 

lean (n), reward. 229, etc. 
Comp.ende-l.3389; hond- 
1.3086,4195. leanian, ^0 
reward. 2765, 421 1. 

leas, false, leasing. 511. 

leas, void of, less, as in the 



following compounds : al- 
dorleas. 30, 3178; dom- 
1. 5772 ; dream-1. 3445 ; 
fe5h-l. not to be atoned for 
with money. 4873 ; feor- 
men-1. 5516. 

lecgan, alecgan. See licgan. 

leg, lig {m), flame, fire. 166. 
Comp. feorh-1. 5592. 

leger (n), bed. 2019, 6078. 

lemian, to lame, oppress. 1814. 

lengian. See lang. 

Ie5d (m), lord, chief. 543, 
687, 702, etc.; leode plur. 
people. 47, 387, 455, etc. 
Ger. leute, Ohg. leudi, 
leodi, O. Sax. liud. leod- 
scipe, community. 4400, 
5495. As a prefix it seems 
equivalent to ]>e6d, as leod- 
cyning. 107, 3896. 

leof, dear, beloved. 61, etc, 
leoflic, id., precious. 3622; 
unleof, odious. 5719. 

leogan, ale5gan, gele5gan, lo 
lie, belie. 160, 506, 4636, 
etc. loga, belier. Comp. 
treow-l. 5686 ; waer-l. 
S.T. 19. 

leoht (n), light. 190, etc. 
adj. light, bright, ready. 
S. T. 145. Comp. aefen- 
1. 831; morgen-l. 12 13, 
T839. 



274 



GLOSSARY. 



leom (n), limb, branch. 194. 
leoraa, beam, ray, light. 190, 

627, ^291, etc. Comp. 

8eled-l. 6241 ; beado-1. 

3050; bryne-1. "4616; 

hilde-1. 2291; swurd-1. 

F.F. 71. 
leomian, to learn. 4662. 
leosan, forle5san, to lose ; 

beleosan, to be deprived. 

2150. 2945. 
leo^ (n), song. 2323, etc. 

Ohg. liod ; O. Nor. lioS. 

Comp. gryre-1. 1576; gu'5- 

1. 3048 ; sorh-1. 4912. 
leo8, lis (m. n.), member, 

limb. 3014, 3784. Goth. 

li)jus ; Ohg. lid ; O. Nor. 

li^r. 
letan, to let, hinder, relax. 

1142, 3063. 
lie (n), body, form. 906, etc. 

Comp. eofor-l. 61 2 ; swin- 

1. 2910. 
lie, gelic, like. 442, etc. on"- 

licnes (f), likeness. 2706. 
licgean, licgan, to lie. 113 7, 

1936, etc. alicgan, gelic- 

gan, to cease. 2087, 3061, 

4433. 5764. etc. lecgan, 

alecgan, to lay, lay down, 

cease from. 6"/, 1673,1707, 

4395. 6033. 6273. 
lician, to please. 1283,3712. 



lida. See li^an. 

lif (n), life. 32, 195, etc. 

Comp. edwit-1. 5775. lib- 
ban, leofian, lifgan, to live. 

1 14, 199, 1893, 1913, etc. 

S. T. 24. unlifigende, not 

living. 941, 1492, 2621, 

5809. 
lig. See leg. 
lihan, onlihan, pret. lah, to 

letid. 2916, 2939. 
limpan, alimpan, gelimpan, 

to happen, befal. i ^^, 1 249, 

1257, etc. 
lind (f), lime, linden-tree, also 

a shield made of that wood. 

215^' 395O' 4085, etc. 
linnan. to lose. 2960, 4878. 
lis {{), favour, benefit. 4306. 
list (f), craft, cunning, listum, 

craftily. 1566. 
lixan, to shine. 626, etc. 
Ii6 (n), beverage, wine. 3969. 
Ii6, soft, meek, gentle. 2444, 

6346. 
li'San, to go, be conveyed, na- 

f/^fflfe. li})ende.447. Comp. 

brim-1. 1141; heajJO-1. 

3600,5902; mere-1. 515; 

S£e-1. 760 ; WEeg-1. 6297. 

lida, ship. Corap. sund-1. 

452; y^-1. 399- ladu (f), 

way, path. 1142, 3978. 

Comp. brim-1. 2107; ea-1. 



GLOSSARY. 



2/5 



453 5 5^-1- 2283, 2319; 

y^-1. 461. gelad (n), id. 

2825. Comp. fen-g. 2722. 

lid-man, seaman. 3251. 
loca. See lucan, 
locian, to look ; t5-16cian, to 

look on. 3313. 
lof (m), praise. 48, 3076, 

S. T. 146, 199. 
loga. See leogan. 
logon. See lean. 
ge-16me, frequently. 1 1 2 2. 
longsum. See lang. 
losian, to escape. 2789, 4130, 

4199. 
lucan, geliican, to lock, close. 

3014, etc. belucan, id. 

2269, 3545 ; onlucan, to 

unlock. 524, S. T. 2; to- 

lucan, to lay open. 1566. 

locen, locked, closed. 3014, 

3784. Comp. houd-1. 649, 

1 106. loca, case, enclosure. 

Comp. ban-1. carcase. 1488, 

1640 ; burh-1. 3860. 
lufu, lufe (f), /ot-e. 3460, 3912. 

Comp. eard-l.1388; heah- 

1. 3912; mod-l. 3650; 

wif-1. 4137. 
lunger, swift. 4334. O. Sax. 

luDgar, pernix, celer. lun- 

gre, forthicith, quickly. 

1862, 3264, 4610, 5480. 
lust (m), Joy, pleasure. 1203. 



1 241. lustum, on luste, 
joyfully. 1 24 1, 331 1, ly- 
stan, to desire. 3591- 

lybban. See lif. 

a-lyfan, gelyfan. See geleafa. 

lyft (f), air. 2755, 3830, 
5656, 6079. 

lyh^. See lean, to blame. 

a-lysan, to loose. 3264. 

lystan. See lust. 

lyt, lytel, little, few. 3500, 
3859,4307,5665. unlytel, 
not a few. 1000, 1670. 

lyt-hwon, somewhat, a little. 
408. 

M. 

Ma, more. 1012. 
madm. See ma^Jjum. 
maeg (m), kinsman, son. 499, 

940, 1478, 2162, 3927, 

etc. Comp. fsederen-m. 

2530 ; fre5-m. S. T. 107 ; 

heafod-m. 1180, 4308; 

wine-m. 131. mseg^ (f), 

tribe. 9, 49, 150, etc. S.T. 

3. m3eg^(f),ffia/rfen.i853, 

2571, etc. 
msegen (n), main, might, 

power. 313, etc. ofer-m. 

5827. 
msel (n), time, hour. 380, 

637, 1819, etc. Comp, 

underu-m 2860. 



276 



GLOSSARY. 



msel (n), image, figure, sword. 
Comp. broden (brogden)- 
m. drawn stcord. 3236, 
3338; graeg-m. 5357; 
hring-m. sword adorned 
icith rings. 3047, 3133, 
4080 ; scea^en (scea- 
dend ?) -m. 3882; wun- 
den-m. 3066. 

maenan, gemEenan, to cele- 
brate, commemorate, re- 
proach, lament. 1718,2139, 
2207, .2303, 4527, 6289, 
S.T. III. 

ge-maene, common, general. 
3572, etc. Ger. gemein^ 
Goth, gamains, Ohg. gi- 
meini. Comp. hand-g. 
4281. Ger. handgemein. 

m«re, great, renoivned. 7 1 , 
205, etc. Comp. heaj)0-m. 
war -famed. 5596. mserSo 
(f), glory, renoicn. 821, 
1012, 1322, etc. Comp. 
ellen-m.1660,2946. Com- 
par. mara. 272,1 040, 1 5 1 o, 
2710; Superl. maest. 389, 
etc. mcer{)um, nobly, gal- 
lantly. 502 1, gemceran, to 
enlarge. S. T. 85. 

maest (m), mast. 71, 3801^ 
3814. 

maet, little, moderate. 2914. 

maga, mago, youth, son, kins- 



man. 134,381,591,1891, 
etc. parent. 2786, 4696. 

ge-man. See gemunan. 

man, man. 50, 100, etc. ; 
manna, id. though usually 
signifymg vassal. 600, 
1159.5532- Comp. fym- 
â„¢- 5515; gleo-m. 2324, 
S.T. 273; gum-m. 2061; 
iu-m. 6096 ; lid-m. 3251; 
gemet-m. 5059; sae-m. 
663, 5900, Also imper- 
sonally, as Ger. man. 50, 
2349, etc. manlice, man- 
fully. 2096. 

man(n),wickedness,crime. 220, 
1 1 30, etc. Ger., Ohg., O. 
Nor. mein, as in meineid ; 
O. Sax. men. 

ge-mang. See gemong. 

manian, to exhort, instigate. 
4120. monige, monition, 
sign. 3201. 

manig, monig, many. 9, 150, 
146 1 , etc. mengo (f), mul- 
titude. S.T. III. 

manna. See man. 

mara. See maere. 

ma})elian. See mejjel. 

ma^jjum, ma}jm, madm (m), 
treasure, present. 72, 81, 
776, etc., S. T. 7, 134. 
Goth, maijjms, O. Sax. 
me|)om. Comp. dryht-m. 



GLOSSARY. 



•277 



567S; gold-m.4820; hord- 

m. 2400; sinc-m. 4392; 

wundor-m. 4352. 
ma^jjum, madm (in), horse, 

probably gelding, palfrey ? 

3739' 38C0, 4338. Mhg. 

meidem, which seems to 

signify stallion, gelding, and 

palfrey. 
ineagol, powerful, strong. 

39'54. 

mearc, mere (f ), mark, boun- 
dary. 206, 2700, etc. ge- 
mearc, gemyrc (n), id. 
Comp. fot-g. 6077 ; land- 
g. 424; mil-g. 2728. 
mearcian, to mark, note. 
904, 2532, etc. S. T. 85. 

raearh {vn), horse. 1 7i5»i73j. 
1838, etc. Ohg. marah. 
O. Nor. mar, O. Engl. 
mark. 

mearh ( ra.n . ?), marroio. 47 5 8. 

mearn. See murnan. 

mece {m), falchion. 1 135, etc. 
Gr. fid\aipa, Goth, meki, 
hairus, O. Sax. raaki, O. 
Xor.mjekir. Comp.beadu- 
m. 2912; hceft-m. 2918; 
hilde-m. 441 1. 

mecg, msecg (m), 50«. Comp. 
Geat-m. 986, 1662; hilde- 
m.1603; oret-m.669,732, 
967 ; wrsec-m 4748. 



med (f), 7nee(l, reward. 4275, 

4298. 
on-medla, /jnc/e. 5844. 
medu, meodu (m), mead. 10, 

138, 1212, etcS.T. 111. 

F. F. 78. Ohg. medu, O. 

Nor. micidur. 
melda, informer, betrayer. 

4802. 
meltan, gemeltan, to melt, 

destroy 6y /re. 1 799, 22^5, 

3220, etc. 
mene (m), necklace, collar. 

2403. O. Sa.v. meni, O. 

Nor. men. 
meugan, mengian, to mingle. 

1701, 2903, 3191. ge- 

mong (m), mingling, mul- 
titude. 3290. 
meodu (m), meadoic. 1852, 

3291. 
meowle, damsel. 5854. 
mere. See mearc. 
mercels (m), mark, object. 

4869. 
mere (m), rnere, lake, sea. 

1695, 1714, 2265, etc. 

Goth.marei (r),sea; Ohg. 

O.Sax.meri; O.Nor. mar. 
mergen. See morgen. 
metan, to meet. See mot. 
metan, to measure. 1032, etc. 

gemet (n), that which i.-i 

meet, measure, means. 499, 

Bb 



278 



GLOSSARY. 



1562, 5750; gemet, meet, 
convenient, ordinary. 1379, 
5059, 6107 ; ungemetCj 
ungemetes, immeasurably, 
immediately. 3589, 4832, 

5436, 545°- 

metod (m)j creator, 220, etc. 
metodsceaft,5'orfA£>c£/.2364, 
5623. 

mejie, iceary. Comp. hige-m. 
4875, 5810; s<E-m. 655. 

mejjel (ra), harangue, place 
for haranguing , public as- 
sembly. 478, 2169, 3756. 
Goth, majjl, Ohg. O. Sax. 
mahal. majjelian, to ha- 
rangue, speak. 577, etc. 
Goth, majjljan, Ohg. O. 
Sax. mahliau. 

micel, great. 134, 1009, etc. 

raid, with. 82, etc.; middan- 
mid-, as in middangeard, 
mid-earth. 1013, etc. ; on 
middan. 5404; to-middes, 
6273 ; middel. 5658. 

miht (f), might, power. 1404, 
etc. ; mihtig, mighty. 1 1 20, 
etc. ; eelmihtig, almighty. 
184; fore-rn. 1943. 

mil (f), 7nile. 2728. 

milts (f), mercy, kindness. 
5835; miide, kind, liberal, 
munificent. 2348, etc. 

missan, to miss. 4869. 



misser (n), half-year. 309, 
3001. O. Nor. missiri. 

mist (m), 7?n'5^ 1425; mistig, 
misty. 326. 

mod (n), mood, mind, courage. 
99, etc. Goth, mod.s, Ohg. 
mot, O. Sax. mod, O.Nor. 
modr, Ger. muth. Comp. 
an-m. F. F. 23 ; bolgen- 
m. 1422; deov-m. beloved, 
but ferocious ? F. F. 46 ; 
galg-m. 2558; geomor- 
m. 4094, 6028 ; glsed-m. 
3574; gu.tS-m.6i 7; hreoh- 
m. 4270, 4581 ; sarig-m. 
5876; sti^-m.5125; swiS- 
m. 3252; wsefre-m. 2305; 
werig-m. 1692, 3090 ; 
yne-m. 1456. modig, 
proud. 630, etc. S. T. 74; 
modiglic, id. 630. 

modor, mother. 2521, etc. 

xao\diQ{i), mould, earth. Goth, 
mulda, Ohg. molta, Dan. 
muld. 

mona, moon. 189, etc. 

ge-mong (m), collection, mul- 
titude. 3290. 

monig. See manig. 

monige. See manian. 

mor (m), moor. 207, etc. 

morgen, mergen, morn (m), 
morning, morrow. 2 5 8, 973 , 
1134, 1678, 4892. 



GLOSSARY. 



271> 



morS, mor)>or (m), murder, 
homicide. 272, 1789, etc. 

mot, may, must. 889. 

ge-mot (n), moot, meeting. 
Comp.hand-g.3 05 6,4699; 
torn-g. 2284. metan, to 
meet, find. 1506, 15 19, etc. 
gemeting (m), 4006. 

ge-munan, to remember. 361, 
536, etc. onmunan, ^0 ?T- 
mind. 5273. mvnan, to 
have in mind, intend. 1322, 
1428, 1466, 1528, etc. 
myne (m), design, inten- 
tion, opinion. 341, 5138. 
gemyndig, mindful. 1231, 
etc. myndgian, gemvnd- 
gian, to remind. 2215, 
4120, 4891. weorSraynd 
(n), dignity. 16, etc. ge- 
inynd (n), remembrance. 
6024; mynelic, memora- 
ble. S. T-V 

mund (f), hand. 477, etc. 

mundbora. See beran. 

murnan, to mourn, lament, 
be anxious. 99, 273, 2775, 
2889, etc. ; bemurnan, to 
bewail. 1818, 2158. un- 
murnlice, without repug- 
nance or sorrou'. 903, 

mu^ (m), mouth (0/ an ani- 
mal). 4163. muj)a, mouth 



{of a river, cave, etc.). See 
Ra*k. p. 35. 

niynan, myndgian. See ge- 
munan. 

myrc, murky, dark. 2814. 

ge-myrc. See mearc. 

myrS (f), mirlh. 1624. 

N. 

Na, no, not. 1 139, etc. 

naca, boat, bark. 433, 596, 
3797' 3SH. Ohg. nacho, 
Ger. nac'nen, O.Sax. naco, 
O. Nor. nockvi. Comp. 
hring-n. 3728. 

nacod, naked. 1082, 4538. 
Goth, naqvaths, Ohg. na- 
chat, O. Nor. nakr and 
nakinn. 

n?efne, nefne, unless, except. 
506, 2it6. nemne, id. 
5302 ; nymj)e, id. 1567. 

nsefre, never. 1171,11 86, etc. 

ge-njegan. See hnjegan. 

nsegel (m), nail, Lat. unguis. 
1974. 

neenig, not any, none. 3 1 6, etc. 

uses (m), ness, as in Sheer- 
ness.Orfordness, etc., head- 
land, promontory. 2721, 
2724. Comp. s£e-n. 451, 
1 146. 

nses ne, not. F. F. 7. 

naiads, nalles, nealles, not. 85, 
B b 2 



>80 



GLOSSARY. 



2041. 4999, 5185, F. F. 

58. 

iiaina, name. 692, etc. nem- 
nan, to name. 733, etc. ; 
benemnan, to declare, pub- 
lish. 1 199, 61 31. 

nan, no, none. 1610, etc. 

niit. See witan. 

ne, not, nor. ico, 1025, etc. 

neah, nean, 7iear. 1 133, i c6i, 
2352, etc. genehost, di- 
rectly forthwith. 1593. 
nylista, niehsta, nearest, 
last. 241 1,5015, S.T. 253. 

ge-neahhe. See genoge, 

nealles. See nalaes. 

iiearo, narrow, strait, oppres- 
sive. 849, 2823, 5182; 
nearwe, closely, straitly. 
1957; genearwian^^o^^ress, 
reduce to straits. 2881. 

ge-neat. See neotan. 

nefa, nepheio, grandson, suna 
sunn, 1766, 2410, 3928, 

4347' 4419- 
ge-negan, to address, salute P 

3871. See A. and E. p. 

T48. 
ge-nehost. See neah. 
nemnan, benemnan. See 

nama. 
nemne. See naefne. 
neod. See nyd. 
neosian, niosian, neosan, to 



visit. 230, 251, etc. gov. 
gen. 

neotan, to enjoy. 2439 ; be- 
neotan, to deprive. 1364, 
4784. geneat (ra),ew/oyer. 
Comp. beod-g. 691 , 343 1 ; 
heor^-g. 528, 3165, etc. 
Tiiot, enjoyrnent. 42^S. ge- 
nyttian, to enjoy ? 6085. 

neowel, niwel, precipitous. 
2826, 4478. 

nerian, generian, to save. 
1 149, 1658. 

ge-nesan, to be saved, sur- 
vive, recover. 2063, 3959, 
4786, 4844. F.F. 95. 

net (n), net. Comp. breost- 
n. 3100; here-n, 3110; 
hring-n. 3783, 5502; in- 
wit-n. 4340; searo-n. 816. 

ne^an^ gene^an, to dare, ven- 
ture. 1024, 1080, 1781, 
etc. Goth, nanjjjan, Ohg. 
nendjan, O. Sax. na|)ian, 
Comp. hearo-n. 4690. 

nicer, nicor (m), nicker, a 
water-demon or monster. 
848, 1 154, 1695, 2827, 
2859. Ohg. nichus, Ger. 
nixe, O. Nor. nikr, Nor- 
weg.nok, Swed. neck. See 
North. Mythol. i. 246, ii. 
20, iii. 158, 198, 199. 

nigen, nine. 1 154. 



GLOSSARY. 



281 



niht (f). night. 231, etc. 
Comp. sin-n. 325. nihtes, 
by night. 848, 4530, etc. 

niman, animan, geniman, to 
take. 887, etc. beninian, 
to deprive of. 3777. for- 
niraan, to take away, de- 
stroy. 98 1, 1 1 19, etc. 

niosian. See neosian. 

niot. See neotan. 

ge-nip (n), mist, cloud. 20 1 5, 

2724, 5608; nipende, 

cloudy, misty. 1098, 1302. 

,^ niwe, new. 595, etc. geni- 

K wian, to renew. 261 1, etc. 

niwel. See neowel. 

ni?i (m), man. 2015, 4436. 

m'6{m), enmity, malice, grudge, 
war. 37^0, 3S8, 558, 850, 
etc. Ger.neid,Goth.nei6s, 
Ohg. nid. Comp. bealo-n. 
3520,4799.5422; faer-n. 
956 i here-n. 4939; hete- 
n. 307 ; inwit-n. 3720, 
3898; searu-n.i 168,2405, 
etc. wse]-n. 170, 4136, 
5992. geni})la, enemy. 
Comp.feorh-g.i942,3c84, 
5859. ferh«-g. 5754. 

ni})er, niofjor, nether, down. 

^7^5' 5392- 
no, no, not. 738, etc. 
ge-noge, enough. 497 1 , 6 1 99. 

geneahhe,«i««rf««//y.i5 70. 



non (m .''), 7Won. 3204. 
nurS, north. 1720; nor)>an, 

from the north. 1099. 
nose (f), naze, promontory, 

headland. 3789, 5599. 
nil, now. 756, I 209 ; nu-J)a, 

id. 1319. 
nvd, neod (f), need, distress. 

388, 1200, etc. Ger. noth, 

Comp.sund-n.4710; })rea- 

n. 573, 1668; genydan. 

2014. 5353- jrea-nydla. 

445°- 

nymjje. See nsefne. 

nyt(f),q^ce,rf«^y.993. Comp. 
sundor-n.i339; nyt,useful. 
1592; unnyt. 830, 63 17. 

nyt (f), notch. Comp. sceaft- 
n. shaft-notch, the notch in 
a bow in ichich the arrow 
is laid. 6228. Mhg. nuz, 
D. G. iii. 444. See also 
Ziemann, IMittelhochdeut- 
sches Worterbuch, p. 282. 

ge-nyttod. See nectan. 

O. 

Of, of, from., off. 73, etc. 
ofer (m), shore, bank. 2746. 

Ger. ufer. 
ofcTj over, upon. 792, i6c8; 

without? 1374; against. 

4810; of, concerning. ^ii^Jr'^. 
ofost, ofostlic. See efstan. 
Bb 3 



282 



GLOSSARY. 



oft, often. 7. oftor. 3162; 

oftost. 3331. 
6m (m), rust, mould; omig', 

rusty. 5519, 6090. 
ombeht, ombiht (m), officer, 

servant. 579, 677, 135 1. 

Goth, andbabts, Obg. am- 

pabt, O.Sax. ambaht; Ger. 

amt, service, office. 
on, in, into, on. 54, 80, etc. 
onettan, to hasten. 618,361 1. 
ongendj again. 172. 
ongirman, to begin, undertake, 

attempt. 201, 494. 
open, open. 4535 ; openian, 

to open. 6106. 
or (m), beg inning, origin. 208"/ , 

3381,4806. ord(xQ), point, 

front. ^^1,1 1 ] 7, 3102, etc. 

S.T.98, F.F. 22. 
or, a prefix denoting priva- 

tion=without,-Iess. Inor- 

}»anc it seems to denote 

intensity. 817. 
ore (m), bowl, disk. 5514, 

6087. 
orcen (m), 7no)ister. 225 ; 

where we should probably 

read orcenas. 
ord. See or. 
oretta, warrior, champion. 

3068, 5070. In Comp. 

oret-. 669, 732, 967. on- 

orettan, to gain by contest. 



S. T. 83. See A. and E. 
p. 107. 

orleg (n) , toarfare, battle,fate. 
2087 ? 2657, 4008, 4805, 
Ohg. urlac, O. Sax. orleg, 
O. Nor. orlog, Dan. orlog, 
Netherl. oorlog. 

oru^j ore¥ (m), breath. 5107, 

5671- 
o^, until. 4790, 6130, etc. 

o'SJ)aet, till that. 17, etc. 
o^er, other, second. 444, 1 309, 

etc. 
o^e, or. 571, etc. 

P. 

Pad (f), coat, tunic. Goth. 

paida, Ohg. pheit, O. Sax. 

peda. Comp. here-p.4508. 
pa^ {va),path, way. Comp. 

an-p. lonely way. 2824. 
plega, play. Comp. lind-p. 

2151, 4085. 

R. 

Rad. See ridan, 

ge-rad. See rsed. 

ge-rsecan, to reach, attain, ac- 
quire. 1 1 17, 1499, 5923. 

rsed (m), counsel. 347, etc. ; 
report? 4059; with ece, 
death. 2407. Ohg. rat, 
O. Sax. rsld. Comp. an-r. 
resolved, steadfast. 3062. 



GLOSSARY, 



283 



3154. rgedan, to cotinsel, 
rule. 3 1 14, 4119, 5709. 
Cotop. sele-reedende. 102, 
2696. As a termination 
rseden (i)=:ship or ness. 
Comp. woruld-r. 2289 ; 
wi^er-r. (m), adversary ? 
607 1 . gerad (n), delibera- 
tion, skill? 1751. Ohg. 
garati, O. Sax. giradi. 

a-rjeran. See arisan. 

raes (m), rush, onset. 605. 
Comp. gu=5-r. 3159, 4702, 
4844, etc.; hea|>o-r. 1056, 
1119,2099; hilde-r. 605; 
hond-r. 4150; msegen-r. 
3043; wsel-r. 1652, 4208, 
etc. ; wind-gersest, wind- 
rushed. 4904. rsesan, ge- 
rsesan, to rw^A. 5373,5671. 

raeswa, chieftain, prince. 120, 
etc. 

rand, rond, shield. 468, 657, 
1368,1 7 26, etc. Ohg. rant, 
O. Nor. rond. See Rask, 
p. Iviii. Comp. bord-r. 
5112; geolo-r. 880; hilde- 
r. 2489; hond-r. 5212; 
sid-r. 2583; wig-r. 5339; 
rond-haebbende. 1726. 

rap (m), rope. Comp. w£eg-r. 
wave-rope, i. e. ice. 3224. 

rasian, to explore ? 4556 ; or 
an error for reafod } 



ra])e. See hra¥. 

reai (n) , spoil .garment . Comp. 
earm-r. 2393 ; hea)jo-r. 
807; wael-r. 2414. rea- 
fian, to rob, spoil. 2429, 
5540, etc. bereafian, to 
bereave. ^^86. [bereofan], 
whence berofen, bereft. 

4905' 5855- 
rec (m), reek, smoke. 6292. 
Comp. wudu-r. 6280; wsel- 

»•• 53 '5- 
reccan, to recount. 183, 4192, 

4219, 4226. 
reced (m.n.), //owse. 625, etc. 

" Con he sidne reced." 

Cod. Exon.296.7. O.Sax. 

racud (m). Comp. eor^- 

r.5431; heal-r.136, 3966; 

horn-r.1412; win-r.1433, 

1991. 
regn-, ren-, a prefix denoting 

intensity or excess, Lat. 

prorsus. 657, 1544. O. 

Sax. regini, as regini- 

blind, stone-blind ; regin- 

)jiof, arch-thief. 
ge-regnian, to adorn. 1558. 
reoc, rugged, cruel. 244. 
reon. See rowan, 
reord (f), voice. 5103, S. T. 

208. reordian, to speak, 

relate. 6043. 
reordian, gereordian, to take 



284 



GLOSSARY 



repast, feast. 3581. 

reotan, to shed tears. 2756. 
Ohg. riozan. 

reow. See hreoh. 

rest (f), rest, couch. 245, 1 498, 
etc. Comp. sefen-r. i 296, 
2508 ; flet-r. 2487. sele- 
r. 1J85; weel-r. 5796. 
restan, to rest. 278, 3591, 

37^9- 
repe. See lire^. 
rice, powerful, rich. 346, 626, 

etc. rice (n), realm. 937, 

etc. Comp. cyne-r. S. T. 

80. ricsian, rixian, to rule. 

290, 4420. 
ricone, forthwith, quickly. 

^ 5958- 

ridan. to ride, hang (on a gal- 
lows). 474, 1715, 3771, 
4882, 4906, 5789. rad 
(tn), road. Comp. bron-r. 
19; segl-r. 2863; swan- 
r. 402. 

riht (n), right, justice. 291, 
etc. Comp. ej>el-r. 4402 ; 
folc-r. 5209^ 6004; land- 
r. 5765; word-r. 5256. 
uuriht, evil. 2512; on riht, 
justli/. 3 1 1 5 ; set rihte, id. 
3319; sefter r. 4226. 

rim (m. n.), gerim (n), num- 
ber. Comp. dseg-r. 1650 ; 
dogor-g. 5449 ; scilling-r. 



S. T. 186. unrira. 2480, 
5241, 6014. geriman, to 
number. iiS. 

rinc (m), man, ivarrior. 804, 
1445, etc. Comp. beado- 
r. 2222 ; gu¥-r. 168 x, 
2 24[,etc. ; hea|)o-r. 745, 
4923; bere- 2356; hilde- 
r. 2618, 6263; mago-r. 
1464, S8e-r. 1384. 

rinnan, to run (as a fluid). 
5755- Ol^g- O- Sax. rin- 
nan, fluere defluere (san- 
guis). 

a-risan, to arise. 803, 1307, 
etc. arteran, to rear, raise, 
exalt. 3411^5958. 

rixian. See ^ce. 

rodor (m), firmament. 625, 
2756, etc. O. Sax. radur. 

rofj/amerf. 1369, etc. O.Sax. 
rof, ruof. Comp. beado-r. 
6301 ; brego-r. 3855 ; 
ellen-r. 685, 721, etc.; 
gu6-r. 1220; hea]jo-r. 767, 
1732, etc. hige-r. 413 ; 
sige-r. 1243. 

be-rofen. See reaf. 

rond. See rand. 

rot (f), rote, lyre of seven 
strings. 4905. O. Frank, 
chrotta, Ohg.hrotta, Mhg. 
rotte, Welsh, crwth, Engl, 
crowd. 






GLOSSARY. 



285 



rot, gay. unrot, sad. 6288. 

r6\van, to rmv. reon, 1029, 
1083, seems either an er- 
ror or a contraction for 
pret. reowon. 

rum, capacious, roomy. 561, 
etc. geruxnVic, commodious, 
278. rum, amply? 5374. 
geryman, to make room, 
clear, yield up. 989, 2177, 
3954. 5959. 6168. 

run (f), runic chm-acter, my- 
stery, council. 346, 2654, 
3394. Goth., Ohg., O. 
Sax. runa. Comp. beadu- 
r.ioo6; hel-runa, sorce/rr. 
328. Ohg-. helli-runo. 

ge-ryman. See nim. 

ge-rysne, fitting, becoming. 
5299. Ohg. gerisan, con- 
venire ; risDj congruus. O. 
Sax. gerisan, decree. 



Sacan, to contend. 883 ; on- 
sacan, to deny, resist. 3889, 
5901. Goth, sacan, Ohg. 
O. Sax, sacan. gesaca. 
adversary. 3551. saec (f), 
strife. 310, 1205, 1372, 
3241. sacu, gesacu (f), id. 
3479. 4935- andsaca, de- 
nier, apostate. 1577, 3369. 

sadol (m), s«(/e?/e. 2079,4356. 



siv (m. f.), sea. 457, 663, 
1018, etc. 

Sicc. See sacan. 

seed, sated. 4C)66, 5439. 

on-S9ege, busy, not idle. 4159, 
4960. I fully concur with 
K. (Beow. ii., note on 1. 
4148), in assuming the 
existence of an A.S. stege, 
corresponding to the O. 
Nor. seigr, slow, Dan. sei . 

to-ssegon. See seon. 

ge-Scegan. See sigan. 

Seel (m. f.), time, moment, oc- 
casion. 1249, 2021, 2275, 
3226, etc. gesajlan, to be- 
fal. 1 152, 1784, 2504. 

Seel, sel, good, happy. 294, 
349, 1725, 2399. on s»- 
lum (salum), in happiness, 
joyful. 1218, 1291, 2345, 
2648. sselig, happy; vron- 
s. unhappy. 210. Ohg. O. 
Sax. salig. ^ Comp. sel, 
sella (for selra), 294, 2029, 
etc. S.T. 218, F. F. 79. 
Superl. selest. 518. 

ge-stelan. See sal. 

s2i\d{n),mansion.2^6j^. Goth. 
sali)?va (f), Ohg. salida, 
Mhg. selde. See D. G. iii. 
427. 

s*lig. See ssel. 

sgemra, worse, inferior. 1910, 



286 



GLOSSARY. 



5752. Super!, siemest. 

S.T. 252. 
ssne, slow, sluggish. 2876, 

S. T. 136. Goth, sains. 

Mhg. seine, O. Nor. seinn. 
sseta. See sittan. 
sal, ssel (m), rope. 38 1 6. sse- 

lan, gesEtlan, to bind^ tie. 

457=3838'552i; onscelan, 
to unbind, relax. 983. 

samod, samod-setgcedere, 0/- 
together. 664, 780. set- 
somne, geador-sets. id. 987. 

sand (m), sand, shore. 431, 
596, 3796, 3838, etc. 

sang. See singan. 

sar (f), pain, wound, sore. 
^579' 1 95 J' 6tc. Comp. 
lie- s. 1 63 5 . sar, sore, paiii- 
ful. 2507, 4122; sare, 
sorely. 5485 ; sarlic, sarig, 
sad, sorrotvful.i 68S, 4224, 
4S85. 

saw], sawol (f), soul. 37 r, 
1606, 1708, etc. sawol- 
leas, soulless. 281 7, 6059. 

scacan, to go, depart. 2253, 
2277, 3^'°. £^tc. 

scadan. See sceadan. 

scadu. See scadan. 

scamian, scaraigan, to be 
ashamed. 2057, 5692. 

scapan, sceapan, to appoint, 
decree, shape, create. 157, 



195,5819. Goth, scapan, 
Ohg. scafan, scafon, O. 
Sax . scapan, O. Nor. skapa. 
gesceap (n), fate, decree, 
creation, creature. ^2, \ ^04, 
5133, 6160, S. T. 272. 
O. Sax. giscapu, quee a nu- 
mine creata, prcecepta, de- 
creta, afato constituta sunt. 
Comp. earm-sceapen, mise- 
rable creature. 2'jo'j . Scjrp- 
pend. Creator. 212. scop, 
poet, 7roir]Tf]S. 1 80, etc. 
sceaft, gesceaft (f), cre- 
ation. 3249. (m) creature. 
Comp. for'b-g. future state? 
3505 ; frum-s. beginning of 
things. 89; metod-s. 2158. 
O. Sax. metodi- giscapu, 
decreta divina ; lif-g. living 
being. 3910, 6120; mcel- 
g. 5467 ; won-s. misery. 
240. 

scaru. See sceran. 

scajja, sceaj)a, destroyer, spoil- 
er,- robber. 8, 551, 3610. 
Comp. attor-s. 5670; dol- 
s. 962; feond-s. 11 12; 
gii^-s. 4625 ; hearm-s. 
1536; leod-s. 4193; man- 
s. 1428, 1479, ^tc. ; syn-s. 
1418,1607; uht-s. 4534; 
wald-s. 2810; j)e6d-s.45 45 , 
$i^. sce^Jjan, to scathe. 






GLOSSARY. 



287 



hurt, spoil. 492, 2070, etc. 
sceajjen (f), injury, hin-t. 
3882. 
sceadan, scadan, to divide, 
decide, overwhelm . 3115, 

3 '79> 3779- ^^^ -^^ '^'^^ 
E. p. 93. gescad (n), dif- 
ference.^^!, scadu.sceadu 
(f), shadoiv. 1304, 1410, 
1419. 

sceaft {m),shaft,ar7-ow.62 2S. 
Comp. here-s. 675 ; wael- 
s. 801. F. F. 12. 

sceaft, gesceaft. See scapan. 

scealc (m), man, warrior, 
serving-man. 1841, 1883, 
361 I. Goth, skalks, Ohg. 
scale, scalh; O. Sax. scale. 
Comp. beor-s. 2485. 

sceapan. See scapan. 

scearp, sharp, acute. 581. 
Comp. beadu-s. 5401 ; 
hea))o-s. 5650. 

sceat (m), part, region, divi- 
sion, money, treasure. 193, 
etc. S.T.185. Goth.skatts, 
O. Sax. scat. Comp.«gif- 
s. 761. 

sceawian, to behold. 265,414, 
etc. sceawere, spy. 510. 

sceajja. See scaj^a. 

sceft. See sceaft. 

seen, mounting of a sword? 
O. Nor. skinna. 



scene (ra), skink, libation. 
3965. scencan, to pour, 
serve {ivith wine). 996. 

scendan, to shend, disgrace. 
1204. 

sceo, sci5 (m), shoe. Goth, 
skohs, Ohg. scuoh,O.Nor. 
skor, Ger. schuh. Comp. 
hond-s. glove. 4158. ser- 
gescod, brass-shod. 5548. 

sceorp (n), garment. Comp. 
here-s. F. F. 90 ; hilde-s. 
4316. 

sceotan, gesceotan, to shoot. 
3493, 4628 ; ofsceotan, to 
shoot {one) by accident ? 
4870. sce5tend {m), arch- 
er, warrior. 141 1, 2056, 
2312. 

sceran, gesceran, scirian, to 
shear, cut, cleave, separate, 
score. 2S79, 30 ST, 3883, 
5939, S.T. 185. scani(f), 
division, share. Comp.folc- 
s. 146; gu6-s.243o. scear 
(m), share, portion, in- 
wit-s. artifice, guile. 4949. 
scyran (scyrian ?) to ad- 
judge, decide. 3883. 

scerwan^ to reduce to shards 
(an earthen vessel). 1542. 
Netherl. scerven. Ifscer- 
wen be the true reading, 
and not scerpen, as in the 



288 



GLOSSARY. 



Leg. St. And. 105 r (Verc. 
Poetry), it may possibly 
mean that, in the general 
tumult, the ale (or mead, 
as in Leg. St. And.) was 
spilt, the vessels contain- 
ing it being reduced to 
mere shards. See A. and 
E. pp. xxxvi. and 133. 

sce^jjan. See scaj^a. 

scilling (m), sA///iH^. S.T. 1 86. 

scin (n ?), phantom. 1882. 

sciuan, to shine. 648, 815, 
1217. 

sci5. See sceo. 

scione, sceone, scyne, sheen, 
fair. 613, 6025. Ger. 
schon, Goth, skauni, Ohg. 
skoni. 

acip (n), ship. 70, etc. 

scir^ bright, clear, pure. 650, 
996, etc. S. T. 208. 

ge-scod. See sceo. 

scolu (f), shoal, company. 

Comp. hond-s. attendants. 

2638, 3931. 

sc5p. 1 

J > See scapan. 
scyppend. J 

scrsef (n), den, cavern. Comp. 
eor6-s. 4446, 6084. 

scrifan, gescrifan, to pre- 
scribe, ordain. 1963, 5142. 
iorscx\ian,to proscribe. 213. 

scrifan, to go, come, wander. 



329, 1305, 1410, 5132, 

S. T. 271. 
scrud {n), garment, Yit.shrovd. 

Corap.beadu-s.910,53 13. 
scua, shadow. Comp. dea^-s. 

322. 
scucca, devil, evil spirit. 1882. 

See D. M. p. 954. 
sciifan, to shove, thrust forth. 

1840, 6254. bescufan, id. 

371. Comp. ut-s. 436. 

wid - scofen, tcide - spread. 

1876. 
sculan, Lat. debere. 2C, etc. 

(See Rask, p. 79). scyld 

(f), debt, guilt; scyldig, 

guilty, condemned, forfeit. 

2680, 4128, 6135. 
scur (m), shower. 6224. 
sciir-, in comp. scour-. 2070. 
scyld (m), shield. 581, 656, 

etc. scyldan, to shield, 

protect. 3321. 
scyndan, to send forth, hasten. 

1840,5133. O.Nor. skyn- 

da, Dan. skynde. 
scvne. See scione. 
scyppend. See scapan. 
scyran. See sceran. 
sealm (m), psalm, song. 49 1 1 • 
sealo, sallow, dusky. F. F. 70. 
sealt, salt, adj. 3983. 
searo, searu (n), military gear, 

ambush, snare. 480, 503, 



GLOSSARY. 



281) 



651, 663, etc. Comp. 
fvrd-s. 469, 5229 ; guS 5. 
435, 661 ; inwit-s. 2206. 
searwum, artistically, cun- 
ningly. 2080, 5521. Sy- 
rian, to ensnare, circum- 
vent. 324. besyrwan, to 
machinate, ensnare. 1430, 
1888. 

seax (m.f.n.), a short curved 
sword or A:/? //<?. 3095,5800. 
Ohg. sabs, O. Nor. sax. 
Comp. wsel-5. 5400. 

seaS. See seo6an. 

secan, secean, gesecan, to 
seek. 377, 403, etc. socn 
(f), visit, visitation. 3558. 

secg (m), man, warrior. 16S, 
422, etc. 

secgan, gesecgan, asecgan, to 
say, speak. loi, 1552, 693, 
etc. gesegen (f), saying, 
tradition. 1743. 

sefa, »i2«c?.98,56i,etc. Comp. 
mod-s. id. 362, 703, etc. 

seft. See softe. 

segl (m), sail. 2863, 3816. 

segen, segn (m), ensign, ban- 
ner. 94, 2046, 2412, etc. 
Comp. eofer-beafod-s. en- 
sign representing a boar's 
head. 43 1 1 . 

ge-segen. See secgan. 

sSl. See ScSl. 



seld (n), seat. 336. Comp. 
medu-s. 6123. geselda, 
one sitting on the same seat. 

3972. 

seld, seldan, rare, seldom. 504, 
4063 . selb'c (seldb'c), syl- 
lic, strange, rare. 2856, 
4178,4225,6069. O.Sax. 
seldlic. 

sele (m), hall. 102, 163,652, 
etc. Ohg. Mbg. sal, O. 
Sax. seli, O. Nor. salr. 
Comp. beah-s. 2358; beor- 
s. 968, 988, 2192, 5263 ; 
diyht-s. 974, 1538,4629; 
eor6-s. 481 1, 5023; gest- 
s. 1992 ; gold-s. 1434, 
2510,3282,4172; gut5-s. 
890,4284; heah-s. 1298; 
hring-s.4024, 567 2,6098 ; 
lirof-s. 3034; niS-s. 3030; 
win-s. 1394, 1547, 4903. 

self, sylf, self. 58, 1015, etc. 

ge-sel (m), comrade. Ohg. 
gasello,Ger. gesell. Comp. 
bond-g. 2966. 

sella for selra. See ssel. 

sellan, gesellan, to give. 1 235, 
1349, etc. Comp. inne- 
gesellan, to give in posses- 
sion. 3737. 

semninga, suddenly. 1293, 
3284. 3539. 

sendan,onsendan, /ose«cf. 26. 
C c 



•290 



GLOSSARY. 



90, 770, 908, etc. forsen- 
dan, to banish. 1812. 

se6c,«c^.32 10,5473. Comp. 
ellen-s. 450 1,5567; feorh- 
s. J 644 ; hea))0-s. jjOi. 

seomian, siomian, to oppress, 
hang, or weigh heavily. 324, 
609, 5527. From seom 
(seam), a burthen. 

seon, geseon, to 566.448,678, 
etc. geond-se5n, to look 
through or over, sui~vey. 
6166; on-s. to look on. 
3305 ; ofer-s. to behold. 
842 ; to-s. to look on. 2849. 
(t6-sa2gon. 2849. and ge- 
segon, for -sawon^ 6068.) 
syn (T), sight ; to-syne, to 
beseen.62g8; gesfrie,seen, 
visible. 2225, 2515. si5n, 
spectacle. Comp. wmidor- 
s. 1995. ans}Ti (f), coun- 
tenance, appearance, spec- 
tacle. 495, i860, 5537, 
5660. 

seonu (f), sinew, nerve. 1639. 
Ohg. senwa. 

seowian, to sew. 816, 

seo^an, to seethe, boil. 382, 
3990. See Rask, p. 93. 

serce, syrce (f), sark, shirt, 
tunic. 458, 673, 2226. 
O. Nor. serkr, Dan. saerk. 
Comp. beadu-s. 5503 ; 



heoro-s. 5072 ; here-s. 
3027; 16060-5.3014,3784; 
lic-s. 1 105. 
sess (m?), seat. 5427, 5506. 
O. Nor. sess (m). 

vSee sittan. 
settan. J 

sib, sibb (f), kin, kinship. 
1462, 1902. Obg. sibbi, 
O. Sax. sibbia, affinity; 
O. Nor. sifi. Comp. dryht- 
s. 4142. 

sib, sibb (f), peace. 311, 779, = 
2333, etc. Comp. fri^u-s. 
4038. 

sid, wide, ample. 2,00, 45 1, etc. 

sigan, gesigan, to descend, 
sink, 619, 2056, 5311. 
gescegan, to lay loiv. 1772. 

sige, sigor (m), victory. 984, 
1243, 1292, 2047. Goth, 
sigis, Ohg. sigu, O. Sax. 
sigi, O. Nor. sigr. sige- 
leas. 1578. 

sigel (n), sun, also necklace, 
collar, jewel for the neck, 
Lat. monile, bulla. 2318, 
2404. 3936. 5491. 6308. 
Comp. ma^))um-s. 5508. 

sin, sin. See syn. 

sin-, a prefix denoting ever, 
eternal, also union. Gr. ai>p, 
Lat. con-, singal, perpe- 
tual, incessant. 310, etc. 



GLOSSARY. 



291 



singala, singales, incessant- 
ly. 382, 2274. 

sine (n), treasure, money. 1 62, 
336, 1 2 19, etc. O. Sax. 
sine. Comp. gled-s. 405 1 . 

singan, asingan, to sing. 651, 
997, 23 23, etc. sang, song 
(m),sowp'.i8o,ete.S.T.i35. 

sioe. See seoc. 

siole^, seal. 4723. See note. 

siomian. See seomian. 

sion. See seon. 

sittan, gesittan, to sit, recline. 
261, etc. besittan, ^0 ie^e/, 
s?<;TOM«rf. 2910,5864; for- 
s. to weigh down, oppress ? 
3538; of-s. /o«7 o?z.3o94; 
ofer-s. to sit over, Lat. in- 
cumbere, omit. 1372,5050; 
on-s. to care about. 1198 ; 
ymb-s. 1 132, 3658. sit- 
tende, sitter, reside// 1. 
Comp. flet-s. 3580, 4049; 
heal-s. 4035, 5728; ymb- 
s. 18, 1 132, etc. setl (n), 
seat. TO, 2082, 2468, etc. 
Comp.heah-s.2178; hilde- 
s. 2082 ; meodu-s. 10. 
sseta, inhahitant, reside/it. 
Comp.ende-s. one stationed 
at Me e«c? (of Jutland). 4S7. 
settan, gesettan, asettan, 
to set, appease. 93, 188, 
655' ^3?>^> 3396; etc. 



si^ (m), journey, voyage, en- 
terprise, fortune. 1 1 6 2 , 
1749, 2560, 2955, 3593, 
etc. also time, occasion. 
1437, 1485, 2409. Comp. 
cear-s. 4783 ; eft-s. 2669, 
3786,5560; ellor-s.4S93; 
gryre-3.2928; s£e-s. 2302; 
wil-s. 437 ; vvr<ec-s. 682, 
4573- gesi5(m).57,i7ir, 
259S. Comp.driht-g.F.F. 
84; wil-g. 45. sij)ian, to 
go, journey. 1445, 162 1, 
etc. Conip. for¥-s. 3104. 
si^fret (m), journey. 406, 
etc. 

si^, since, after; si^})an, after 
that, since. 1213, 1300, 
1375' 1 441. etc. 

slctpan, to sleep, i486, etc. ; 
slsep (m), sleep. 2506, 

3489- 

sleac, slack, slothful. 4381. 

slean, to strike, slay. 217, 
847, 922, 1367, etc. ge- 
slean, to gain by striking 
or battle. 5985, S. T. 77, 
90 ; of-s. to slay, kill. 
1153' 3334' etc. slyht 
(f), geslyht (n), confict. 
4787. Comp.hond-s.5851, 
5937; w?el-s. F.F. 57. 

slea\v,5/oji'. unsleaw, no/ slow, 
ready, prompt. 5 1 2 i . 
C C 2 



292 



GLOSSARY. . 



slitan, to slit, tear. 1487. 
sli(5, slipper]/, it. hard, cruel. 

370,4787. Goth, sleideis. 

See A. and E. p. 158. 

silken, id. 2298. 
slog. 1 

slyht, geslyht. j 
smset. See smiS, 
smiS (ro), smith. 817, etc. 

Comp. wundor-s. 3366. 

besmiSian, to forge. 1554. 

smset, tvroi/ght by the ham- 
mer, beaten {gold). S. T. 

184. 
snsed. See sny^ian. 
snel, snellic, quick, keen. 5934, 

1384. 
snotor, snotorlic, sagacious. 

383, 407, 837, 1656, etc. 

Ccmp. fore-s. 6305. snyt- 

tru (i), sagacity. 345 7 ; and 

in plur, 3416 ; unsnyttru. 

3472 ; snyttrum, wisely, 

discreetly. 1749, 1S88. 
sniide, quickly. i8i2, etc. 
snyrian, to hasten. 809. 
snf^ian, to cut ; besny^ian' 

to cut off, deprive {of life). 

5841. sii^^{xn), particle. 

Comp. syn-nsed, minute 

particle. 1490. 
«6cn. See secan. 
softe, soft; unsofte, 3314, 

4287. Compar. seft. 5492. 



solu (f), mud, soil. 609. 

sona, soon, forthwith. 243, 
149^ 1504. etc. 

song. See singan. 

sorb (f), sorrow, care, afflic- 
tion. 2'^g, etc. Comp.byge- 
s. 4646 ; inwit-s. i666, 
3477. sorgian, to sorrow, 
carefor. go J, etc. sorhfid, 
5or?-o?iy«Z. 1 028, 25 60, etc. ; 
sorbleas, secure. 3348. 

s6S, s661ic, sooth, true. 1069, 
etc.; soSlice, truly. 551. 
to so^e, in sooth. 1184. 
so^fdest, upright, Just. ^6^^ . 

spanan, onspanan, pret. on- 
speon, to allure. 5430. 

s^ed {i)i speed, success. Ohg. 
spuot, O.Sax.spod. Comp. 
here-s. 129; wig-s. 1398. 
on sped, diligently, briefly. 

1750- 
spel (n), narrative, as in god- 

spel, gospel. 1751, 4225, 

5788, S. T. no. Comp. 

wea-s, 2634. 
on-speon. See spanan. 
spiwan. to vomit. 4614. 
spor (n), spur. Comp. band- 

s. 1976. 
spowan, to speed, thrive.^ 70 1 , 

6045. 
sprecan, gesprecan, to speak. 

688, etc. sprsec (f), speech. 



GLOSSARY. 



21*:^ 



Comp. 3ofen-s. 1522; gilp- 
s. J966. 

spreot (m), sprit, pole. Comp. 
eofer-s. boar-spear. 2879. 

springan, gespringan, to 
spring. 36, 1773, 318 1, 
aetspringan, to spring out 
or forth. 2247; on-s. to 
spring asunder. 1639. 

staef (m), s/f7^. Comp. run- 
s. runic (or secret) letter 
or character. 3394. This 
word forms the second 
component of some ab- 
stract nouns, in which 
combination its exact sig- 
nification is far from clear, 
as, ar-stafas, honour, mercy. 
639, 769, 920; ende-staef, 
end. 3510; facen-stafas, 
treachery. 2041. 

stael (m), place, stead. 2963. 
gestaelan, to place, esta- 
blish. 2685. Ohg. staljan, 
stellan ; O. Sax. stellian. 

staelan, to steal, approach 
stealthily. 4964. Ohg. O. 
Sax. stelan, O. Nor. stela. 

Stan (m), stone. 645, 1779, 
2S22. Comp. eorcnan-3. 
precious stone. 2420. O. 
Nor. iarknasteinn, Edda 
Seem., edit. Stockh. 137. 
23. 139-33. 213.18, 238. 



5 2. An old gloss explains 
margarita and topazion by 
eorcan-stan. Grimm (D.^I. 
p. 1 167) says, " it appear? 
to be the egg-shaped, 
milk-white opal, otherwise 
called orphanus, pupillus, 
Mhg. weise, which was so 
precious that it adorned 
the royal crown of Ger- 
many. Albertus Magnus 
writes : orphanus est la- 
pis, qui in corona Romani 
iraperatoris est, neque un- 
quam alibi visus est, prop- 
ter quod etiam orphanus 
vocatur." See the entire 
passage in Grimm, ut su- 
pra. 

standan,astandan,gestandi:n, 
to stand. 63, 662, etc. a-t- 
standan, to stand at. i 787: 
big-s. to stand by. 6c86 ; 
for-s. to protect. 2117, 
31030903; i"-s- to pene- 
trate. ;iocg; ymbe-gestan- 
dan. 5 1 88. 

stapan, gestapan, to step, 
walk. 1527, 2807, 4568. 
eetstapan, to approach. 
1495. stapa, stepper, strik- 
er. Comp. ha'^-s. 2740, 
mearc-s. 2c6, 2700. 

stapol (m), fore-court. 18-6. 
c c 3 



/ 



•294 



GLOSSARY. 



O. Nor. stopuU, or i. q. 
stepel, toiver ? 

stapul (m), pillar. 5430. 

starian, to stare, gaze. 1997, 
297J, 3211, etc. on-sta- 
rian, to gaze on. 5585. 

in-gesteald. See stellan. 

ge-stealla, comrade. Ohg. 
stello, vicarius, defensor. 
Comp. eaxl-g. one who 
stands at the lord's sAo«/- 
der, henchman. 26^6, ;^4.'^2; 
fyrd-g.5739; hand (bond) 
-g- 4344. 5186; lind-g. 
3950 ; nyd-g. i 769. 

steap, steep, high, lofty. 450, 
1857, 2822^ etc. Comp. 
hea]jo-s. 2494, 43 1 1 . ste- 
pan, gestepan, to exalt, 
support? 3438, 4776. 

stearc, rugged, stiff, strong. 
4566, 5097. 

stede (m), stead, place. i'974. 
Comp. bsel-s. 61 85 ; burh- 
S.-4522; folc-s. 152, 2930; 
heah-s. 575 ; mej)el-s. 
2169; wic-s. 4915, 5207; 
wong-s. 5565. 

stefn (m), prow, stem. 429. 
O. Sax. staran, O. Nor. 
stafn, Dan. stavn. stefna, 
a proioed ship. Comp. bun- 
den-s.3824; hringed-s.64, 
2 266,3 799; wunden -s.445 . 



stefn (f), voice, spirit, energy'? 

3.S82, 5098, 5181. Goth. 

stibna, O. Sax. stemna. 
on-stellan, to establish, cause. 

4806. in-gesteald (n), 

chattels? 2314. 
steng (m), stake. Comp.wsel- 

s. 3280. 
stepan, gestepan. See steap. 
stigan^ astigan, gestigan, to 

go, proceed, mount. 429, 

456,1269, 1357, etc. stig 

(f), p««/e.646,2 823,4433. 

Comp. medo-s. path to the 

mead hall? or for meodu r 

1852. 
stille, still. 608, 5653. 
stincan, to emit an odour, to 

scent. 4565. 
stiS, stiff, rigid. 3070. 
stod. See standan. 
stol (m), seat, chair, stool. 

Comp. brego-s. 4398, 

4729,4767; eljel-s.4732, 

S.T.245; gif-s. 33 8, 4643; 

gum-s. 3908 ; j>e6den-s. 

S.T. 27. 
storm (m), siorw. 2 2 67, 6 2 25. 

styrman, to storm, rage. 

.5097- 
stow (f), place. 2017, 2749, 

2760. Comp.wsel-s.4108, 

5960. 
strael (m), arrow. 3496, 6 2 25. 



GLOSSARY. 



295 



Cornp. here-s. 2874. 
street (f), street, road. 645, 

1837.3272- Comp. lagu- 

s. 483 ; mere-s. 1032. 
Strang, streng, strong. 267, 

395' 1.583. etc. strengo 

(f), strength. 2545, 3071. 

Corap. m?egen-s. 5350 ; 

mere-s. 1070. 
stream (m), stream, 430, etc. 

Comp, brim-s. 3825 ; ea- 

gor-s. 1*030; eg (egor) -s. 

1158; fyrgen (firgen) -s. 

2723. 4263; lagu-s. 599. 
stregdan, to strew. 4864. 
streng (m), string. 6225. 
strengel (m), prince, king. 

6222. 
strengo. See Strang, 
streonan. See gestrynan. 
strudan, to spoil, desolate. 

6139, 6244. 
ge-strynan, to get, ^a/n. 5589. 

gestreon (f), acquisition, 

treasure. ^S>^^,j^oS 1,6^1;^. 

Comp. j^r-g. 3518, 4457; 

eald-g.2766,2921; eorl-g. 

448 1; heah-g.4j93; hord- 

g. 3803, 6175; ma})m-g. 

3866; sinc-g. 2 189,2456; 

\>e6d-g. 87, 2440. 
stund (f), short space of time. 

Ger. stunde. stundura, at 

times. 285 r. 



styl (m), steel. 1975, 3070. 
be-styman, to besteam. 977. 
styrian, to stir, excite, re- 
proacli, taunt. 1749, 2753, 

5673, F.F. 37- 
styrman. See storm, 
suhter (m), kin. 2332, S. T. 

94- 
sum, some, some one. 502, 

634, etc. 

sund (n ?), sea, sound. 43 1 , 
452, 1029, etc. : also 
swimming, Lat. natatio. 
421, 1019, 1039, 2876. 
on sunde, afloat. 3240. 

ge-sund, sound, safe. 641, 
3260; ansund, id. 2004. 
gesynto (f), health, pros- 
perity, on gesyntum,/?ro.?- 
perously. 3742. 

sundor, asunder, separate. 

1339. 4836- 
sunne (f), sun. 1 89, etc. 
sunu (m), son. 694, etc. 
su^, south. I J 20; svdSau,froui 

the south. 12 17, 3936. 
be-swaelan. See swelan. 
swses, dear, ovm. 57, 1045, 

etc. swseslxe, pleasantly. 

6169. 
sw£e))er, whichever. F. F. 54. 

swa-hw8ej>er. 1376. 
swaloS. See swelan. 
swan (m), swan. 402. 



296 



GLOSSARY. 



swaYian, to sweep, for-swapan, 

to sweep away. 959, 5621. 
swart. See sweart. 
swat (m), blood. 2226, 2576, 

5109, 5380, 5884, 5925. 

Comp.hea))o-s.2924,3 216. 

3340. s\\atig,bloody.^i ^2. 
swajju (f), tj-ace. 4203, 58S4. 

Comp. swat-s. 5884. 
sweartj swart, swarf, dark, 

black. 337, 4356, 6281, 

F. F. 70. 
swebban. See swefan. 
swefan, to sleep. 238, 141 1, 

etc. sweofot (m), sleep. 

3166, 4579. swebban, to 
put to sleep, slay. 1204, 

1363. Conjug. like beb- 

ban. SeeRask,pp. 75. 87. 

aswefian, id. 1138. 
sweg (m), sound, noise. 179, 

1292, etc. Comp. benc-s, 

2326; morgen-s. 258. 

swogan, to send forth a 

sound. 6282. O. Sax. suo- 

gan. 
swegel (n) , heaven, firmament. 

1216,1724, 2 T 60, etc. O. 

Sax. suigli. 
swelan, to burn, be inflamed. 

5419. beswselan, 2C?. 6075. 

swalo^, sweolo^ (ra), heat, 

burning, fire. 1568, 2235. 

Ger. schwiile. 



swelgan, to swallow, devout;- 

1490, 1568, 6292 ; for-s. 

id. 2249, 4^^7' Also for 

swellan. 6292. 
swellan, to swell. 5419. 
sweltan, to die. 1789, etc. 

swylt (m), death. 2514, etc. 
swencan. See swincan. 
sweng. See swingan. 
sweoloS. See swelan. 
sweorcan,gesweorcan,^oo?ar/(;- 

en.become dark.^^y 8,3 5 83 . 

O. Sax. suuercan. for- 

sweorcan, to darken, make 

dark. 3538. 
sweord, swurd (n), sword. 

87 8, 1 082, etc. Comp.guS- 

s. 4314; wig-s. 2982. 
sweord. See sweran. 
sweet (m), shoal, multitude. 

1138. 
sweotol. See swutol. 
swei'ian, to swear. 169, 949, 

etc. sweord (m), swearing. 

Comp. a6-s. 4134. Obg. 

aidsuart, Ger. eidschwur. 

andswarian and andswaru 

5713 perhaps belong here, 
swe^rian,' to cease, abate, also 

appease. 1 145, 1807, 2217, 

5397- 
swican, geswican, to deceive, 
give place, escape. 2925, 
3053, 5162. 5355. swk 



GLOSSARY. 



297 



(m), escape. Com p. lic-s. 

^937- 

on-swifan, to turn. 51 12. 

swift, swift. 45 2 I . 

swigian, to be silent. 3403, 
5777. Compar. swigra, 
more silent. 1964. The 
positive seems wanting. 

swimman. See swymman. 

swin, swyn (n), swine. 2227, 
2577, etc. The swine was 
a favourite crest of the old 
Germanic warriors, being 
the emblem of Freya. See 
Taciti Ger. xlv, and s. v. 
eofer. 

swincan, to toil. I o^S. swen- 
can, to make toil, oppress. 
J954. 2741, 3024, etc. 

swingan, to swing, swinge. 
4520. sweng (m), stroke, 
blow. 4761, 5365, 5924. 
geswing (n), swing, dash. 
1700. Corap. feorh-s. 
4972; heaJ?o-s. 5155; 
heoro-s. 3045,3184; hete- 

s. 4452. 

swinsian, to sound, resound. 
I 227, S. T. 21 2. 

swiS, swyS, strong. 348, 385, 
etc. Goth, swinjjs, O. Sax. 
suith. Comp. J;ry6-s. 262, 
1477. swiSre (hand),r/^/i/ 
(hand). 4202. swi^an, to 



be strong ; ofer-s. tu excel 

in strength, overcome. 564, 

etc. swiSe, strongly, very. 

1999, etc.; unswiSe. 5 150. 
swogende. See sweg. 
swutol.sweotol, »iaH//"w/,/oarf. 

180, 285, etc. 
swylc, such, as. 145, etc. 

swylce, so also, in like 

manner. 226, 1845. 
swylt. See sweltan. 
swymman, to swim. 3252 ; 

ofer-s. 4723. 
syl {i),siU. 1555. 
syllic. See seld. 
syrabel (n), feast. 162, 238, 

1 132, etc. 
symble, ever, always. 4891, 
' S.T. 263. 
syn (f),5Jrt. 1420. 1607, 1954, 

etc. synnig, sinful. 2762 ; 

unsynnig, innocent. 4 1 85 ; 

unsynnum. 2 1 49. syngian, 

to sin. 4874. 
syn-. See sin-, 
ge-synto. See gesund. 
syrce. See serce. 
syrwan,besyrwan,syran. See 

searo. 



Tacen (n), sign, token. 285, 
1 67 I, etc. Goth, taikns, 
Ohg. zeichan, O. Sax. 



298 



GLOSSARY. 



, tekan.O.Nor.takn. Comp. 
luf-t. 3730. 

tsecau, getcecan, to teach, in- 
dicate. 63 1 , 403 I . 

un-toele, blameless. 3734- 

ge-tcese, easy, comfortable. 
2645. 

talian, to tell, account. io6g, 
1 193, etc. tellan, to count, 
calculate. 3551, 3877. 

tan (m), twig. Comp. ater-t. 
2923. 

teare (m), tear. 3749, 6056. 

tela. See til. 

ge-tenge, heavy. 5510. 

teogan, teon, to draw, tug 
(pret. teode for teogde, 
teah), ^roi'irfe. 86, etc. to 
come, go. 2107, 2669, etc.; 
ateon, to come, approach. 
^537' geteon, to draw 
(a sword). 3095, 5214; to 
give, cause. 2093, 4337, 
4580, 5046. ofteon, to 
take from, withhold. 10, 
304^, 4972; })urh-te6n, 
to carry through, accom- 
plish. 2285. Teohhian, ge- 
teohhian, to decree, ap- 
point. 738, 1907, 2605. 
toga, one who draws or 
leads. Comp. folc-t. 1682 ; 
te5hhe (f), progeny. 5868. 

ge-teona, one who injures. 



Comp. la^-g, 1 1 23, 

1953- 
tid {i),time,hour,\it.tide.^4.^. 

Comp. morgan -t. 973. 

tidig, timely, lasting. Ohg. 

zitig, Ger. zeitig, Netherl. 

tijdig. Comp. lang-tidig, 

long-lasting. 3420. 
til, good, well-disposed. 122, 

etc. tela, ?i'e//. 1 90 1, 2441, 

etc. 
tilian, to till, prepare, culti- 
vate. 3651. 
timbrian,betimbrian, to build. 

620, 6299. 
tir (m), glory. 3312, 4384. 

tirfost, glorious. 1 848 ; tir- 

leas, inglorious. 1690. 
ge-ti5ian, to grant, consent. 

4558- 
toga. See teogan. 
tov\i\.,iright,clear.Ci'^ i . Comp. 

liea)?o-t. 5C99 ; wuldor-t. 

2276. 
torn (m), anger, grievance, 

affliction. 297,1670, 2284; 

also adj. 4265. Comp. lig- 

t. 3890. 
to^ (m), ^oo//j. Comp. blcdig- 

t. 4170. 
trsef (m ?), tent, jmvilion. O. 

French tref. Comp. hearg- 

t. 353- 
tredan, treddian, to tread, go. 



GLOSSARY. 



290 



2709, 3291, 3767; 1455, 
1488. trod {{), track. 1 6g I. 

trem (m}), footstep. 5044. 

treow (n), tree. Conip. galg- 

t- 5873. 

trecwe. See trywe. 

tram, frm. 2742. 

ge-trum (n ?), company, body 
{of soldiers). 1849. 

trywe, getrywe, treowe, true, 
faithful. 2334. truwian, 
getruwian, treowian, to 
trust, confirtn. 1343, 2194, 
2337^ 3o'j\, etc. treow 
(f),/a/V/t. 2148. 

turf (f), turf. Comp. ej)el-t. 
824. 

tusc (m), tush. 3026. 

ge-twcC'fan, getwgGman, to se- 
parate, part, cut off from. 
963,940, 1940, 2871, etc. 
From twa, tn-o. 

be-tweonum, bettveen ; from 
twa, two. The phrase be 
ssem tweonum = betweo- 
num ScEm, between the seas, 
not bcticeen tico seas.iyzi, 
2599, etc. 

tydder, tyder, tender, effemi- 
nate. 5686. 

tvdre (m), progeny, untydre, 
monstrous progeny. 222. 

on-tyhtan, to iynpel, instigate. 

. 6164. 



tyrf. See turf, 
tyrwyd (tyrwod }),tarred.c^g^ ; 
from tyrwian, to tar. 

U. 

Ufan, above, from above. 665, 

3005. ufor, higher. 5895. 

ufera, late, after. 4407,4773 . 

uhte (f), morning, daivn. 252, 

4019. 4534.5513- Goth, 
uht, Ohg. uohta, O. Sax. 
uhta, O. Nor. otta, 
umbor (n), child. O. Engl. 
ympe ? 92, 2378. This 
word seems to be of simi- 
lar formation to lambor, 
halor, etc. The phrase 
umbor wesende ( = cniht 
weseude, 1. 750) exactly 
corresponds to the fol- 
lowing passages from the 
chroniclers, speaking of 
Sceaf : viz. Ethelw. 111. 3. 

" Ipse Scef valde 

recenspwer." W.Malmesb. 
p.173, edit. E.H.S. "Iste 

Sceaf appulsus 

navi, sine remige, pueru- 
lus." So also Simeon Du- 
nelm. The word occurs 
once in Codex. Exon.335. 
9. " umbor yce^ J)a. ser 
adl numeS." He the chil- 
dren then increases, ere 



300 



GLOSSARY. 



{more quickly than) disease 

takes them. 
under, under, during, among. 

427, 625, 797, 1480, etc. 
unnan,geunnan, to give,grani. 

698, 1010, 1925, 3326. 
up, uppe, up. 1 137. uplang, 

upright. 1523 ; upriht. id. 

4191. 
ut, out. 1079,1331; utan, on- 

utan, without. J 552, etc. ; 

utan-ymb, round about. 

30 II; utweard.utanweard, 

outward. 1526, 4583. 

W. 

Wa, woe. 369. 
wac. See wican, 
wacan, onwacan, to wake, 
spring from. 1 1 2,1 19, 223, 

2535. 3925' 4563; S. T. 
9. wacian, wseccan, to 
watch, keep guard. 1324, 
1420, etc. ; weccan, wec- 
cean^ to awaken, excite. 
4098, 5700, 6040, 6279; 
to-weccan, id. 5889; on- 
wacnian, to wake up. F. F. 
19. 
wadan, gewadan, to go, lit. to 
wade; Lat. vadere. 446, 
1432, 5315. onwadan, 
to enter, invade. 1835. 
]>urh-w. to transfix, pierce. 



1785, 3139- waed (n), 
ford. 1 02 1, J 096, 1166. 
weecnan. See wican. 
wsed (f), gewsed (n), vest, 

dress, weed. 589. Comp. 

hre6st-g.2426,433o; eorl- 

g.28S8; guS-g.459,5228, 

etc.; heaJ)o-w. 78; here- 

w. 3 798. 
waefre, wavering, wandering. 

2305, 2666, 4831. 
w£eg. See wegan. 
wgege (n), cup. 4499, 4543. 

Comp. ealu-w. 966, 995, 

4047 ; li^-w. 3969. O. 

Sax. uuegi. 
be-w8egned. See wegan. 
wsel (n), slaughter, the fallen 

in battle, corpse, ijo, 250, 

goo, 1 275, etc. 
wa?lm. See weallan. 
wsen. See wegan, 
weepen ^j, weapon. 77, 505, 

etc. Comp. sige-w. 1612. 

bewsepned, armed, male 

(sex). 2573. 
â– W8er. See warian. 
weestm (m) fruit,form, growth. 

2708. Comp.here-w.135 8. 
WEEter (n), water. 187, etc. 
wag (m), wall. 1994, 3328. 
wald {ui), for est, wood. 28x0. 
waldan and its derivatives. 

See wealdan. 



GLOSSARY. 



301 



wan, won, dark-hued, swart. 
1306, 1409, 2752, etc. 

wandrian, to wander. F.F. 69. 

wang, wong (m), field, plain. 
1 86,456,etc. Comp.freocSo- 
w. 5910 ; grund-w. 2996, 
5 '69, 5533 ; raeodu-w. 
3291; sje-w. 3933. 

wanian, gewanian, to wane, 
fade, pass awai/. 95 8, 267 8 , 
3218. wanigean, to be- 
wail? 1579. From wana, 
wanting, deficient; whence 
the privative prefix wan-, 
O. Nor. Sw. Dan. van- 
frequently, like the Ger. 
un-, imparting a bad sense 
to the word. 

warsi,inhabitant. Comp.burg- 
\v. S.T. 182; land-w. 463 iv 

warian, to hold, keep, occupy. 
2511, 2534, 2720, 4543. 
wser (f), covenant, custody. 
54, 2205, 6210. Comp. 
frio^u-w. 2196, 4554. 

waro^ (m), shore. 473, 3934. 
See faroS. 

wast. See witan. 

wa))ol, wandering. F. F. 14. 

wajju (f),jffly. Comp. gomen- 
w. 17 13. See A. and E. 
p. 116. 

wea, ivoe, calamity. 299, 384, 
851, etc. 



wealcan, to roll, gewealc (n), 
rolling. 932. 

wealdan, gewealdan, waldan, 
to rule, command. 59, 889, 
1407, etc. wealdend (m), 
ruler. 33, 368, etc. Al- 
walda,///»?/5rA^y.63 8, 1 86 1 , 
etc. geweald(m.n.),j^ow.'er. 
158, etc. onweald (m), 
command. 2og^. anwealda, 
sole ruler. 2j48. geweal- 
den, subjected. 3468. 

weall (ra), wall, ranrpart, 
mound. 463, 658, 1148, 
1547, etc. Comp. bord- 
w. shield. 5952 ; eard-w. 
245 2 ; eor6-w.59o6, 6171; 
SEC- w.3 853 ; scyld- W.5 1 3 4, 
6227. 

weallan, to icell, boil. 1035, 
1096, 1 1 66, etc. Comp. 
heoro-weallende. Sj5^- 
waelm, wylm (m), boiling, 
fury, fervour. 1036, 3390, 
3533, etc. Comp. breost- 
w. 3758; brim-w. 2993; 
bryne-w. 4642 ; cear-w. 
569, 4138; fyr-w. 5335; 
hea)50-w.i65,563o; holm- 
W.4814; Sce-w.792; sorh- 
w. 1 8 13, 3990. 

weard (m), warden, keepc â– . 
guard. 464,^"/ J , etc. Comp. 
bat-w. 3804; eor5--.v. 

Dd 



302 



GLOSSARY. 



4658; e}>el-w.i237,34o8, 
4426; gold--w.6i45; ^^^â–  
fod-w. 5811; hord-w. 
2098, 3708, 4576, etc.; 
hy^-w. 3833 ; land-w, 
3785 ; ren (regen) -w. 
1544; sele-w. 1338; swe- 
gel-w.i2i6; yrfe-w.4897, 
5455. weard (f), ward, 
guard. 644. Comp. eg-w. 
sea-guard. 488 ; ferh-w. 
life-guard. 6x6 ; or-w. 
rvithout a guard. 6245, 
weardian, to guard, keep, 
inhabit. 211; 1947, 2479, 
4335' 6tc. " }>one wudu 
wearda^ : nemus incolit 
(Phoenix)." Cod. Exon. 
203. 16. 

wearh (m), wolf, an accursed 
or proscribed person. O. 
Nor. vargr. Comp. heoro- 
w. sanguinary wolf. 2538. 
wyrgen (f),she-wolf. Comp. 
gnmd-w. 3041. 

wearn (f), denial, prohibition, 
warning. y 38. unwearnum, 
unawares. 1487. forwyr- 
uan, to deny, refuse, fore- 
warn. 862, 2288. 

v\eaxan, geweaxan, to wax, 
^row. 15, 133, 3426, 3486. 

web (n), web, tapestry. 1994. 
"webbe (f ) , female weaver. 



Comp. freoSu-w. peace- 
weaver, conciliatrix. 3888, 
S. T. II. gewiof (n), web. 
1398. From wefan, to 
weave. 

weccan. See wacan. 

wed (n), pledge. 5989. 

weder (n), weather, tempest. 
1097,2276. Ohg. wetar, 
Ger. wetter, ge wider (n), 
storm. 2754. Ohg. giwi- 
tiri, Ger. gewitter. 

wegan, gewegan, to move, 
wage, convey, bear. 307 
2419' 3559> 3867, 4792 
4919, 5402, 6023. setwe- 
gan, to bear aivay. 2401 
weg(m),M?ay.534. Comp 
feor-w. y^; fold-w. 1736 
3271; forS-w. 5243. on 
w. away. 1531, 2769, etc 
wsen (m), wagon. 6260 
wseg (m), wave. 439,2884 
3224, 3818, 6256. be 
wsegnian, to offer. 2390 
sweord-w. 4497. 

wel, well. 375, etc. Some 
times almost an expleti^'e 
UkeGer.woA/. 1 753. \<'ela 
wealth. Corap.Eer-w.5488 
burh-w. 6191 ; hord-w 
4677; maj)8um-w. 5493 
welig, wealthy. 5207. 

wen (f), hope, expectation. 



GLOSSARY. 



303 



772, etc. wena, hopeful ; 
orwena, hopeless. 2008, 
3 134. wenan, to hope, ex- 
pect. 317, etc. 

wendan and its derivatives. 
See windan. 

vreorc, geweorc (n), lourk, 
affliction. 149, 583, 914, 
33i7» 3447- weorcum, 
tmth difficulty. 2,2?! 1. Comp. 
8er-g. 3362 ; beado-w. 
4587; ellen-w.1326,1920, 
3932, etc.; fyrn-g. 4561; 
guS-g. 1360, 1967, 3654; 
hand-g. ^66^ ; hea]jo-vr. 
5776; land-g. 1880; niht- 
w. 1659; m«-g. 1370. 
weorcan, w}Tcan, wyrcean, 
gewyrcean, to work, make, 
effect. 40, 139, 185, etc. 
S, T. 146. bewyrcan, to 
encompass. 6^0^. gewyrht 
(n), deed, desert. Comp. 
eald-g. 5307. weorce, sad, 
grievous. 2841. 

weorpan, gewyrpan, to cast. 
3066,5157; to recover? 
5944; forweorpan, to cast 
«way. 5736; ofer-w. to 
overthrow. 3090. 

weorod. See werod. 

ge-weorJ)an, to be, become, 
settle. 12, 374, 462, 3201, 
3997. wyr^{i), that which 



is to be, fate, destiny. 915, 

959, 1149, 1473. etc. 
weorSe, wyr^e, weorSlic, 

â– weor^ful, ivorthy. 742, 

1727, 3809, 6304, F. F. 

74. Comp. fyrd-w. 2637. 

w^eoi^ (n), worth, price. 

4986. weorfiian, geweor- 

)>ian, gewur})ian, to esteem, 

honour, decorate. 505, 667, 

2081, etc, weor))ung (f), 

honour, reward. Comp. 

breost-w. 5001 ; ham-w. 

5988 ; hord-w. 1908 ; 

hring-w. 6027 ; wig-w. 

354. weorSmynd, weor8- 

mynt (n), honour, dignity. 

16, 130, 2377, etc. 
weotian and its derivatives. 

See vdtian. 
wepan, to weep, cry. wop (m), 

outcry, whoop. 257, 1575, 

6283. 
wer (m), man. 2 1 o, etc. Lat. 

vir. 
wered, sweet. Comp. scir-w. 

996. 
werhSo. See werig. 
werian, bewerian, to defend. 

481, 91 1, 1086, i88i, etc. 

v?ergan, id. S. T. 244. 
werig, weary, exhausted. 1 1 6 2 , 

1692, 3593, etc. Comp. 

dea6-w. 4256; fyl-w. 1929; 
D d 2 



304 



GLOSSARY. 



gu^-w, 3176. gewergad, 
wearied. 5697. 

weiig, accursed. 266, 3499. 
werhSo, wergSo (f), dam- 
nation. 1 1 82. 

werod^ weorod (n), host, mul- 
titude. 120, 523, 586, etc. 
Comp. eorl-w. 5779; flet- 
w. 957 ; inn-w. household. 
S. T. 223. 

weste, waste, desert. 4903. 
westen (n), desert. 2534, 

4585^ 49°3- 
wic (n), habitation. 25 1,1646, 

2255, ^^^' Olig' ^it> O- 
Sax. wic. Comp. deat5-w. 
2555; lirea-w. 2432. 

wican, gewican, to fail, give 
way. 5148, 5251. wac, 
waclic, weak, soft ; unwac- 
lic, vast, mighty. 6278. 
wsecnan, to desist, cease 
from. 171. 

wicg (n), horse. 474, 578, 
635, etc. O. Sax. uuigg, 
O. Nor. vigg. 

wicing (m), viking, pirate. S.T. 
96,120; from O. Nor. vie, a 
creek. The vikings lurked 
in, or issued from, creeks 
along the coast, whence 
their name. 

wid, wide, far. i6S4,iy^g, etc. 
wide,tt-j(ie/y.i59,538,i53o. 



wif (n), woman, wife. 1234, 
1282, 1990, etc. Comp. 
mere-w. 3042. At 1. 2320 
wif is either used in the 
fern., or is a plur. signify- 
ing the women of Fin's 
court. 

wig, wih (m)j temple, idol. 
354. Goth, veihs, Ohg. 
O. Sax. wih. 

wig (m)^ war, battle. 46, 130, 
etc. Comp. fet5e-w. 47 1 7. 
wiga,wigend (m), warrior. 
863, 1262, 4664, F. F. 
19. Comp. sesc-w. 4090 ; 
bym-w. 5828 ; gar-w. 

527S' 5341. 5614; guS- 
w. 4230; lind-w. 5199; 
rand-w.2600,3590. scyld- 
w. 581. wigan, to war, do 
battle. 5012. Comp. lust- 
w. 1203. 

wiht (f), creature, being, wight, 
aught. 241,3 16,347,1087, 
etc. Comp. eel-w. 3004 ; 
o^viht, aught. 3640, 4856. 

wil. See vdlla. 

wild, wild. 2864. 

willa, will. 1257, 1274^ 1325, 
etc. willan,onwillan,ro/Mw- 
tarily, spontaneously. 3482, 
4603,5171; to-willan, jrf. 
2376, 3426. willan, to 
will. 642, etc. Lat. velle ; 



GLOSSARY. 



30.') 



wilnian, to desire. 379; 
gov. gen. wil-, as a prefix, 
welcome. 45, 437, 782, etc. 
willum, cheerfully, Lat. li- 
benter. 3646. 

win, joy. See wyn. 

win (n), ivine, 1312, 1394, 
H33. 1547. etc. 

ge-win, win (n), war, conflict, 
strife. 385, 1601, 2128, 
3566. Comp.fyrn-g.33 82; 
gu¥-w.5463; y=S-g. 2872, 
4815. winnan, to contend, 
war. 227, 267, 291, 305, 
etc. F. F. 22. gewinna, 
adversary. 3556. Corap. 
ealdor-g. 5799. 

wind (m), wind. 440, 1099, 
etc.; windig, windy. 1148, 
etc. 

windan, gewindan, to wind, 
curl, roll, wheel about. 43 o 
1530, 2242, etc. eet-w. 
to escape from. 289; be-w. 
to entwine, encircle, whirl. 
2066, 2927, 6097, 6283; 
on-w. to unwind. 3224. 
wendan, to turn, 3482 ; 
ed-w. to return. 565 ; on- 
w. to avert, pervert. 384, 
5195. edwende (f?), re- 
turn, reverse. 3553, 4383- 
wunden, twined, twisted. 
601, 2390, 2768, 6037. 



wine (m), friend, man. 60, 
131, 298, etc. O. Sax. 
uuini, O. Nor. vinr, Dan. 
ven. Comp. frea-w. 864, 
4703, 4S49, etc.; gold- 
w. 2346, 29^6, etc.; giitS- 
w. 3624 ; mseg-"^. 495 i - 
wineleas. 3332, 5^'9- 

winter (m), winter, year (the 
A. S. S. reckoned by win- 
ters). 296, 1036, 2260, 
etc. 

ge-wiofu. See web. 

wir (n .''), wire. 2066, 4817. 
Ohg.wiara,wiera, obryzum. 

wiscan, to wish. 3212, 4471. 

wisdom. 1 o -^ 

> hee witan. 
wisfaest. J 

wisian, to direct. 422, 590, 
etc. wisa, guide. 523. 
Comp. brim-w. 5852; 
here-w. 6032 ; hilde-w. 
2133. '^\SQ (f), wise, man- 
ner. 3735. 

WIS, wise, 2640, etc. gewis- 
lie, certain. 2704. 

wist {i) .refection, repast . 256, 
1472, 3474. 

ge-wit (n ?), entrails. 5756. 
Mhg. geweide, Ger. ein- 
geweide. 

witan, gewitan, to know. 365, 
498, 582, etc. wit, gewit 
(n), wit, sense, intellect. 
D d 3 



306 



GLOSSARY. 



1 1 83. 5399- fyrwit (n), 
curiosity, inquisitiveness. 

470. 3975. 55^^- Ohg. 
firauuiz, O. Sax. firiuuit, 
Ger. vorwitz. wita, weota, 
councillor, counsellor. 537, 
1 561, etc. Comp. fyrn- 
w. 4252; nin-w. 2654. 
witig, gewittig, sage. 1375, 
31 13, 6179. nytan (for 
ne witan), pret. nat, not 
to know. 554, 1366, etc. 
wisdom, wisdom, yo^. wis- 
isest, sagacious. 12^16. set- 
witan, witan, oSwitan, to 
upbraid, reproach. 2304, 

5475. 5983- 
ge-'witan, to go, depart. 5 1 , 

84, etc. (has a pleonastic 

dat. of the person). Comp. 

for6-g. to go forth, pass 

away, die. 425, 2962. 
witian, weotian, to prescribe, 

decree. 3877, F. F. 53. 

bewitian, beweotian, to 

tend, take care of. 2275, 

2861, 3597, 4431. 
ge-witnian, to punish. 6138. 
wi¥, against, towards, oppo- 

site,from. 227, 291, 311, 

350, 736, etc. 
wiSer, adverse. 5899? 6071. 
wlanc, wlonc, proud, exulting. 

668, 687, etc. Comp.a^se- 



w. 2668 ; gold-w. 3766. 
wlenco (f), pride. 681, etc. 

wlitan, to look. 3149, 3189, 
etc. geond-w. to look all 
over, scan. 5535. wlite 
(m), aspect, countenance, 
beauty. 186, 506, etc.; 
wlitig, beautiful. 3329. 
andwlita, /ace. 1382. Ger. 
antlitz. wlatian, to behold, 
gaze on. 3837; in-wlatian, 
to look in. 4454. 

woh, crooked. 5646. 

wolcen (n), cloud. 15, 1306, 
etc., F. F. 14. 

worn (m), sjwt, stain, horror. 
3498, 6138. 

won. See wan. 

wong. See wang. 

wonhyd. See hyge. 

wonsceaft. See sceaft. 

wop. See wepan. 

word (n), word, speech. 59, 
etc. Comp. beot-w. threat, 
promise. ^01.^; geleafnes- 
w. watch-word. .^g6; gilp- 
w. vaunt. 1355; â„¢e]>el-w. 
formal speech. 478; ))onc- 
w. S. T. 276; ])ryS-w. big, 
strong ivord. 1 290. 

worn (n), multitude, number, 
many things. 533, 1744, 
etc., S. T. 20. wom-fela, 
worna fela, very many or 



GLOSSARY. 



30: 



much. 1064, 3571, 4011, 

5078. 
worold, worulcl (f), world. 

2289. 

Avor|)ig (m ?), street. 3948. 

worSmynd. See weor^e. 

wracu. 1 

> See wrecan. 
wrsec. J 

wrset (f), ornament, curious 
things. 342. 4817, 5535, 
61 12. wrsetlic, curious, 
artistic, tcondrous. 1786, 
2982, 33C4, etc. wrfet- 
tum, curiously. 3067. 

wrasn, chain, bond. Comp. 
frea-w. 2096. 

wra^, hostile, also (m), foe. 
643, 1324, 1421, etc., 
S. T. 19. wrajjum, wra])- 
lice. 142 1, 6116. 

wraj>u (f), support, stay. ^y ^6. 
Comp. lif-w. 1946, 5746. 

wrecan, awrecan, to recite, 
relate. 1750, 2135. 3452, 
4223, etc. i. q. reccan. 

wrecan, gewrecan, to avenge, 
punish. 214, 850, 2517, 
2671, 2683, etc. Comp. 
for-w. to wreck, banish. 
219,3843,8.7.95; Jjeod- 
w. 2561. wracu (f), mi- 
sery, woe. Comp. nyd-w. 
388. wrsec (f), punish- 
ment, exile. 682, 4662, 



6148. Comp.gym-w. wiVy 
vengeance. 2281, 4242. 
wrecca, wanderer, exile, 
warrior, lit. wretch. 1800, 
2279, 5219, F. F. 50. 
Ohg. hrechio, wreh ; O. 
Sax. wrekki, O. Nor. reckr, 
Mhg. recke. 

wreoSan. See wriSan. 

wridian, to bud, flourish. ^^S6. 

writan, to write, engrave. 
3381; for\^Titan, to score. 

5403- 
wrixl (f), exchange. 5930. 
gewrixle (n), id. 2613. 
wrixlan, to exchange; wor- 
dum wrixlan, to conlT^rse. 

737. 1752. 
wnj)an,wreo))an,^o 6/«(/.i933, 

3400,5957. Comp. hand- 

gewri))en. 3878. wri8e 

(f ?), wreath. Comp. beah- 

w. 4041. 
wroht (f), accusation, crime, 

strife. 4564, 4938, 5819. 

From wregan, to accuse. 

etc. 
wudu (m), wood, meton. for 

a ship, spear. 438, 601, 

801, 2836, 3842. Comp. 

bcel-w. 6216; bord-w. 

shield. 2490; gomen-w. 

harp, rote. 2134, 4222; 

gu"5-w. spear. F. F. 11 ; 



308 



GLOSSARY. 



heal-\v. flooring. 2639; 
holt-w. 2743, 4669; mae- 
gen-w. 477; s«-w. 457; 
sund-w. 42 I J 3817; jjraec- 
\v. 2496. 

wuldur (n), glory. 33, 368, 
etc. 

wulf (m), wolf. 2720, 6046. 
wylf, she wolf. Ger.wolfin, 
Ohg.vvulpa.wulpin. Comp. 
brim-wWf. 3016, 3202. 

wund (f), wound. 2230,5056, 
etc. Comp. feorh-w. 4760. 
vfwadiywounded. 1135,2154. 
etc. Comp. feorh-w. mor- 
tally wounded. 4505. 

wundor (n), wonder, miracle. 
1546, 1685, etc. Comp. 
hond-w. hand-wrought won- 
(l^- 5530; nrS-w. 2735; 
searo-w. 1844; wom-w. 
3498. wundorlic, won- 
drous. 2884. wundrum, 
wondrously. 2909. 

wunian, to inhabit, frequent. 

44, 574, ,2261, etc. 

ge-wurbian. "1 <-- ^ 

, > oee weoTOe. 

wurSlic. J 

wutun (uton), let us. 5290. 

wylf. See wulf. 

wylm. See weallan. 

wyn (f), joy, pleasure. 2164, 
3437, etc. Ohg. wunna, 
wunni, O. Sax. wunnia, 



Ger. wonne. Comp. e^el- 

w. 4979, 5762 ; hord-w. 

4533 ; lif-^^- 4201 ; lyft- 

w. 6079; symbel-w. 3569. 

wynsum, winsome,pleasant. 

1228,3842; wynleas,yoy- 

less. 1646, 2836. 
wyrcan. See weorc. 
wyrd. See geweorjjan. 
wyrdan, awyrdan, to corrupt. 

destroy, injure. 2 2^0, 2678, 

6221. 
wyrgen. See wearh. 
ge-wyrht. See weorc. 
wyrm (m), worm, serpent, 

dragon. 1777, 1786, etc. 
for-wyman. See wearn. 
ge-wyrpan. See weorpan. 
wyrs, worse. 1055, 5930: ir- 

reg. compar. of yfel. 
wyrt (f), root, wort (as in 

colewort,motherwort,etc.). 

2732. 
wyr^e. See weorSe. 



Yfel, evil ; also yfel (n), evil. 
4194, S. T. 104. 

yldan, to delay. 1483, 447 i. 

yldo(f),a5re.43,3536. yldas 
(m. plur.), men. 154, 302, 
1214, etc. See eald. 

ylf (m), elf. 224. If the plu- 
ral vlfe is correct, this 



GLOSSARY. 



309 



word would seem to be 

declined like some gentile 

nouns, as Dene, Romane. 

(See Rask, p. 41.) Or it 

may be a feminine, and 

ylfe ail error for ylfa. 

Mhg. elbe (f). 
ymb, ymbe, about. 443, 1 067. 

Ohg. O. Sax. umbi, Gr. 

dfi(f)\, Lat. ambi-. 
yrfe (n), inheritance. 21 10, 

3810, 6094. yrfe-weard 

(m), heir. 4897. 
yrmjju. See earm. 
yman, to run. be-yrnan, to 

run through, enter. 135 ; 

on-y. to run or rush in. 

1447; to-y. to run to. 

3634. 
yrre (m), anger. 1427, 1456, 
4190; also angry, 1543^ 
3068, 3154, etc.; eorre, 
id. 2898. yrringa, angrily. 

3'35. 5921- 

ywan, to show, display. 5660. 

y¥ (f), wave, billow. 91, 399, 
426, 46 1, etc. Comp.flod- 
y.io88; lig-y.5338; wae- 
ter-y. 4477. f^aji, to over- 
flow, boil up in waves. 846. 

ySe. See ea^, 

D. 

Da, then, when, si7ice. lO't, 



148, 172, etc. |iii-gyt, 
moreover. 93. 

\>xr, there, where, 72, 142, 
718. etc., also if. 1599, 
3'^75' 5 '39- ^'or "^her 
examples of \>xr = g\i see 
Gloss, to Orosiu?, edit. 
Bohn. 

));Â¥S, so, therefore, because, 
Lat. adeo. 14, etc. to J>Bes 
]>e, until. 1433, etc. be- 
cause ? 481 1 . 

))afian, to approve of, allow, 
admit. 5919. 

))ah, plur. \>egon, pret. of 
))icgan. 

J)anc (m), thanks, 1S6 1,^^61, 
etc. to ))ance, gratuitously. 
763. ))ancian, to thank- . 
460, etc. j)anc, like Ger. 
dank, is used in the sin- 
gular. 

)>anon, thence. 222, 247, etc. 

))eah, though. 744, etc. Ger. 
doch. swa-)3eah,ye^I949. 

l^earf (f), tieed, want. 405, 
849, 2504, etc. Comp. 
fyren-Jj. 28. |)earfian, to 
need, pret. j^orfte. 317, etc. 

]>ear\e,violently, greatly. 1 1 24. 

])eaw (m), custom, usage, Lat. 
mos. 359, etc. ))eawuni, 
according to usage, becom- 
ingly, 4295, S. T. 24. 



310 



GLOSSARY. 



Jjeccan, to deck, cover. 1 03 i , 
6022. 

]>ega. (m), thane, minister, 
servant. 246, etc. Ohg. 
dekan, O. Sax. jjegan, Mbg. 
degen. Comp. aldor-]>. 
2620; heal-]?. 286, 1443; 
magu-J). 591, 820, 2815, 
etc.; ombiht-}).i35i; sele- 
p. 3592. ))eiiian, to serve, 
minister. 1125,2187,5465; 
be])enian, id. 3646, 4077. 

))egu and its compounds. See 
jjicgan. 

\>elu (J), plank, Jloor. Comp. 
benc-J). 976, 2482; buruh- 
}). F. F. 6 1 . 

^encan, aj)encan, gejjencan, 
))encean, pret. ])ohte, to 
think, consider, intend. ^8^, 
716, 901, etc. Jjanc, )jonc 
(ra), gejjonc (n), thought. 
4653. Comp.fore-]j.2i24; 
bete-)?. 955; inwit-]).i502; 
or-}), curious thought, de- 
vice. 817, 4180; searo-)). 
id. 1554; m5d-ge))onc. 
3462. afjjunca. displea- 
sure, annoyance, 1 009. ge- 
J)oht (ni), thought. 5 1 7, etc. 

jjenden, while. 59, 114, etc. 

\>enge\{vn.), king, prince. -^o 18. 
O. Nor. jjengill, 

penian. See j^egn. 



])e5d (f), people, nation. 1 291 , 
2465, 2505, etc. Comp. 
sige-}). 44 1 5 ; wer-jj.AMwan 
race. 1802. Used as a pre- 
fix tbis word seems a mere 
intensitive, as in Jieod- 
Scyldingas. 2042. peoden 
(m), king, prince. 68, 259, 
etc. el|je6dig,/orei^n.678. 
Jjeodenleas. 2210. 

)jeof (m), thief. 4445. 

ge-bobt. See jjencan. 

|)eon,ge]?e6n,on))e6n,?o thrive, 
/oMWsA.16,50, 1 805, 5665, 
6109, S. T. 28, 34. 

))eoster. See jjystru. 

jjicgan, J)icgean, pret. |>ah, 
plur. Jjegon, to touch, par- 
take of, receive, eat, drink. 
1131, 1241, 1261, 1476, 
2025, 2033, etc., S. T. 6, 
132. O. Sax. ))iggian, su- 
mere,gustare(potvm). ]>egu 
(f), gift. Comp. beab-}). 
4358; beor-j). 234, 1239, 
sinc-j). 5760. 

})incan, jjincean, pret. ))iibte, 
to seem, appear. 742, 1379, 
1 688, etc. Goth, jjugkjan, 
Ohg. dunkjan,O.Sax.J)un- 
kian. of|)incan, to take ill. 
4070. 

J)ing (n), thing, matter. 823, 
856, 1055, 1587. ge))ing 



GLOSSARY. 



311 



(n), public assembly/; also 
compact, condition, council. 
802, 1423, 2175. gejjun- 
gen, we] - ge))ungen, ho- 
nourable, honoured, illus- 
trious. 1252, 3858. ))in- 
gian, ge))ingian, to bargain, 
settle, discourse, harangue, 
meditate. 315, 945, 1299, 
3678, 3691, 3881. 

\>o],pine. O.Nor.jJoU, Norw. 
toll, Sw. tall. Comp.Swio- 
\>. Stvedish pine. P. Sylves- 
tris. 6281. It would seem 
that, being unacquainted 
with the tree, the A. S. 
paraphrast has retained its 
O.Nor. denomination, giv- 
ing it an A. S. form. It 
was, no doubt, used for 
funeral piles, on account 
both of its inflammability 
and abundance. 

})olian, gejjolian, to endure, 
suffer. 174, etc. O. Nor. 
J)ola, Dan. taale, Scot, thole. 

jjon, jjonne, then, when, than. 
759. 2216, etc. 

{jorfte. See Jjearf. 

JTsec (f), gejjraec (n), vigour, 
energy, mass. 2496. O. 
Sax. Jjreki. Comp. ecg-}). 
1 196; mod-};. 775; searo- 
g. 6196. 



J)rah (f), space of time. 108, 

etc., S. T. 178. Comp. 

earfof5-Jj. 572, 
))rea, \>reag (f), evil, calamity. 

573, 1668, 5759. Comp. 

)>e6d-J). 358. 
J)reat (m), body of men, band. 

8, 4803. Comp. iren-{). 

666. 
))reatian, to threaten. 1 1 24. 
})ringan, to press on, throng. 

5758, 59 '3- Comp. for- 

\>. to protect. 2173 ; up-J). 

3829. gejjring (n) , throng, 

rush. 4271. 
jjr6wian,^0 5M^e/*. 3 1 83,3447, 

5204. Hence Engl, throe. 
\>ryra (m), power, majesty, 

fame. 4, 3841, S. T. 100. 

Comp. hige-j). 683. ))rym- 

lic, stout, strong. 2496 ; 

J)rymmum, violently. 476. 
J)ry6o (f), body, band, forct. 

1318. Comp. m6d-)).3 867. 

\x'y^X\c,strong,valiant .80^ , 

325^. 573'- J'O'^um, tu- 

multuously. 992. 
})unian, to make a thundering 

noise, rattle. 2,8 xy. From 

)>unor, thunder. 
ge-J)uren, beaten, as with a 

hammer. 2575. From a 

verb })yran ? 
J)urh, through. $39, 55 7> etc. 



312 



GLOSSARY. 



ge-))Wjere, united, in harmony. 

2464, 4644. Comp. mon- 

]>. kind. 6345. 
]>y'htig, doughti/, stout, valiant. 

Ger. tiichtig. 
ge-))yld (f.n.), patience. 2795. 

ge]>y\dnm, patiently. 3415- 
\>y\e (m), orator. 2335, 2917. 



))yrl (n), hole; adj. pierced. 

F. F. 91. 
])yrs (m), giant. 856. 
jjyslic, SMcA like. 5267. 
jjystru (n. plur.), darkness. 

175, etc. }>eoster, rfarX-. 

4653- 
))ywan^ to reprove, urge. 3659. 






i 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX 



OF PERSONS MEXTIOKTED IN BEOWULF. 



Abel. 217. 

^Ifhere, a kinsman of Wig- 
laf. 5201. 

..^schere, a favourite coun- 
sellor of HKOtfHgar slain by 
Grendel's mother. 265 1 . 
2663, 4251. 

B. 

Beanstan, father of Breca, 
Beowulf s competitor in a 
swimming match. 1052. 

Beowulf, a prince of the 
Scylding race, ancestor of 
Hrothgar. 35, 106. 

The name of Beowulf I am 
inclined to regard as a contrac- 
tion of Beadowulf, O. Nor. Bo^- 
ulfr. Compare Beadohild (Cod. 
Exon. 377. 23.) with Bo^vildr 
of the Yolund. Saga ; though in 
the original poem of Beowulf it 
may probably have been Biar 
or Bavr (Beaw.), as it appears 
in the Northern genealogies, 
and owe it Saxonized form to 
the paraphrast. 



Beowulf, the Goth. 391, 692, 
etc. 

Breca, Breoca, a prince of 
the Brondings, who con- 
tended with Beowulf in 
swimming. 1017, 1171, 
S. T. 51. 

C. 

Cain. 214, 2527. 

D. 
Dseghrefn, a warrior of the 

Hugas slain by Beowulf. 

4996. 

E. 
Eadgils, a son of Ohthere, 

and grandson of Ongen- 

theow. 4750, 4764, 4774. 

4778. 
Eanmund, a son of Ohthere. 

5216. 
Ecglaf, father of Hunferth. 

Hrothgar's orator. 1003. 
Ecgtheow, Beowulf s father. 

532, etc. 
E e 



314 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX 



Ecgwela, a Danish prince. 

3424- 
Ela, a son of Healfdene and 

brother of Hrothgar. 124. 
Eofor, a Gothic warrior who 

slew Ongentheow. 4966, 

5920, 5978, 5986. 
Eomer, grandson of Offa 

(Uffi). 3925. 
Eormenric,king of the Hreth- 

Goths. 2406. See Index 

to The Scop or Gleeman's 

Tale. 

F. 

Fin, a prince of the North 
Frisians. 2140, 2166, etc., 
S.T. 55. 

Fitela (Sinfiotli), son of Sige- 
mund by his sister Signi. 
(See North. Mythol. i. p. 
92.) 1763, 1783. 

Folcwalda, a prince of the 
Frisians, father of Fin. 
2183, etc., S.T. 55. 

Freaware, daughter of Hroth- 
gar and Wealhtheow, mar- 
ried to Ingeld. 4048. 

Froda, a king of the Heatho- 
bards, father of Ingeld. 

4055- 

G. 

Garmund ( Wermund), a king 
of Anglen, father of Offa. 
3928. 



Saxo (p. 163. edit. Muller) 
informs us that King Wermund 
had a residence at Jellinge, near 
Veile, in the S. E. of Jutland, 
which it would seem was in- 
cluded in the kingdom of An- 
geln. 

Grendel, a pernicious being 
slain by Beowulf. 205, 254, 

305' 393. etc. 
Guthlaf, an associate of Hen- 

gest and Oslaf in the in- 

sion of Friesland, 2301^ 
. F.F. 33. 

H. 
Hsereth, father of Hygd,.Hy- 

gelac's queen. 3862,3967. 
Hsethcyn, aking of the Goths, 

brother of Hygelac. 4859, 

4865, 4958. 5842- 
Halga (Helgi), a brother of 

Hrothgar. 122. 
Hama. See Index to The 

Scop or Gleeman's Tale. â–  
Healfdene, father of Hroth- ' 

gar. 1 13, 2142. 
Heardred, aking of the Goths, 

son of Hygelac. 4410, 

4739. 4766. 
Heatholaf, a chieftain slain 

by Ecgtheow. 924. 
Hemming, a son of Offa. 2 1 86, 

3927- 
Hengest, a Jutish chieftain in 

the service of the Danes. 



OF PERSONS IN BEOWULF. 



31; 



2170, 2186, 3927, F. F. 

34- 

Whether identical with, or 
only a namesake of, the first 
Jutish king of Kent, is uncer- 
tain. 

Heorogar, Heregar, a brother 
of Hrothgar. 121, 939, 

4323- 

Heoroweard, a son of Heo- 
rogar. 4328. 

Herebald, a brother of Hy- 
gelac. 4859, 4917. 

Heremod, a Danish prince. 
1806, 3423. 

Hereric, an uncle of Heard- 
red. 4419. 

Hildeburh, daughter of Hoce. 
2146, 2232. 

Who her other relations were 
is not apparent from the con- 
text. 

Hnsef, a prince of the H okings, 
associated with Hengest 
in the first expedition to 
Friesland. 2143, 2233, 
S. T. 59, F. F. 80. 

Hoce, father of Hildeburh. 

2157- 
Hraedla (qu. Hrethel ?), 913. 
Hrethel, a king of the Goths, 

father of Hygelac. 754, 

3699, 4389, 4705, 4852. 

4940. 



Hrethric, a son of Hrothgar. 
2382, 3676. 

Hrothgar, a king of the Danes. 
121, 128, etc., S. T. 91. 

Hfothmund, a son of Hroth- 
gar. 2382. 

Hrothulf, a cousin of Hroth- 
gar, apparently associated 
with him ; though it would 
seem that they afterwards 
became enemies. 2038, 
2366, S. T. 91. 

Hunferth, Hrothgar's orator, 
a Danish Thyrsites. 1002, 
2335. 2980, 3620. 

Hygd, daughter of Hsereth, 
and queen, i. of Hygelac, 
and 2. of OfFa. 3857,3967, 

435i> 4727- 
Hygelac, a king of the Goths 

and uncle of Beowulf. 39 1 , 
527, 690, 4409, 4734, 
4860. 5821, 5878,5896, 

5909- 

I. 

Incge. 5147. 

Ingeld, a son of Froda, prince 

of the Heathobards. 4055, 

4135. S.T. 97. 

O. 

Oflfa (Uffi), a king of Angeln. 
3903. 39'9' S.T. 71, 75. 
77. 90- 
E e 2 



316 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Ohthere, a son of Ongen- 
theow. 5857. 

Onela, a son of Ongentheow. 
5226, 5856. 

Ongentheow, a king of the 
Swedes, a Scylfing. 3940, 
4941, 4965, 5840, 5849, 
5894, 5914, 5964. S. T. 
64. 

Oslaf or Ordlaf, a chieftain 
associated with Hengest 
and Guthlaf in the inva- 
sion of Friesland. 2301, 
F.F. 33. 

S. 

Scef, ancestor of the Scyl- 
dings. 7. 

Scyld, son of Scef, from 
whom the Scylding race 
derives its name. 7. 37. 5 • • 

Sigemund (Sigmundr), son 
of Waelsing. 1754, 1758, 

1773- 
Swerting, an uncle of Hyge- 
lac. 2410. 



W. 

Wselse (Volsungr), father of 

Sigemund. 1798. 
Wealhtheow, Hrothgar's 

queen. 1229, 2329, 2434, 

4353- 
Weland (Volundr), the fa- 
mous smith. 914. 
Weohstan, Weoxstan, father 

of Wiglaf. 5198, 5220. 
Wiglaf, a kinsman and friend 

of Beowulf. 5197, 5255, 

5316, 5805, 6144. 
Withergyld, a chief or prince 

of the Heathobards. 4109, 

S. T. 249. 
Wulf, son of Wonred, a 

Gothic chieftain. 5922, 

5935. 5978- 
Wulfgar, a Wendish chief in 
Hrothgar's service. 701, 

725. 

Y. 

Yrmenlafj^schere's brother. 
26^2. 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX 



OF FOLKS, COUNTRIES AND PLACES MENTIONED IN BEOWULF. 



Brondingas. 1047, S. T. 51. 
Thorkelin (Ind. ad Beow.) 
supposes the Brondings' land 
to be tlie Brandey mentioned 
in Saemund's Edda (Helga-kv. 
I), in which the editor of the 
Copenhagen edition recognises 
the isle of Briinno, lying off 
the coast of W. Gothland in the 
Cattegat. 

Brosingas? 2403. 

D. 

Danes. — Dene. 489, 512, 
1222, 2185, 4107, S. T. 
72; Denige.313,547,706; 
Gar-Dene (armed or war- 
like Danes). 1,3717,4982; 
Hring-D. (adorned with 
rings or bracelets). 233, 
2563,3542; East-D. 789, 
1236, 1661 ; North-D. 
1571; S£e-D. S. T. 58; 
Suth-D. 931, 3996, S.T. 
118; West-D. 771, 3161, 



3633 ; Scyldingas. 464, 
748, 1830, 2221, etc. 

E. 
Earna-nses. 6055. 
Eotenas. See Jutes. 



Finna land. 1165. 

Not Finland, but the Fins^ 
land; for how could Beowulf, 
in his swimming match with 
Breca, be borne by the sea to 
Finland ? The following extract 
may, however, afford a solution 
to the difficulty : " Their (the 
Fins') name is probably still to 
be found in the district of Fin- 
ved (Finwood), between Goth- 
land and Smaland. This incon- 
derable and now despised race 
has, therefore, anciently been 
far more widely spread, and 
reached along the KuUen (the 
chain separating Norway from 
Sweden) down to the Sound, 
and eastward over the present 

E e 3 



318 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX 



Finland." Petersen, Danmarka 
Historie i Hedenold. i. p. 36. 

Franks. — Francnan. 2424 ; 
Froncas. 5816, S. T. 49, 
137. See Index to The 
Scop or Gleeman's Tale. 

Friesland. — Freslond. 4694 ; 
Fresna-land. 5823 ; Fres- 
wsel.2144; Frysland.2257. 

Frisians. — Frysas. 2144, 
2 19 1, 2418, 5816; Fry- 
senas. 2212. 

G. 

Goths. — Geatas (Goth. Gau- 
tos, O. Nor. Gautar). 392, 
416, 526, 730, etc., S. T. 
117; S^-G. 3704, 3976; 
Geotan. 891 ; Wederas. 
455, 687, 8jo, etc. 

The Gautar (A. S. Geatas) 
are the Goths of Swedish Goth- 
land, which anciently comprised 
almost the whole south of Swe- 
den. (Gautland,A.S.Geatland.) 
See Biom Haldorsen, Lex. s. v. 
The appellation of Wederas is 
derived from the Weder-mearc, 
the territory inhabited by them, 
30 called probably from its prox- 
imity to the Wetter lake, which 
divides E. from W. Gothland. 
In The ScOp or Gleeman's Tale 
(117) Swedes and Goths are 
mentioned together : "midSwe- 
om and mid Geatum." Note. 
Geata, as well as Geat, is used 



asanom.sing. 8661207,1356.. 
2386, 2409. See G6tan,in Index 
to The Sc6p or Gleeman's Tale. 

Gifthas, Gefthas. 4981, S.T. 



Of the Gefthas Ettmiiller 
(Beow. p. 33) says: "The 
Gefths have, with great proba- 
bility, been regarded as identi- 
cal with the Gepidse (Frocop. 
FTiiraiSes). They were a Gothic 
people, and, like their brethren, 
spread themselves far and wide, 
and were finally extinguished 
by the Lombards. See Paul. 
W^amfr. cc. 23, 27." See also 
Gibbon, D. and F. vol. iv. 
edit. 40. 

H. 
Heathobeardan. 407 i, 408 1 , 
4140, S. T. 100. 

Ettm aller identifies these with 
the " Bardi bellicosissimi" of 
Helmold, a remnant, perhaps, 
of the Langobards left in their 
ancient settlement on the Elbe j 
the prefix heal>o signifying tear 
or warlike. This being their 
locahty, which I am inclined to 
doubt, their expedition to Heo- 
rot (4070, sqq., S.T. 95, sqq.) 
must have been by sea, and the 
line "wicinga cynn" (S.T. 96), 
no doubt, has reference to them. 

Heatho-raemas. 1042, S. T. 
128. 

The people of Raumerige 
(now Romerige) to the N. E. of 



OF FOLKS, ETC. IN BEOWULF. 



319 



Christiania, as Ettmiiller with 
great probability supposes. 

Helmingas. 1245. 

An unknown race, of which 
was Wealhtheow, the consort 
of Hrothgar. 

Heort, Heorot, the palatial 
abode of king' Hrothgar, 
presumed to be in the 
north of Jutland. 157,335, 
954, etc., S. T. 99. 

Where traces of the name still 
exist, as in the town of Hior- 
ring (which Thorkelin would 
derive from Heoi't-thing), also 
Hirtshals on the coast, near the 
Skagerack. 

Hetware, Hsetware. 4715, 
5824, S. T. 6-]. 

The Chatuarii of Strabo. 
From these sprung the Ratavi : 
" Omnium harum gentium vir- 
tute praecipui Batavi non mul- 
tum ex ripa, sed insulam Rheni 
amnis colunt. Chattornm quon- 
dam populus, et seditione do- 
mestica in eas sedes transgres- 
sus, in quibus pars Romani im- 
perii fierent." Tac. Ger. xxix. 
See also ejusd. Histor. IV. 12. 
15. At a later period the Cha- 
tuarii appear seated between the 
Rhine and the Maas. From the 
passage of Velleius (II. 105), 
" Intrata protinus (a Tiberio) 
Germania, subacti Caninefates, 
Attuarii, Bructeri, recepti Che- 
rusci," Zeuss (Die Deutschen, 



} 58430 



•■;862. 



p. 100) concludes that Chattu- 
arii is the common denomina- 
tion of the Batavi and Canine- 
fates. EttmuUer,Sc6pes vldsidh. 
p. 18. See also Introd. p. xxv. 
note. The Htetware and Fri- 
sians were allies. 

Hrefna-wudu. 
Hrefnes-holt. 

The place in W. Gothland 

where liiethcyn fell in a battle 

with Ongentheow. 

Hreosna-beorh, a mountain 
in W. Gothland. 4948. 

Hrethmen, the inhabitants of 
Jutland. 894. 

Jutland is by Wulfstan called 
Gotland (see iElfred's Orosius, 
edit. Bohn, p. 252), also ReiS- 
gotaland ; while the Danish isles 
were denominated Ey-Gotaland. 
The territory of the Rei'5-Gotar 
comprised at one period the vast 
tract of country between the 
Gulf of Finland and the Vistula, 
or even the Oder. See " Gotan" 
in Index of Folks, etc., in Sc6p 
or Gleeman's Tale. 

Hrones-nses, a ness or pro- 
montory on the coast of 
W.Gothland. 5603, 6264. 

Hugas, a people bordering 
on Friesland. 4998, 5820. 

L 

Ingwina?, an appellation of 
the Danes, but whence 



320 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



derived does not appear. 

2092, 2642. 
^ujtes ( Jotar) . — Jutlanders. 

1 77 1, 1809, 2148, 2180, 

2286,-2894. 

Though now regarded as 
Danes, the Jutes, in those 
early times, were distinguished 
as a separate people, and were 
probably the descendants of ear- 
lier Gothic settlers in Jutland, 
while the Danes (Dene) were 
an invading nation. Thus Hen- 
gest was a Jute, and Healfdene, 
his lord, a Dane. The Eotenas 
(Jotnar) were apparently a still 
earlier (Finnish) race, out of 
whom the Gothic conquerors 
made their trolls and giants. 
Both J6ti (plur. J6tar) and io- 
tunn (plur. iotnar) are rendered 
in A. S. by eoten (plur. eotenas). 
From the Ynglinga-Saga, c. 5, 
we learn that previous to the 
time of Skiold, the seat of the 
Danish kings was in Reitgoth- 
land (Jutland), but by him was 
transferred to Lethra in See- 
land, of which he was the 
founder. 

s. 

Scede-land, i Scania or 

Sceden-ig, J Skane ; the 
Sconeg of Wulfstan (Oros. 
p. 252); Scandia or Scan- 
zia insula. 38, 3376. 

Scyldingas. See Danes. 

Scylfingas. See Swedes. 



Swedes. — Sweonas. 4936, 
5885,5908,5995; Sweo- 
))e6d. 5836 ; Scylfingas, 
J 25, 4417, 5200, etc. 

Swi5-rice, Sweden. 4755, 

4983- 

W. 

Waegmundingas, the race 
from which Beowulf and 
Wiglaf were descended. 
5208, 5620. 

Wselsingas (Volsungar) .1758. 

Waras ? 927. Probably an 
error for Wsernas. 

Wederas. See Goths. 

Weder-mearc, the country 
of the Weder-Goths, pro- 
bably deriving its name 
from, or imparting it to, 
the Wetter lake. 602. 

Wendlas, the Wends or Van- 
dals. 702, S. T. 119. 

Wioingas (Mere). 5834, S.T. 
61. 

Wylfingas, Wulfingas, a Go- 
thic race, but whose loca- 
lity seems unknown. 926, 
946, S. T. 60. 

Their name is said to be de- 
rived from Hildebrand, the re- 
nowned champion of Dieterich 
(Theodric) of Berne (Verona), 
who bore wolves in his shield. 
See W. Grimm, Deutsche Hel- 
densage, pp. 107, 233 et passim. 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX 

OF PERSONS MENTIONED IN THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN^S TALE 
AND THE FIGHT AT FINNESBURG. 



.'Egelmund, a Lombard king 
in Germany and Pannonia. 
236. 

Of .Egelmund Paulus Diaco- 
nus (I. 14) savs : Agilmundus, 
Achonis filius, ex prosapia Yng- 
lingorum (al. Gungincorum), 
primus Longobardorum rex, a 
Bulgaribus interfectus ; regna- 
vit annos XXXIII. 

--Elfwine. 142. 

This is Alboin, the celebrated 
king of the Lombards, ob. A. D. 
573, of whom see Gibbon, D. 
and F. iv. c. 14. 

-Etla, Attila the Hun. Ger. 

Etzel. 37, 246. 
Alewih. 72. 

This, I imagine, can be no 
other than Olaf, Frid lev's son, 
of whom see Saxo, lib. VI, Grii- 
ter's Suhm, cc. 12 — 15, and Pe- 
tersen, Danmarks Historic i He- 
denold, i. pp. 169, sqq. 

Alexandreas. 3 i . 



B. 

Beadeca. 225. 
Becca. 39, 23 i. 
Billing. 52. 

Breoca. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Breca. 



Cselic. 42. 
Casere. 41, 154. 

E. 

Eadgils^ a prince of the Myr- 
gings. 187. 

Eadwine, Audoin, the father 
of Alboin. 150, 198, 235. 

Eaha. F. F. 30. 

Ealhhild, Ohg. Alahilt, the 
daughter of Eadwine (Au- 
doin), king of the Lom- 
bards, and wife of Eadgils. 
10, 195. 

She went apparently, attend- 
tended by our Gleeman, on a 



322 GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF PERSONS 



mission of peace, to the court 
of Hermanric. 

Elsa. 235. 

Emerca, the Hereling, the 
Imbrecke of the Heldens., 
and brother of Fridla (Fri- 
tele). See W. Grimm, 
Deutsche Heldensage, p. 
48 et passim. 227. 

Eormanric, Ermanric. 16, 38, 
177, 224, Beow. 2406. 

For the story of this re- 
nowned conqueror, the Gothic 
Alexander, with all its ana- 
chronisms and inconsistences, 
the~reader is referred, besides 
the original sources, to Bishop 
Miiller's Sagabibliothek, Bd. ii, 
and the Deutsche Heldensage 
of W. Grimm, where may be 
found, collected from the Teu- 
tonic and Scandinavian authori. 
ties, the chief particulars of this 
celebrated hero of Northern 
song. 

F. 

Fin Folcwalding. See Index 
to Beowulf. 

Freotheric. 249. 

Fridla. 227. See Emerca. 

G. 

Garulf. F. F. 36, 63. 
Gefwulf. 54. 

Gifica, a king of the Burgun- 
dians. 40. 
The Gibich of the German, 



and Giuki of the Scandinavian 
traditions. 

Gislhere, son of Gibich. 248. 

Guthhere (Giinther.Gunnar), 
a son of Gibich, married to 
Brynhild. 133. See North. 
Mythol. pp. 99, sqq. 

Guthhere. F. F. 37. 

Guthlaf. F.F. 33. 66. Beow. 
2301. 

H. 

Hagena, the Nor. Havgni or 
Hogni. 43. 

This is the Hagen of the lay 
of Gudrun, and not to be con- 
founded with him of the Ni- 
belungen N6t. The Northern 
writers make him to have been 
a petty king in Jutland. See 
his story in Snorra-Edda, edit. 
Rask, pp. 1 63, 1 64; also in Saxo, 
p. 238, edit. Miiller; in Suhm's 
Historie, or Grater's translation, 
i. p. 245. 

Hama (Heime, Hamdir), son 
of Gudrun by Jonakur, and 
slayer of Ermanric. Car- 
ries off the Brosinga mene. 
See North. Mythol. i. pp. 
106 — 108. 250, 262. 
Beow. 2401. 

Heathoric. 233. 

Helm.akingoftheWulfings. 
60. 

Henden, a king of the Gloms. 
44. 



IN THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 323 



The Norsk HcHn, the son of 
Hiarrand or Hiiirward, a Nor- 
wegian prince, at first the friend 
of Hogni, though they after- 
wards slew each other in single 
combat, on account of Hilldr, 
Hogni' s daughter, who by her 
incantations raised them every 
night, when they renewed their 
contest, which is to continue till 
Ragnarokr, or the great dark- 
ness, when the heavenly bodies 
are to be extinguished. 

Hengest. See Index to Beo- 
^yulf. 

Hethca. 225. 

Hlithe. 234. 

Hnaef. See Index to Beo- 
wulf. 

Holen, a king of the Wrosns. 
68. 

Hringweald, a king of the 
Herefaran. 69. 

Hrothgar. i See Index to 

Hrothwulf. J Beowulf. 

Hun, a king of the Hetware. 
67. 

The name of Hun was not 
unfrequent among the old Fri- 
sians. See Outzen, Glossarium, 
P- 4.36. 

Hungar. 236. 

Hwala. 29. 

I. 

Incgentheow. 234. 

Ingeld. See Index to Beowulf. 



M. 

Meaca, a king of the Myr- 

gings. 47. 
Mearchealf, a king of the 

Hundings. 48. 

O. 

Offa. I Seelndexto 

Ongendtheow. J Beowulf. 
Ordlaf. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Oslaf. 
Oswine, a king of the Eowas. 

53- 

R. 

Rsedhere. 247. 

Rondhere. 247. 

Rumstan. 248. 



Saeferth, king of the Sycgas. 
63, F. F. 30, 48. 

In the Fight at Finnesburg 
he is called Sigeferth, lord of 
the Secgan. 

Sceafa, a king of the Lom- 
bards. 66. 

Sceafthere, a king of the 
Ymbers. 65. 

Scilling, a scop or gleeman, 
associated with the author 
of the poem. 207. 

Seafola. 232. 

Secca. 231. 

Sifeca. 233. 

Sigeferth. See Saeferth. 



324 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Sigehere, a king of the Sea- 
Danes. 58. 

T. 
Theodric, the son of Clovis. 

49. 232. 

For his story in connection 

with Chochilagus, the Hygelac 

of Beowulf, see Greg. Turon. 

lib. III. 

Thyle, a king of theRondings. 

U. 

Unwene. 230. 

W. 
Wada, a king of the Helsings. 
46. 



Wald, a king of the Woing». 

61. 
Witta, a king of the Swsefs. 

45- 
Withergield. See Index to 

Beowulf. 

Wod, a king of the Thurin- 
gians. 62. 

Wudga (Wittich). 250, 262. 
Wittich and Heime are men- 
tioned as comrades in Alphart, 
in the Rabenschlacht, and other 
poems. SeeW. Grimm Heldens. 
p. 20. 

Wulfhere. 239. 
Wyrmhere. 239. 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX • 

op kolks and countkies mentioned ix the .s("6p ok 
glebman's tale. 



iEnenas. 124. 

Amothingas. 173. 

Lappenberg supposes these 
to be the Otliingi of Jomandes, 
who are described as dwelling 
in caves hewn out of the rocks, 
and one of the most savage Scan- 
dinavian races. Suhm places 
them in Sweden, where many 
such caves still exist. 

B. 

Baningas. 39. 

Brondingas. See Index to 

Beowulf. 
Burgendas, the Burgundians 

of History. 40, 131. 



Creacas, the Greeks of the 
Lower Empire. 41, 153. 

D. 
Deane. 127. 

Dene. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Danes. 



E. 

Eatul, Italy. 141. 

Ebreas, Hebrews. 167. 

Egj^tas. 168. 

Engle, Ongle, Angeln. 15, 
yi, 89, 123. 

Anciently the territory be- 
tween the Saxons and Jutes, 
whence the Angles came to Bri- 
tain. Beda, Hist. Eccl. I. 15. 

Eolas. 174. 

Eowas. 53. 

Probably the people of the 
Swedish isle of Oeland in the 
Baltic, the Eowland of Ohthere. 
See Oros. p. 252. 

Ex-Syringas. 166. 

F. 

Fifel-dor. 87. 

Apparently the Eider so de- 
signated, its ancient name, Egi- 
dota(Agidora, Egdora, Egidur), 
of which Eider is merely a con- 
traction, being, no doubt, an 
F I 



:m GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF FOLKS, ETC. 



analogous compound of Agis 
(A. S. ege, O.Nor. segir), terror, 
and dor, door, gate. See Glos- 
sary, V. fifel. 

Finnis,Fins.42,i53. Scride- 
Finnas, the people of Fin- 
mark. 1 60. 

Fresna cyn, Frisians. 56. See 
Index to Beowulf, v. Fri- 
sians. 

Froncas, Franks. 49, 137. 
See Index to Beowulf. 

Frumtingas. 138. 

Frvsas, Frisians. 137. 



Geatas. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Goths. 

Gefflegas. 122. 

Lappenberg, with great pro- 
bability, supposes these to be 
the people of Gefle, to the north 
of Upsala. 

Gefthas. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Gifthas. 

Glommas. 44, 139- 

Probably the dwellers on the 
banks of the Glommen, a river 
of Norway, rising in the moun- 
tains S. E. of Trondhjem. 

Gotan, Goths. 38, 179, 220 ; 
East-G. 228; Hreth-G. 
116. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, r. Hrethmen. 



H. 

H^lethas. Read with Ett- 
miiller Harothas (O. Nor. 
H6rSar),the people of Hor- 
thaland in Norway. 163. 
Hselsingas. 46. 

These, a Scandinavian people, 
have left traces of their exist- 
ence in Helsingborg opposite 
Helsingor (Elsinore), Helsing- 
fors in Finland, Helsingland. 
The last-mentioned, over which 
Wada probably held sway, lies 
in the N. E. of Sweden, about 
Gefle. 
Hsetwere. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Hetware. 
Haethnas. The inhabitants 
of the Norwegian HeiS- 
mork. 163. 
Heatho-bardan.^ See Index 
Heatho-rsemas. V to Beo- 
Heorot. J wulf. 

Here-faran. Dan. Hallands- 
farer. 69. 

The inhabitants of the pre- 
sent Swedish province of Har- 
land, now softened to Halland ? 

Herelingas. 226. 

The Harlings of the German 
Heldensage, whose locality was 
on the banks of the Rhine: 
" Est Alsatise castellum voca- 
bulo Brisach, de quo omnis ad- 
jacens pagus appellatur Brisach- 
gowe, quod fertur olim fuisse 
illorum qui Harlungi diceban- 



IN THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 327 



tiir." See W. Grimm, Heldens. 
p. 37 et passim. 

Hocingas. 59. 

These derive their name from 
Hoce, the father of Hildeburh. 
See Beowulf. 2157. 

Holm-rycas. 43. 

Their locality is unknown; 
the most probable conjecture 
seems that which assigns them 
to some of the small islands 
lying off the coast of Jutland. 

Hredas= Hrethas.i.e.Hreth- 

Gotan ? 241. 
Hreth-Gotan. See Gotan, 
and Index to Beowulf, v. 
Hrethmen. 
Hronas. 127. 

In these Ettmiiller is inclined 
to recognise the Grannii, or 
ArochLranni (Arochi Rannii) of 
Jornandes, who, according to 
Zeuss, were seated either iu 
the south of Norway, or in the 
islands of the Belt. Lappenberg 
would identify them with the 
people of Ranriki in the N. W. 
of Sweden. It seems probable 
that their habitation was in W. 
Gothland, as Bepwulf s grave- 
mound was on Hrones-nses. 

Hunas, Huns. 37, 115. 

Ilundingas. 48, 164. 

IVobably the people of Hund- 
land, a temtorj- which the edi- 
tors of the Copenhagen edition 
of Saemund's Edda (T. ii. p. 86) 



are inclined to place in Jutland, 
in the diocese of Aalborg, where 
many local names (Hundborg, 
Hundsland, etc.) still bear tes- 
timony of their ancient occu- 
piers. Lappenberg supposes 
them to have dwelt in Biarme- 
land, or the country about the 
Dwina, in the White sea, their 
name sometimes occurring with 
that of the Biarmelandcrs. 

I. 

Idumingas, probably a Let- 
tish race. 176. 
Indeas. 167. 
Israhelas. 165. 
Istas, Esthonians. 175. 



Leonas. i6i. 

These are the Afvwvot, ac- 
cording to Ptolemy the inha- 
bitants of the middle of Scan- 
dinavia, the Liothida of Jor- 
nandes. See Zeuss, pp. 503, 
.S06. 

Lidwicingas. 161. 

The Bretons : see Sax. Chron. 
a. 885, where " butan Lid-wi- 
cingum" is rendered by Florence 
of Worcester absque Armori- 
cano regno. And a. 918, the 
words : " suSan of Lid -wic- 
cum," he renders by de pruvin- 
cia quee Lidwiccum dicitur. The 
A. S. appellation has evidently 
been made out of the British 
name of Armorica, Llydaw. 
F f 2 



328 GLOSSARIAL INDEX OF FOLKS, ETC. 



Longbeardas. 66, 162. 

The Lombards, anciently 
dwelling on the banks of the 
Elbe. At a later period we 
find them in Pannonia, whence 
under Alboin they invaded Italy. 
See Tacit. Germ. edit. Gerlach. 
ii. pp. 226, sqq. 

M. 

Mofdingas. 171. 

Moidas, Medes. 169. 

Myrgingas, Ohg. Maurunga, 
Morunga. 8, 47, 86, 170, 
172, 194. 

The people of the old ^Mau- 
rimganiaorNordalbingia. From 
the Geogr. Raven, we have : 
" Quarta ut hora noctis Nort- 
mannorum est patria, quae et 
Dania ab antiquis, cujus ad 
frontem Albes vel patria Albis, 
Maurungani acertissime antiquis 
dicebatur, in qua patria Albis, 
per multos annos, Francorum 
linea remorata est." By "Fran- 
corum linea" the Mer6wings 
are, no doubt, meant. 

o. 

Onsrle. See Ens:le. 



Peohtas, Picts. 159. 
Persas, Persians. 169. 

R. 



Rondingas. 50. 
Rugas. 139. 



These Ettm idler supposes to 
be the Rygir, or inhabitants of 
Rogaland, on the Bukkefiord 
in Norway. May they not be 
the inhabitants of the isle of 
Riigen .' 

Rum-Walas, i. e. Roman- 
foreigners. 140. 

The Germanic nations called 
the subjects of the Empire, 
perhaps indiscriminately, A. S. 
Wealas (sing. Wealh). Italy is, 
even at the present day, called 
by the Germans Welschland, 
i. e. Walischland. Hence our 
Welsh, the British inhabitants 
so called by the Germanic in- 
vaders. 

s. 

Scottas, Scots. 159. 

Seaxe, Saxons. 125. 

Secgan. See Sycgas. 

Sercingas,the people of Serk- 
land, or Saracens, whose 
name is a corrupt deriva- 
tion from shark, the east. 

Seringas. 152. 

These Lappenberg conjec- 
tures to be the Seres, on the 
Caspian sea, noted for the pro- 
duction of silk. 

Swaefe, the North Sweven 
on the Lower Elbe. 45, 
89, 123. 

Ptolemy calls them ^ovr)fiot 
01 "AyyiXoi. 



IN THE SCOP OR GLEEMAN'S TALE. 329 



Ssveas ; O. Nor. Sviar. 64, 
t 17. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Swedes. 

Swedes, inhabiting the cen- 
tral part only of modern Sweden. 
They were probably separated 
from the Goths (Geatas) by the 
^Millar lake. 

Sweord-weras. 126. 

The Suardones of Tacitus, 
between the Trave and the 
Oder ? Zeuss considers them 
and the later Heruli as one and 
the same people. 

Sycgas, Secgan. 63, 125, 
F. F. 48. 

T. 

Throwendas, the Throwends 
or Thronds, O. Nor. prsen- 
dir, the people of Thrond- 
hjem or Drontheim. 130. 

Thyringas, the North Thu- 
ringians, apparently on the 
south bank of the Elbe. 
62, 129. 

These, at a later period, were 
conquered by, and incorporated 
with the Saxons. 

Thyringas (East). 174. 

W. 

Wsernas, Wernas. 52, 119. 
The Varini, Verini (Varnavi 
of Helmold) on the Elbe, whose 
name is known to us by the 
" Leges Angliorum et Wen- 
norutn." Their earlier scat 



seems to have been in Meck- 
lenburg. 

Wala-rice, the Eastern em- 
pire ? 158. 

Wenlas, the Wendla leod of 
Beowulf. 702, (Wendlas 
is, no doubt, the correct 
reading). 1 19. 

They were probably a rem- 
nant of the VandaU or Wends. 

Wernas. See Wsernas. 

Wicinga-cyn. 96. 

Wilna. The capital of Lithua- 
nia.? 157. 

Winedas, the Vinedi or 
Wends. 121. 

Under the name of Vindland 
(A. S. Weonodland) was at one 
time comprised the whole coast- 
land from the She, or Schlei, 
by Sleswig, to the mouth of the 
Vistula. 

Wiolane. 1^7. 

Wistla-wudu, the wood or 
forest of the Vistula. 243. 

With-Myrgingas. 238. 

Woingas. See Index to Beo- 
wulf, V. Wioingas. 

Wrosnas, the people of Ost- 
Rosn and West-Rosn in 
Pomerania ? 68. 

Lappenberg and Ettmiiller 
surmise that the Wrosns may 
be the Scandinavian race from 
which the Russians derive their 
name, and who first became 



:m) 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



known in the ninth century. 
See ZeusSj pp. 547 — 566. 

Wulfingas. See Index to 
Beowialf, v. Wylfingas. 

Y. 

Ymbras. 65. 

In these Lappenberg recog- 
nises the Imbers of the isle of 



Femem. They were, perhaps, 
a remnant of the Ambrones, 
whose name, as Suhm surmises, 
may yet exist in Amron, a small 
island in the German Ocean off 
the coast of Sleswig, and pro- 
bably also in Amerland, a part 
of the territory of Oldenburg. 

Ytas, Jutes. 54, 



ERRATUM. 

P. :i8. col. 2. 1. 39. /or Brondings read Banings. 





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Jorn Jakob Albert Boor. (36) Ik heb mijn leven lang menselijke interactie, tegenstellingen en tegenstrijdigheden geobserveerd en hieruit een conclusie getrokken. Theorie, ervaring en ondersteuning vanuit de vele verscheidene vriendschappen en gebeurtenissen hebben het mogelijk gemaakt tot de kern van het menselijk bestaan en evolutie van het bewustzijn op individueel en collectieve zingeving en progressie. De verschillende specialisaties, hierarchische levels van behoeften (egoisme) en non verbale en verbale intentie's en communicatie eigenschappen (egocentrisch) zijn een fundamentele doelstelling en persoonlijke ontwikkeling die ik graag wil delen en ten dienste wil stellen zodat het de creatie en evolutie van ons natuurlijke zijnsvorm transcends in het geestelijke/spirituele zijnsvorm in ons aller belang en zoals het gedetaileerd in allerlei verscheidene historische takken van sport is benoemd en vastgelegd op feiten en profetisch onderbouwde geschriften. wijsheden en legacies. Defragmentatie van deze inzet, inzichten, kennis en opofferingen ten behoeve van ons aller belang en bestaansrecht. Via het informeren en verzamelen van kennis verwacht ik de chaos en verbroken connectie's weer samen te brengen en hiermee de macht over vrede, begrip, diversiteit en samenwerkings verbanden naar een resonerende en gebalanceerde bestaansrechtelijke fundering terug te brengen en mijzelf en mijn service van toegevoegde waarde te laten zijn. Vanuit mijn eigen ervarings deskundigheid en relatieve overzichten op globaal niveau. Creativiteit. Spontaniteit en Probleemoplossende eigenschappen en de bij behorende communicatieve vaardigheden zouden het varkentje moeten wassen. UNESCO onderschrijft een groot deel van de conclusie en bestaansrecht van deze theorie/evolutie model en symboliek voortgebracht via de grootheden en culturen en eerder bestaansvormen uit het verleden. Dit is de finishing touch en de start van een nieuw begin met rust. vrede en creatieve ontwikkelingen en rechtvaardige basis berustende op eenwording en ware identiteit van de mensheid. De overwinning welke onze wederzijdse verantwoordelijkheid in alle facetten van het bestaan vrijheid en zijn bevierd zal worden! # Het zal geschieden. # Mijn thuis is waar liefde zegeviert # Huis van Jakob / Rechtvaardigheid # Jakob 's Ladder / Vigilant. .. http://jornboor.blogspot.nl https://jakobinfo.wordpress.com @Jakob_EGO "Oil To The Fire Submitted In Respect For The Sacred Dance On Infinity. "

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