Chinese Astrology: Year of the Goat
(Birth date: 30/06/1979 02:45 AM)
The Goat (Chinese: 羊; pinyin: Yang) is the eighth sign of the 12-year cycle of animals that appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The sign is also referred to as the Ram or Sheep sign, since the Chinese word Yang is more accurately translated as Capri-nae, a taxonomic subfamily which includes both sheep and goats.
Basic Astrology Elements
Earthly Branch of Birth Year: Wei
The Five Elements: Earth(Tu)
Yin Yang: Yin ([Chinese philosophy] negative/passive/female principle in nature)
Lucky Numbers: 3, 9, 4; Avoid: 6, 7, 8
Lucky Flowers: carnation, primrose, alice flower
Lucky Colors: green, red, purple; Avoid: golden, coffee
“The Goat, along with the Goat’s Horn, provides us with an abundance of Symbolism and Mythology. The Goat is also a Metaphor which expresses itself in our daily lives.
The Goat is a sure-footed animal that is as much at home on mountain slopes and mountain tops as it is on flat ground. In this aspect, the Goat is a Symbol of agility. And, in its ability to scale a mountain, it is a Symbol of determination.
The male Goat, because of its reproductive prowess, is a Symbol of virility, vitality, potency, and stamina. It therefore represents the energy of the creative and regenerative Seed: traits which are expressed in the Mythology and Symbolism of the Greek Goat God Pan. Pan is the forest Deity that is the creative and regenerative spirit for all the plant and animal life which inhabit His domain.
The female Goat is a Symbol of nurturing and nourishment.
The she-Goat Amalthea is the nurturing Goddess who was the wet-nurse, or nursemaid, of the Greek God Zeus. From the she-Goat we also get the Word, Nanny: a term we use today for the person we charge and entrust with caring for our infants and young children in our absence.
The milk of the female Goat is a sustenance fed to infants. Its high quality and nourishment is a Compatible substitute for mother’s milk and for formulas which may not be agreeable to infants.
The Horn of the Goat, both male and female, is both Symbolic and practical.
It is the Horn of the she-Goat Amalthea, the wet-nurse of Zeus, which is the Symbolic Cornucopia: the Horn of Plenty, the Horn of perpetual abundance.
The Horn was also used as a drinking vessel in antiquity and is a dual Symbol in that it is both masculine and feminine.
When pointed upwards, the Horn is the masculine, penetrating, and assertive, phallic Symbol. When pointed downwards, it is the feminine, receptive cup or chalice (womb).
This dual Symbolism, therefore, is representative of the yin/yang energy. And the the combination of both the upturned Horn along with the downturned Horn carries the same sacred Symbolism and Esoteric meaning as the six-pointed “Star of David”.
Those of us who are Harry Potter fans are familiar with the Bezoar. A Bezoar is a stone which grows in the stomach of animals. Bezoars removed from a Goat were considered the most potent and were ground up and used as elixirs and antidotes for poisoning.
Bezoars were sought because they were believed to have the power of a universal antidote against any poison. It was believed that a drinking glass which contained a Bezoar would neutralize any poison poured into it. The word “bezoar” comes from the
Persian pâdzahr (پادزهر), which literally means “protection from poison.” (from: Wikipedia.com)
As we can see, the Goat is not only a Symbolic and Mythological creature, it is also an animal which provides practical and nutritional benefits to mankind. And it is easy to understand why this animal was so honored and cherished by ancient cultures throughout the world.”
Retrieved 2/28/2016: http://www.aseekersthoughts.com/…/goat-goats-horn-and-bezoa…
Chinese Astrology: Year of the Goat
(Birth date: 30/06/1979 02:45 AM)
Baphomet, commonly refered to as the Sabbatic Goat
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The 19th century image of a Sabbatic Goat, created by Eliphas Levi. The arms bear theLatin words SOLVE(separate) and COAGULA (join together), i.e., the power of “binding and loosing” usurped from God and, according to Catholic tradition, from the ecclesiastical hierarchy acting as God’s representative on Earth.
The original goat pentagram first appeared in the book “La Clef de la Magie Noire” by French occultistStanislas de Guaita, in 1897. This symbol would later become synonymous with Baphomet, and is commonly referred to as the Sabbatic Goat. Samael is a figure inTalmudiclore and Lilith, a female demon inJewish mythology. The Hebrew letters at the five points of the pentagram spell out Leviathan, a mythic creature in Jewish lore. This symbol was later adapted by the Church of Satan in 1969 and officially named the Sigil of Baphomet
Baphomet (/ˈbæfɵmɛt/; from Medieval Latin Baphometh, Baffometi, Occitan Bafometz) is a term originally used to describe an idol or other deity that the Knights Templar were accused of worshiping, and that subsequently was incorporated into disparate occult and mystical traditions. It appeared as a term for a pagan idol in trial transcripts of the Inquisition of the Knights Templar in the early 14th century. The name first came into popular English usage in the 19th century, with debate and speculation on the reasons for the suppression of the Templars.
Since 1856, the name Baphomet has been associated with a “Sabbatic Goat” image drawn by Eliphas Levi which contains binary elements representing the “sum total of the universe” (e.g. male and female, good and evil, etc.).
The name Baphomet appeared in July 1098 in a letter by the crusader Anselm of Ribemont:
Sequenti die aurora apparente, altis vocibusBaphometh invocaverunt; et nos Deum nostrum in cordibus nostris deprecantes, impetum facientes in eos, de muris civitatis omnes expulimus.
As the next day dawned, they called loudly upon Baphometh; and we prayed silently in our hearts to God, then we attacked and forced all of them outside the city walls.
A chronicler of the First Crusade, Raymond of Aguilers, called the mosques Bafumarias. The name Bafometz later appeared around 1195 in the Occitan poem “Senhors, per los nostres peccatz” by the troubadour Gavaudan. Around 1250 a poem bewailing the defeat of the Seventh Crusade by Austorc d’Aorlhac refers to Bafomet. De Bafomet is also the title of one of four surviving chapters of an Occitan translation of Ramon Llull‘s earliest known work, the Libre de la doctrina pueril, “book on the instruction of children”.
Two Templars burned at the stake, from a French 15th-century manuscript
When the medieval order of the Knights Templar was suppressed by King Philip IV of France, on Friday October 13, 1307, Philip had many French Templars simultaneously arrested, and then tortured into confessions. Over 100 different charges had been leveled against the Templars. Most of them were dubious, as they were the same charges that were leveled against the Cathars and many of King Philip’s enemies; he had earlier kidnapped Pope Boniface VIII and charged him with near identical offenses of heresy, spitting and urinating on the cross, and sodomy. Yet Malcolm Barber observes that historians “find it difficult to accept that an affair of such enormity rests upon total fabrication”. The “Chinon Parchmentsuggests that the Templars did indeed spit on the cross,” says Sean Martin, and that these acts were intended to simulate the kind of humiliation and torture that a Crusader might be subjected to if captured by the Saracens, where they were taught how to commit apostasy “with the mind only and not with the heart”. Similarly Michael Haag suggests that the simulated worship of Baphomet did indeed form part of a Templar initiation ritual.
The indictment (acte d’accusation) published by the court of Rome set forth … “that in all the provinces they had idols, that is to say, heads, some of which had three faces, others but one; sometimes, it was a human skull … That in their assemblies, and especially in their grand chapters, they worshipped the idol as a god, as their saviour, saying that this head could save them, that it bestowed on the order all its wealth, made the trees flower, and the plants of the earth to sprout forth.”
The name Baphomet comes up in several of these confessions. Peter Partner states in his 1987 book The Knights Templar and their Myth, “In the trial of the Templars one of their main charges was their supposed worship of a heathen idol-head known as a ‘Baphomet’ (‘Baphomet’ = Mahomet = Muhammad).” The description of the object changed from confession to confession. Some Templars denied any knowledge of it. Others, under torture, described it as being either a severed head, a cat, or a head with three faces. The Templars did possess several silver-gilt heads as reliquaries, including one markedcapud lviiim, another said to be St. Euphemia, and possibly the actual head ofHugues de Payens. The claims of an idol named Baphomet were unique to the Inquisition of the Templars. Karen Ralls, author of the Knights Templar Encyclopedia, argues that it is significant that “no specific evidence [of Baphomet] appears in either the Templar Rule or in other medieval period Templar documents.”
Gauserand de Montpesant, a knight of Provence, said that their superior showed him an idol made in the form of Baffomet; another, named Raymond Rubei, described it as a wooden head, on which the figure of Baphomet was painted, and adds, “that he worshipped it by kissing its feet, and exclaiming, ‘Yalla,’ which was,” he says, “verbum Saracenorum,” a word taken from the Saracens. A templar of Florence declared that, in the secret chapters of the order, one brother said to the other, showing the idol, “Adore this head — this head is your god and your Mahomet.”
Modern scholars such as Peter Partner and Malcolm Barber agree that the name of Baphomet was an Old French corruption of the name Muhammad, with the interpretation being that some of the Templars, through their long military occupation of the Outremer, had begun incorporating Islamic ideas into their belief system, and that this was seen and documented by the Inquisitors as heresy. Alain Demurger, however, rejects the idea that the Templars could have adopted the doctrines of their enemies. Helen Nicholson writes that the charges were essentially “manipulative” — the Templars “were accused of becoming fairy-tale Muslims.” Medieval Christians believed that Muslims wereidolatrous and worshipped Muhammad as a god, with mahomet becoming mammet in English, meaning an idol or false god. This idol-worship is attributed to Muslims in several chansons de geste. For example, one finds the gods Bafum e Travagan in a Provençal poem on the life of St. Honorat, completed in 1300. In the Chanson de Simon Pouille, written before 1235, a Saracen idol is called Bafumetz.
While modern scholars and the Oxford English Dictionary state that the origin of the name Baphomet was a probable Old French version of “Mahomet”,alternative etymologies have also been proposed:
- In the 18th century, speculative theories arose that sought to tie the Knights Templar with the origins of Freemasonry.Bookseller, Freemason and Illuminist Christoph Friedrich Nicolai (1733–1811), in Versuch über die Beschuldigungen welche dem Tempelherrenorden gemacht worden, und über dessen Geheimniß (1782), was the first to claim that the Templars wereGnostics, and that “Baphomet” was formed from the Greek words βαφη μητȢς, baphe metous, to mean Taufe der Weisheit, “Baptism of Wisdom”. Nicolai “attached to it the idea of the image of the supreme God, in the state of quietude attributed to him by the Manichaean Gnostics”, according to F. J. M. Raynouard, and “supposed that the Templars had a secret doctrine and initiations of several grades” which “the Saracens had communicated … to them.” He further connected the figura Baffometi with the pentagram of Pythagoras:
What properly was the sign of the Baffomet, ‘figura Baffometi,’ which was depicted on the breast of the bust representing the Creator, cannot be exactly determined … I believe it to have been the Pythagorean pentagon (Fünfeck) of health and prosperity: … It is well known how holy this figure was considered, and that the Gnostics had much in common with the Pythagoreans. From the prayers which the soul shall recite, according to the diagram of the Ophite-worshippers, when they on their return to God are stopped by the Archons, and their purity has to be examined, it appears that these serpent-worshippers believed they must produce a token that they had been clean on earth. I believe that this token was also the holy pentagon, the sign of their initiation (τελειας βαφης μετεος).
- Émile Littré (1801–1881) in Dictionnaire de la langue francaise asserted that the word was cabalistically formed by writing backward tem. o. h. p. ab, an abbreviation oftempli omnium hominum pacis abbas, ‘abbot’ or ‘father of the temple of peace of all men.’ His source is the “Abbé Constant”, which is to say, Alphonse-Louis Constant, the real name of Eliphas Levi.
- Arkon Daraul proposed that “Baphomet” may derive from the Arabic word أبو فهمة Abu fihama(t), meaning “The Father of Understanding”. “Arkon Daraul” is widely thought to be a pseudonym of Idries Shah (1924–1996).
- Dr. Hugh J. Schonfield (1901–1988), one of the scholars who worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls, argued in his book The Essene Odyssey that the word “Baphomet” was created with knowledge of the Atbash substitution cipher, which substitutes the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the last, the second for the second last, and so on. “Baphomet” rendered in Hebrew is בפומת; interpreted using Atbash, it becomes שופיא, which can be interpreted as the Greek word “Sophia“, or wisdom. This theory is an important part of the plot of The Da Vinci Code. Professor Schonfield’s theory cannot be independently corroborated, however.
Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall
Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall(1774-1856) associated a series of carved or engraved figures found on a number of supposed 13th century Templar artifacts (such as cups, bowls and coffers) with the Baphometic idol.
In 1818, the name Baphomet appeared in the essay by the Viennese Orientalist Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall,Mysterium Baphometis revelatum, seu Fratres Militiæ Templi, qua Gnostici et quidem Ophiani, Apostasiæ, Idoloduliæ et Impuritatis convicti, per ipsa eorum Monumenta (“Discovery of the Mystery of Baphomet, by which the Knights Templars, like the Gnostics and Ophites, are convicted of Apostasy, of Idolatry and of moral Impurity, by their own Monuments”), which presented an elaborate pseudohistory constructed to discredit Templarist Masonry and, by extension, Freemasonry.Following Nicolai, he argued, using as archaeological evidence “Baphomets” faked by earlier scholars and literary evidence such as the Grail romances, that the Templars were Gnostics and the “Templars’ head” was a Gnostic idol called Baphomet.
His chief subject is the images which are called Baphomet … found in several museums and collections of antiquities, as in Weimar … and in the imperial cabinet in Vienna. These little images are of stone, partly hermaphrodites, having, generally, two heads or two faces, with a beard, but, in other respects, female figures, most of them accompanied by serpents, the sun and moon, and other strange emblems, and bearing many inscriptions, mostly in Arabic … The inscriptions he reduces almost all toMete[, which] … is, according to him, not the Μητις of the Greeks, but the Sophia, Achamot Prunikos of the Ophites, which was represented half man, half woman, as the symbol of wisdom, unnatural voluptuousness and the principle of sensuality … He asserts that those small figures are such as the Templars, according to the statement of a witness, carried with them in their coffers. Baphomet signifies Βαφη Μητεος,baptism of Metis, baptism of fire, or the Gnostic baptism, an enlightening of the mind, which, however, was interpreted by the Ophites, in an obscene sense, as fleshly union … the fundamental assertion, that those idols and cups came from the Templars, has been considered as unfounded, especially as the images known to have existed among the Templars seem rather to be images of saints.
Hammer’s essay did not pass unchallenged, and F. J. M. Raynouard published an “Etude sur ‘Mysterium Baphometi revelatum'” in Journal des savants the following year. Charles William King criticized Hammer saying he had been deceived by “the paraphernalia of … Rosicrucian or alchemical quacks,” and Peter Partner agreed that the images “may have been forgeries from the occultist workshops.” At the very least, there was little evidence to tie them to the Knights Templar — in the 19th century some European museums acquired such pseudo-Egyptian objects, which were catalogued as “Baphomets” and credulously thought to have been idols of the Templars.
Later in the 19th century, the name of Baphomet became further associated with the occult.Eliphas Levi publishedDogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (“Dogmas and Rituals of High Magic”) as two volumes (Dogme 1854, Rituel 1856), in which he included an image he had drawn himself which he described as Baphomet and “The Sabbatic Goat”, showing a winged humanoid goat with a pair of breasts and a torch on its head between its horns (illustration, top). This image has become the best-known representation of Baphomet. Lévi considered the Baphomet to be a depiction of the absolute in symbolic form and explicated in detail his symbolism in the drawing that served as the frontispiece:
The goat on the frontispiece carries the sign of the pentagram on the forehead, with one point at the top, a symbol of light, his two hands forming the sign of occultism, the one pointing up to the white moon of Chesed, the other pointing down to the black one of Geburah. This sign expresses the perfect harmony of mercy with justice. His one arm is female, the other male like the ones of the androgyne of Khunrath, the attributes of which we had to unite with those of our goat because he is one and the same symbol. The flame of intelligence shining between his horns is the magic light of the universal balance, the image of the soul elevated above matter, as the flame, whilst being tied to matter, shines above it. The beast’s head expresses the horror of the sinner, whose materially acting, solely responsible part has to bear the punishment exclusively; because the soul is insensitive according to its nature and can only suffer when it materializes. The rod standing instead of genitals symbolizes eternal life, the body covered with scales the water, the semi-circle above it the atmosphere, the feathers following above the volatile. Humanity is represented by the two breasts and the androgyne arms of this sphinx of the occult sciences.
Lévi’s depiction of Baphomet is similar to that of the Devil in early Tarot cards. Lévi, working with correspondences different from those later used by S. L. MacGregor Mathers, “equated the Devil Tarot key with Mercury,” giving “his figure Mercury’s caduceus, rising like a phallus from his groin.”
Lévi believed that the alleged devil worship of the medieval Witches’ Sabbath was a perpetuation of ancient pagan rites. A goat with a candle between its horns appears in medieval witchcraft records, and other pieces of lore are cited in Dogme et Rituel.
Below this figure we read a frank and simple inscription — THE DEVIL. Yes, we confront here that phantom of all terrors, the dragon of the all theogenies, the Ahriman of the Persians, the Typhon of the Egyptians, the Python of the Greeks, the old serpent of the Hebrews, the fantastic monster, the nightmare, the Croquemitaine, the gargoyle, the great beast of the Middle Ages, and — worse than all these — the Baphomet of the Templars, the bearded idol of the alchemist, the obscene deity of Mendes, the goat of the Sabbath. The frontispiece to this ‘Ritual’ reproduces the exact figure of the terrible emperor of night, with all his attributes and all his characters…. Yes, in our profound conviction, the Grand Masters of the Order of Templars worshipped the Baphomet, and caused it to be worshipped by their initiates; yes, there existed in the past, and there may be still in the present, assemblies which are presided over by this figure, seated on a throne and having a flaming torch between the horns. But the adorers of this sign do not consider, as do we, that it is a representation of the devil; on the contrary, for them it is that of the god Pan, the god of our modern schools of philosophy, the god of the Alexandrian theurgic school and of our own mystical Neoplatonists, the god ofLamartine and Victor Cousin, the god ofSpinoza and Plato, the god of the primitive Gnostic schools; the Christ also of the dissident priesthood…. The mysteries of the Sabbath have been variously described, but they figure always in grimoires and in magical trials; the revelations made on the subject may be classified under three heads — 1. those referring to a fantastic and imaginary Sabbath; 2. those which betray the secrets of the occult assemblies of veritable adepts; 3. revelations of foolish and criminal gatherings, having for their object the operations of black magic.
Lévi’s Baphomet, for all its modern fame, does not match the historical descriptions from the Templar trials, although it may also have been partly inspired by grotesque carvings on the Templar churches of Lanleff in Brittany and Saint-Merri in Paris, which depict squatting bearded men with bat wings, female breasts, horns and the shaggy hindquarters of a beast,[unreliable source?] as well as Viollet-le-Duc‘s vivid gargoylesthat were added to Notre Dame de Paris about the same time as Lévi’s illustration.
Goat of Mendes
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Lévi called his image “The Goat of Mendes”, possibly following Herodotus‘ account that the god of Mendes — the Greek name for Djedet, Egypt — was depicted with a goat’s face and legs. Herodotus relates how all male goats were held in great reverence by the Mendesians, and how in his time a woman publicly copulated with a goat. E. A. Wallis Budge writes,
At several places in the Delta, e.g. Hermopolis, Lycopolis, and Mendes, the god Pan and a goat were worshipped; Strabo, quoting (xvii. 1, 19) Pindar, says that in these places goats had intercourse with women, and Herodotus (ii. 46) instances a case which was said to have taken place in the open day. The Mendisians, according to this last writer, paid reverence to all goats, and more to the males than to the females, and particularly to one he-goat, on the death of which public mourning is observed throughout the whole Mendesian district; they call both Pan and the goat Mendes, and both were worshipped as gods of generation and fecundity. Diodorus (i. 88) compares the cult of the goat of Mendes with that of Priapus, and groups the god with the Pans and the Satyrs. The goat referred to by all these writers is the famous Mendean Ram, or Ram of Mendes, the cult of which was, according to Manetho, established byKakau, the king of the IInd dynasty.
Historically, the deity that was venerated at Egyptian Mendes was a ram deityBanebdjedet (literally Ba of the lord of djed, and titled “the Lord of Mendes”), who was the soul of Osiris. Lévi combined the images of the Tarot of Marseilles Devil card and refigured the ram Banebdjed as a he-goat, further imagined by him as “copulator in Anep and inseminator in the district of Mendes”.
The Baphomet of Lévi was to become an important figure within the cosmology of Thelema, the mystical system established by Aleister Crowley in the early twentieth century. Baphomet features in the Creed of the Gnostic Catholic Church recited by the congregation in The Gnostic Mass, in the sentence: “And I believe in the Serpent and the Lion, Mystery of Mysteries, in His name BAPHOMET.”
In Magick (Book 4), Crowley asserted that Baphomet was a divine androgyne and “the hieroglyph of arcane perfection”: Seen as that which reflects. “What occurs above so reflects below, or As above so below”
The Devil does not exist. It is a false name invented by the Black Brothers to imply a Unity in their ignorant muddle of dispersions. A devil who had unity would be a God… ‘The Devil’ is, historically, the God of any people that one personally dislikes… This serpent, SATAN, is not the enemy of Man, but He who made Gods of our race, knowing Good and Evil; He bade ‘Know Thyself!’ and taught Initiation. He is ‘The Devil’ of the Book of Thoth, and His emblem is BAPHOMET, the Androgyne who is the hieroglyph of arcane perfection… He is therefore Life, and Love. But moreover his letter is ayin, the Eye, so that he is Light; and his Zodiacal image is Capricornus, that leaping goat whose attribute is Liberty.
For Crowley, Baphomet is further a representative of the spiritual nature of the spermatozoa while also being symbolic of the “magical child” produced as a result ofsex magic. As such, Baphomet represents the Union of Opposites, especially as mystically personified in Chaos and Babalon combined and biologically manifested with the sperm and egg united in the zygote.
Crowley proposed that Baphomet was derived from “Father Mithras”. In his Confessions he describes the circumstances that led to this etymology:
I had taken the name Baphomet as my motto in the O.T.O. For six years and more I had tried to discover the proper way to spell this name. I knew that it must have eight letters, and also that the numerical and literal correspondences must be such as to express the meaning of the name in such a ways as to confirm what scholarship had found out about it, and also to clear up those problems which archaeologists had so far failed to solve … One theory of the name is that it represents the words βαφὴ μήτεος, the baptism of wisdom; another, that it is a corruption of a title meaning “Father Mithras”. Needless to say, the suffix R supported the latter theory. I added up the word as spelt by the Wizard. It totalled 729. This number had never appeared in my Cabbalistic working and therefore meant nothing to me. It however justified itself as being the cube of nine. The word κηφας, the mystic title given by Christ to Peter as the cornerstone of the Church, has this same value. So far, the Wizard had shown great qualities! He had cleared up the etymological problem and shown why the Templars should have given the name Baphomet to their so-called idol. Baphomet was Father Mithras, the cubical stone which was the corner of the Temple.
Modern interpretations and usage
Lévi’s Baphomet is the source of the later Tarot image of the Devil in the Rider-Waite design. The concept of a downward-pointing pentagram on its forehead was enlarged upon by Lévi in his discussion (without illustration) of the Goat of Mendes arranged within such a pentagram, which he contrasted with the microcosmic man arranged within a similar but upright pentagram. The actual image of a goat in a downward-pointing pentagram first appeared in the 1897 book La Clef de la Magie Noire by Stanislas de Guaita. It was this image that was later adopted as the official symbol — called the Sigil of Baphomet — of the Church of Satan, and continues to be used among Satanists.
Promotional poster for Léo Taxil, Les Mystères de la franc-maçonnerie dévoilés (1886), adapts Lévi’s invention.
Baphomet, as Lévi’s illustration suggests, has occasionally been portrayed as a synonym ofSatan or a demon, a member of the hierarchy of Hell. Baphomet appears in that guise as a character in James Blish‘s The Day After Judgment. Christian evangelist Jack T. Chickclaims that Baphomet is a demon worshipped by Freemasons, a claim that apparently originated with the Taxil hoax. Léo Taxil‘s elaborate hoax employed a version of Lévi’s Baphomet on the cover of Les Mystères de la franc-maçonnerie dévoilés, his lurid paperback “exposé” of Freemasonry, which in 1897 he revealed as a hoax intended to ridicule the Catholic Church and its anti-Masonic propaganda.
- History of the Knights Templar
- Knights Templar legends
- Medieval Christian views on Muhammad
- ^ Jump up to:a b Michelet, p. 375.
- Jump up^ “In the 19th century a fresh impetus was given to the discussion by the publication in 1813 of F. J. M. Raynouard’s brilliant defence of the order. The challenge was taken up, among others, by the famous orientalist Friedrich von Hammer-Purgstall, who in 1818 published hisMysterium Baphometis revelatum, an attempt to prove that the Templars followed the doctrines and rites of the Gnostic Ophites, the argument being fortified with reproductions of obscene representations of supposed Gnostic ceremonies and of mystic symbols said to have been found in the Templars’ buildings. Wilcke, while rejecting Hammer’s main conclusions as unproved, argued in favour of the existence of a secret doctrine based, not on Gnosticism, but on the unitarianism of Islam, of which Baphomet (Mahomet) was the symbol. On the other hand, Wilhelm Havemann (Geschichte des Ausganges des Tempelherrenordens, Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1846) decided in favour of the innocence of the order. This view was also taken by a succession of German scholars, in England by C. G. Addison, and in France by a whole series of conspicuous writers: e.g. Mignet, Guizot, Renan, Lavocat. Others, like Boutaric, while rejecting the charge of heresy, accepted the evidence for the spuitio and the indecent kisses, explaining the former as a formula of forgotten meaning and the latter as a sign of fraternité!” Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Since 1856 the influence of Eliphas Lévi and his doctrine of occultism has changed the face of this card, and it now appears as a pseudo-Baphometic figure with the head of a goat and a great torch between the horns; it is seated instead of erect, and in place of the generative organs there is the Hermetic caduceus.” Waite, part i, §2.
- Jump up^ Guiley, “Baphomet”.
- Jump up^ Migne, p. 475.
- Jump up^ Barber and Bate, p. 29.
- Jump up^ “Raimundus de Agiles says of the Mahometans: In ecclesiis autem magnisBafumarias faciebant . . . . habebant monticulum ubi duæ erant Bafumariæ. The troubadours employ Baformaria for mosque, and Bafomet for Mahomet.” Michaud, p. 497.
- Jump up^ Ab Luy venseretz totz los cas/Cuy Bafometz a escarnitz/e·ls renegatz outrasalhitz (“with his [i.e. Jesus’] help you will defeat all the dogs whomMahomet has led astray and the impudent renegades”). The relevant lines are translated in Michael Routledge (1999), “The Later Troubadours”, in The Troubadours: An Introduction, Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, edd. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 112.
- Jump up^ The quote is at Austorc d’Aorlhac.
- Jump up^ The other chapters are De la ley nova, De caritat, and De iustitia. The three folios of the Occitan fragment were reunited on 21 April 1887 and the work was then “discovered”. Today it can be found in BnF fr. 6182. Clovis Brunel dated it to the thirteenth century, and it was probably made in the Quercy. The work was originallyLatin, but medieval Catalan translation exists, as does a complete Occitan one. The Occitan fragment has been translated by Diego Zorzi (1954). “Un frammento provenzale della Doctrina Pueril di Raimondo Lull”. Aevum28 (4): 345–49.
- Jump up^ Barber 2006, p. 204.
- Jump up^ Barber 2006, p. 306.
- Jump up^ Martin, p. 138.
- Jump up^ Templars: History and Myth: From Solomon’s Temple to the Freemasons: Profile Books, 2009
- ^ Jump up to:a b Partner, pp. 34–35.
- Jump up^ Read, p. 266.
- Jump up^ Martin, p. 139.
- Jump up^ “Per quem allatum fuit eis quoddam magnum capud argenteum deauratum pulcrum, figuram muliebrem habens, intra quod erant ossa unius capitis, involuta et consuta in quodam panno lineo albo, syndone rubea superposita, et erat ibi quedam cedula consuta in qua erat scriptum capud lviiim, et dicta ossa assimilabantur ossibus capitis parvi muliebris, et dicebatur ab aliquibus quod erat capud unius undecim millium virginum.” Procès, vol. ii, p. 218.
- Jump up^ Barber 2006, p. 244.
- Jump up^ “It is possible that the head mentioned was in fact a reliquary of Hugh of Payns, containing his actual head.” Barber 2006, p. 331.
- Jump up^ National Geographic Channel. Knights Templar, February 22, 2006, video documentary written by Jesse Evans.
- Jump up^ Martin, p. 119.
- Jump up^ Ralls, p. 154.
- Jump up^ Wright, p. 138. Cf. Barber 2006, p. 77; Finke, p. 323.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barber 1994, p. 321.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Barber 2006, p. 305.
- Jump up^ Games and Coren, pp. 143-144.
- Jump up^ Féraud, p. 2.
- Jump up^ Pouille, p. 153.
- Jump up^ The OED reports “Baphomet” as a medieval form of Mahomet, but does not find a first appearance in English until Henry Hallam, The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, which also appeared in 1818.
- Jump up^ Ralls, pp. 184-5.
- Jump up^ Hodapp, pp. 203–208.
- Jump up^ McKeown, Trevor W. “A Bavarian Illuminati Primer”. Retrieved2011-04-21.
- Jump up^ Nicolai, vol. i, p. 136 ff. Nicolai’s theories are discussed byThomas De Quincey in “Historico-Critical Inquiry into the Origin of the Rosicrucians and the Free-Masons”. London Magazine. 1824. See also Partner, p. 129: “The German Masonic bookseller, Friedrich Nicolai, produced an idea that the Templar Masons, through the medieval Templars, were the eventual heirs of an heretical doctrine which originated with the early Gnostics. He supported this belief by a farrago of learned references to the writings of early Fathers of the Church on heresy, and by impressive-looking citations from the Syriac. Nicolai based his theory on false etymology and wild surmise, but it was destined to be very influential. He was also most probably familiar with Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa‘s claim, made in the early sixteenth century, that the medieval Templars had been wizards.”
- Jump up^ Michaud, p. 496.
- Jump up^ “Symbols and Symbolism”. Freemasons’ Quarterly Magazine(London) 1: 275–92. 1854. p. 284.
- Jump up^ Daraul, Arkon. A History of Secret Societies. ISBN 0-8065-0857-4.
- Jump up^ Hugh J. Schonfield, The Essene Odyssey. Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset SP7 8BP, England: Element Books Ltd., 1984; 1998 paperback reissue, p.164.
- Jump up^ Hammer-Purgstall (1818). “Mysterium Baphometis revelatum”.Fundgruben des Orients (Vienna) 6: 1–120; 445–99.
- Jump up^ Partner, p. 140.
- Jump up^ Sic; Μητις is lit. ‘wisdom, craft, or skill.’
- Jump up^ “Baphomet”, Encyclopedia Americana, 1851.
- Jump up^ In “Journal des savants”. 1819. pp. 151–61; 221–29. (Noted by Barber 1994, p. 393, note 13.) An abridged English translation appears in Michaud, “Raynouard’s note on Hammer’s ‘Mysterium Baphometi Revelatum'”, pp. 494-500.
- Jump up^ King, p. 404.
- Jump up^ Partner, p. 141.
- Jump up^ Hans Tietze illustrated one, in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, in “The Psychology and Aesthetics of Forgery in Art”.Metropolitan Museum Studies 5 (1): 1–19. August 1934.doi:10.2307/1522815. p. 1.
- Jump up^ “Le bouc qui est représenté dans notre frontispice porte sur le front le signe du pentagramme, la pointe en haut, ce qui suffit pour en faire un symbole de lumière; il fait des deux mains le signe de l’occultisme, et montre en haut la lune blanche de Chesed, et en bas la lune noire de Géburah. Ce signe exprime le parfait accord de la miséricorde avec la justice. L’un des ses bras est féminin, l’autre masculin, comme dans l’androgyne de Khunrath dont nous avons dû réunir les attributs à ceux de notre bouc, puisque c’est un seul et même symbole. Le flambeau de l’intelligence qui brille entre ses cornes, est la lumière magique de l’équilibre universel; c’est aussi la figure de l’âme élevée au-dessus de la matière, bien que tenant à la matière même, comme la flamme tient au flambeau. La tête hideuse de l’animal exprime l’horreur du péché, dont l’agent matériel, seul responsable, doit seul à jamais porter la peine: car l’âme est impassible de sa nature, et n’arrive à souffrir qu’en se matérialisant. Le caducée, qui tient lieu de l’organe générateur, représente la vie éternelle; le ventre couvert d’écailles c’est l’eau; le cercle qui est au-dessus, c’est l’atmosphère; les plumes qui viennent ensuite sont l’emblème du volatile; puis l’humanité est représentée par les deux mamelles et les bras androgynes de ce sphinx des sciences occultes.” Lévi, pp. 211-212.
- Jump up^ “ס Le ciel de Mercure, science occulte, magie, commerce, éloquence, mystère, force morale. Hiéroglyphe, le diable, le bouc de Mendès ou le Baphomet du temple avec tous ses attributs panthéistiques.” Lévi, p. 352.
- Jump up^ Place, p. 85.
- Jump up^ In Margaret Murray‘s survey of The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, the devil was said to appear as “a great Black Goat with a Candlebetween his Horns”. Murray, p. 145. For the devil as a goat, see pp. 63, 65, 68-69, 70, 144-146, 159, 160, 180, 182, 183, 233, 247, 248.
- Jump up^ Lévi, trans. Waite, “The Sabbath of the Sorcerers,” pp. 288-292.
- Jump up^ Jackson, Nigel & Michael Howard (2003). The Pillars of Tubal Cain. Milverton, Somerset: Capall Bann Publishing. p. 223.
- Jump up^ Herodotus, Histories ii. 42, 46 and 166.
- Jump up^ Herodotus, Histories ii. 46. Plutarch specifically associates Osiriswith the “goat at Mendes.” De Iside et Osiride, lxxiii.
- Jump up^ Budge, vol. ii, p. 353.
- Jump up^ Helena; Tau Apiryon. “The Invisible Basilica: The Creed of the Gnostic Catholic Church: An Examination”. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- Jump up^ Crowley, Aleister; Mary. Desti; Leila. Waddell (2004). Hymenaeus. Beta, ed. Magick: Liber ABA, Book Four, Parts I-IV. York Beach, Me.: S. Weiser. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-0-87728-919-7.
- Jump up^ Carter, John (2005). Sex and Rockets: the Occult Life of Jack Parsons. USA: Feral House. pp. 151–153. ISBN 9780922915972.
- Jump up^ Crowley, Aleister (1929). The Spirit of Solitude: an autohagiography: subsequently re-Antichristened The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. London: Mandrake Press.
- Jump up^ “Le pentagramme élevant en l’air deux de ses pointes représente Satan ou le bouc du sabbat, et il représente le Sauveur lorsqu’il élève en l’air un seul de ses rayons … En le disposant de manière que deux de ses pointes soient en haut et une seule pointe en bas, on peut y voir les cornes, les oreilles et la barbe du bouc hiératique de Mendès, et il devient le signe des évocations infernales.” Lévi, pp. 93-98.
- Jump up^ De Guaita, p. 387.
- Jump up^ The History of the Origin of the Sigil of Baphomet and its Use in the Church of Satan
- Jump up^ That’s Baphomet? ©2011 by Jack T. Chick LLC
- Jump up^ “Leo Taxil’s confession”.
- Jump up^ “The Confession of Léo Taxil”
- Barber, Malcolm (1994). The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42041-5.
- Barber, Malcolm (2006). The Trial of the Templars (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67236-8.
- Barber, Malcolm; Bate, Keith (2010). Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th-13th Centuries. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-6356-0.
- Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis (1904). The Gods of the Egyptians: or, Studies in Egyptian Mythology. II volumes. London: Methuen & Co.
- Crowley, Aleister (1974). The Equinox of the Gods. New York: Gordon Press.
- Crowley, Aleister (1944). The Book of Thoth; A Short Essay on the Tarot of the Egyptians, being the Equinox, Volume III, No. V. London: Ordo Templi Orientis.
- Crowley, Aleister (December 1996). Louis Wilkinson, ed. The Law is for All: The Authorized Popular Commentary of Liber Al Vel Legis sub figura CCXX, The Book of the Law. Thelema Media. ISBN 0-9726583-8-6.
- Crowley, Aleister; Mary. Desti; Leila. Waddell (2004). Hymenaeus. Beta, ed. Magick: Liber ABA, Book 4, Parts I-IV. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser.ISBN 978-0-87728-919-7.
- De Guaita, Stanislas (1897). Essais de sciences mandites (in French). La Clef de la magie noire. Chamuel.
- Féraud, Raymond (1858). Sardou, A. L, ed. La vida de Sant Honorat (La vie de Saint Honorat) (in French). Paris: P. Janet, Dezobry, E. Magdeleine & Co.
- Finke, Heinrich (1907). Papsttum und untergang des Templerordens: Quellen (in German). Volume II. Muenster: Druck und verlag der Aschendorffschen buchhandlung.
- Games, Alex; Coren, Victoria (2007). Balderdash and Piffle, One Sandwich Short of a Dog’s Dinner. ISBN 1846072352.
- Guiley, Rosemary (2008). “Baphomet”. The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca. Infobase. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9781438126845. Retrieved 11 August2013.
- Hodapp, Christopher (2005). “A crash course in Templar history”. Freemasons for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.
- King, C. W. (1887) . The Gnostics and their Remains. London: David Nutt.
- Levi, Eliphas (1861) [1854-1856]. Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie (in French). II volumes bound as one (2nd ed.). Paris: Hippolyte Baillière.
- Levi, Eliphas (1896). Transcendental Magic: Its Doctrine and Ritual. Trans. Arthur Edward Waite. London: George Redway.
- Martin, Sean (2005). The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of the Legendary Military Order. ISBN 1-56025-645-1.
- Michaud, Joseph Francois (1853). The History of the Crusades. Volume III. Trans. W. Robson. New York: Redfield.
- Michelet, Jules, ed. (1851). Le procès des Templiers (in French). II volumes. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
- Michelet, Jules (1860). History of France. Volume I. Trans. G.H. Smith. New York: D. Appleton.
- Migne, Jacques Paul (1854). Godefridi Bullonii epistolae et diplomata; accedunt appendices (in Latin).
- Murray, Margaret (1921). The Witch Cult in Western Europe: A Study in Anthropology. Oxford University Press.
- Nicolai, Friedrich (1782). Versuch über die Beschuldigungen welche dem Tempelherrenorden gemacht worden, und über dessen Geheimniß; Nebst einem Anhange über das Entstehen der Freymaurergesellschaft (in German). II volumes. Berlin und Stettin.
- Partner, Peter (1987). The Knights Templar and Their Myth. ISBN 0-89281-273-7. (Previously titled The Murdered Magicians.)
- Philips, Walter Alison (1911). “Templars”. In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Place, Robert M. (2005). The Tarot: History, Symbolism and Divination. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. ISBN 1-58542-349-1.
- Pouille, Simon de (1968). Baroin, Jeanne, ed. Simon de Pouille: Chanson de Geste (in French). Geneva: Librairie Droz. ISBN 978-2-600-02428-0.
- Ralls, Karen (2007). Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the People, Places, Events, and Symbols of the Order of the Temple. Career Press.ISBN 9781564149268.
- Read, Piers Paul (1999). The Templars. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81071-9.
- Spunda, Franz. Baphomet: Der geheime Gott der Templer: ein alchimistischer Roman (in German). ISBN 3-86552-073-1.
- Waite, Arthur (1911). The Pictorial Key to the Tarot. London: W. Rider.
- Wright, Thomas (1865). “The Worship of the Generative Powers During the Middle Ages of Western Europe”. In Knight, Richard Payne. A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus. London: J. C. Hotten.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baphomet.
- Myth of the Baphomet.
- Mysterium Baphometis Revelatum in PDF.
- “Baphomet“. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Jakob’s Dream/The Jakob’s Ladder
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 29, 2009
matter below with the domain of Spirit above. It symbolizes the
spiritual stairway which enables a Seeker or Initiate to ascend to
higher realms of consciousness in the Quest for Spiritual
The Ladder, which is rich in Symbolism and Metaphor, consists
of Horizontal Rungs and two Vertical Uprights. The Horizontal
rungs represent progressively higher levels of consciousness
and the two Vertical Uprights, (I I), represent the symbol for
The horizontal rungs remind us that our spiritual journey is
upward, and the vertical uprights remind us that our upward
journey occurs within the realm of duality.
As The Ladder has no moving parts, it symbolizes ascension
by way of personal Desire and Effort. The Ladder also reminds us
that reaching the highest realms of consciousness is not a short,
swift journey. Each rung represents a gradual ascent whereby
Wisdom, knowledge, enlightenment and perfection are earned
by us one step at a time. However, we must also keep in mind
that no journey is without its rests and pauses. Therefore,
whenever we require a respite during our spiritual ascent, the
rungs of The Ladder provide us with the support and strength we
need until we are ready to take our next step upward.
In addition, The Symbol of the Ladder also reminds us that our
upward ascent, from the bottom-most rung to the upper-most rung,
is a journey through the realm of duality. Before we can step up
to the next higher rung on The Ladder we must first experience and
master the Lessons of duality which exist at our current level of
As we steadfastly ascend the rungs of The Ladder we slowly elevate
ourselves, higher and higher, above the lower plane of the superficial
and mundane. Upon reaching the higher rungs of The Ladder, we
begin to breathe in the rarefied air of Higher Consciousness. It is at
these higher levels of consciousness that the mysteries of Eternity
slowly begin to un–veil their secrets to us.
When we reach the top-most rung of The Ladder we enter the
realm of highest consciousness. We have now left the frustrations,
confusions and restraints of the material world well below us and
are now finally able to enjoy the purified realm angels, higher spirits,
and Divinity. Through our personal Desire and Effort we have
Transcended Duality and achieved entrance into the Infinite
Domain of Enlightenment and Unity.
Comments and Emails: I welcome comments and emails from
people with similar thoughts and feelings. My email address is
located in the upper-left area of this page. Comments can be
posted by using the “Comment” link located below each article.
Also: If you found value in this article please feel free to forward
it to other like-minded individuals, organizations and sites.
Disclaimer: None of my articles should be considered to be
either advice or expertise. They are simply personal opinions
and no more. Everyone is encouraged to seek competent
advice from a licensed, registered, or certified professional
should such advice or service be required.
© copyright Joseph Panek 2009
Ascendant: Taurus (30/06/1979 02:45AM)
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Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: dAMAR.UTU 𒀭𒀫𒌓 “solar calf”; GreekΜαρδοχαῖος,Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon. When Babylon became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BC), he slowly started to rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BC. In the city of Babylon, he resided in the temple Esagila. “Marduk” is the Babylonian form of his name.
According to The Encyclopedia of Religion, the name Marduk was probably pronounced Marutuk. The etymology of the name Marduk is conjectured as derived from amar-Utu (“bull calf of the sun god Utu”). The origin of Marduk’s name may reflect an earlier genealogy, or have had cultural ties to the ancient city of Sippar (whose god was Utu, the sun god), dating back to the third millennium BC.
Marduk’s original character is obscure but he was later associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic. His consort was the goddess Sarpanit. He was also regarded as the son of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and Damkina and the heir of Anu, but whatever special traits Marduk may have had were overshadowed by the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to people of the time imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who in an earlier period were recognized as the heads of the pantheon. There are particularly two gods—Ea and Enlil—whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk.
In the case of Ea, the transfer proceeded pacifically and without effacing the older god. Marduk took over the identity of Asarluhi, the son of Ea and god of magic, so that Marduk was integrated in the pantheon of Eridu where both Ea and Asarluhi originally came from. Father Ea voluntarily recognized the superiority of the son and hands over to him the control of humanity. This association of Marduk and Ea, while indicating primarily the passing of the supremacy once enjoyed by Eridu to Babylon as a religious and political centre, may also reflect an early dependence of Babylon upon Eridu, not necessarily of a political character but, in view of the spread of culture in the Euphrates valley from the south to the north, the recognition of Eridu as the older centre on the part of the younger one.
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Late Bronze Age
While the relationship between Ea and Marduk is marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk’s absorption of the power and prerogatives of Enlil of Nippur was at the expense of the latter’s prestige. Babylon became independent in the early 19th century BC, and was initially a small city state, overshadowed by older and more powerful Mesopotamian states such as Isin, Larsa and Assyria. However, afterHammurabi forged an empire in the 18th century BC, turning Babylon into the dominant state in the south, the cult of Marduk eclipsed that of Enlil; although Nippur and the cult of Enlil enjoyed a period of renaissance during the over four centuries of Kassite control in Babylonia (c. 1595 BC–1157 BC), the definite and permanent triumph of Marduk over Enlil became felt within Babylonia.
The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1750 BC was the god Aššur (Ashur) (who had been the supreme deity in the northern Mesopotamian state of Assyria since the 25th century BC) which was the dominant power in the region between the 14th to the late 7th century BC. In the south, Marduk reigned supreme. He is normally referred to as Bel“Lord”, also bel rabim “great lord”, bêl bêlim “lord of lords”, ab-kal ilâni bêl terêti “leader of the gods”, aklu bêl terieti “the wise, lord of oracles”, muballit mîte “reviver of the dead”, etc.
When Babylon became the principal city of southern Mesopotamia during the reign of Hammurabi in the 18th century BC, the patron deity of Babylon was elevated to the level of supreme god. In order to explain how Marduk seized power, Enûma Elish was written, which tells the story of Marduk’s birth, heroic deeds and becoming the ruler of the gods. This can be viewed as a form of Mesopotamian apologetics. Also included in this document are the fifty names of Marduk.
In Enûma Elish, a civil war between the gods was growing to a climactic battle. The Anunnaki gods gathered together to find one god who could defeat the gods rising against them. Marduk, a very young god, answered the call and was promised the position of head god.
To prepare for battle, he makes a bow, fletches arrows, grabs a mace, throws lightning before him, fills his body with flame, makes a net to encircle Tiamat within it, gathers the four winds so that no part of her could escape, creates seven nasty new winds such as the whirlwind and tornado, and raises up his mightiest weapon, the rain-flood. Then he sets out for battle, mounting his storm-chariot drawn by four horses with poison in their mouths. In his lips he holds a spell and in one hand he grasps a herb to counter poison.
First, he challenges the leader of the Anunnaki gods, the dragon of the primordial sea Tiamat, to single combat and defeats her by trapping her with his net, blowing her up with his winds, and piercing her belly with an arrow.
Then, he proceeds to defeat Kingu, who Tiamat put in charge of the army and wore the Tablets of Destiny on his breast, and “wrested from him the Tablets of Destiny, wrongfully his” and assumed his new position. Under his reign humans were created to bear the burdens of life so the gods could be at leisure.
Marduk was depicted as a human, often with his symbol the snake-dragon which he had taken over from the god Tishpak. Another symbol that stood for Marduk was the spade.
Babylonian texts talk of the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, “the holy city, the dwelling of their [the other gods’] delight”.
Nabu, god of wisdom, is a son of Marduk.
The fifty names of Marduk
Leonard W. King in The Seven Tablets of Creation (1902) included fragments of god lists which he considered essential for the reconstruction of the meaning of Marduk’s name. Franz Bohl in his 1936 study of the fifty names also referred to King’s list. Richard Litke (1958) noticed a similarity between Marduk’s names in the An:Anum list and those of the Enuma elish, albeit in a different arrangement. The connection between the An:Anum list and the list in Enuma Elish were established by Walther Sommerfeld (1982), who used the correspondence to argue for a Kassite period composition date of the Enuma elish, although the direct derivation of the Enuma elish list from the An:Anum one was disputed in a review by Wilfred Lambert (1984).
The Marduk Prophecy
The Marduk Prophecy is a text describing the travels of the Marduk idol from Babylon, in which he pays a visit to the land of Ḫatti, corresponding to the statue’s seizure during the sack of the city by Mursilis I in 1531 BC, Assyria, when Tukulti-Ninurta I overthrew Kashtiliash IV in 1225 BC and took the idol to Assur, and Elam, when Kudur-nahhunte ransacked the city and pilfered the statue around 1160 BC. He addresses an assembly of the gods.
The first two sojourns are described in glowing terms as good for both Babylon and the other places Marduk has graciously agreed to visit. The episode in Elam, however, is a disaster, where the gods have followed Marduk and abandoned Babylon to famine and pestilence. Marduk prophesies that he will return once more to Babylon to a messianic new king, who will bring salvation to the city and who will wreak a terrible revenge on the Elamites. This king is understood to be Nabu-kudurri-uṣur I, 1125-1103 BC. Thereafter the text lists various sacrifices.
A copy was found in the House of the Exorcist at Assur, whose contents date from 713-612 BC and is closely related thematically to another vaticinium ex eventutext called the Shulgi prophecy, which probably followed it in a sequence of tablets. Both compositions present a favorable view of Assyria.
- Ashur (god)
- Babylonian religion
- Sacred Bull
- Chaldean mythology
- Nebuchadnezzar II
- Enûma Eliš
- identified with Marduk by Heinrich Zimmeren (1862-1931), Stade’s Zeitschrift 11, p. 161.
- Helmer Ringgren, (1974) Religions of The Ancient Near East, Translated by John Sturdy, The Westminster Press, p. 66.
- Frymer-Kensky, Tikva (2005). Jones, Lindsay, ed. Marduk. Encyclopedia of religion 8 (2 ed.). New York. pp. 5702–5703. ISBN 0-02-865741-1.
- The Encyclopedia of Religion – Macmillan Library Reference USA – Vol. 9 – Page 201
- Jastrow, Jr., Morris (1911). Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria, G.P. Putnam’s Sons: New York and London. pp. 217-219.
- [John L. McKenzie, Dictionary of the Bible, Simon & Schuster, 1965 p 541.]
- Helmer Ringgren, (1974) Religions of The Ancient Near East, Translated by John Sturdy, The Westminster Press, p. 67.
- Arendzen, John. “Cosmogony”. The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- C. Scott Littleton (2005). Gods, Goddesses and Mythology, Volume 6. Marshall Cavendish. p. 829.
- Morris Jastrow (1911). Aspects of Religious Belief and Practice in Babylonia and Assyria. G. P. Putnam’s Sons. p. 38.
- Andrea Seri, The Fifty Names of Marduk in Enuma elis, Journal of the American Oriental Society 126.4 (2006)
- Matthew Neujahr (2006). “Royal Ideology and Utopian Futures in the Akkadian Ex Eventu Prophecies”. In Ehud Ben Zvi. Utopia and Dystopia in Prophetic Literature. Helsinki: The Finnish Exegetical Society, University of Helsinki. pp. 41–54.
- Tablet K. 2158+
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Marduk“. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.